This exam consists of 10 multiple-choice questions, 10 True/False. This section is worth 20 Points
The student is also expected to answer 2 of the 5 essay prompts (questions). This section is worth 80 points total or 40 points per essay. Be sure that you are utilizing the color-coded writingworkshop3.ppt for correct formatting!!!
The content from the exam has been taken from Section 1, which consists of Prologue-Chapter 4.
All it takes is one mistake: Be mindful that the essay section will be strictly monitored for cheating! If the writing even looks like it has been stolen from an online source, copied from a classmate, or a reiterated statement I gave you, you will be marked “0”.
Section 1 Exam
Columbus and other early explorers searched for an all-water direct route to Asia:
Hoped to gain easier access to highly-valued Asian goods.
Believed that they could find the “10 lost tribes of Israel”.
Could help western Europe win the Crusades against the Muslims
Could prove that the Earth was flat, not round.
In general, most Europeans considered Native Americans to be:
Innocent survivors of an Edenic (Golden, Perfect) Age
Their equals in every way
People who should be left alone and uncontaminated by European civilization
Historians agree that the Native American population of about 145 million in the Americas was systematically and intentionally destroyed by Europeans. (True/False)
Until late in the 18th Century, the Chesapeake Bay area was characterized by:
The country from which their ancestors originally came
The Olive Branch Petition was the last plea of the Continental Congress to the King of England. (TRUE/FALSE)
The first Declaration of Independence was prepared by Benjamin Franklin.
Even after the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Continental Congress and most Americans were reluctant to declare independence because they doubted the common people’s capacity for self-government. (TRUE/FALSE)
Special Bonus Question:Martha Washington is famous for warning her husband that the rebels should “remember the ladies” as well as the men when they reformed society. (TRUE/FALSE)
Essay 1: Describe the common characteristics of initial encounters between Europeans and Native Americans.
Essay 2: Explain the economic, social, and psychological factors which caused Europeans to enslave African Americans.
Essay 3: Summarize the major conflicts between the American colonies and British from 1763-1774.
In the years 1763-1774 there were many conflicts between the American colonies and the British. The most known conflicts were the Acts that were passed by the British Parliament. These acts were benefits to the British people rather than to the colonies. Some of the known Acts were the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Declaratory Act, Townsend Act and the Intolerable act. There were also key events that showed the conflict between the two nations, such as the Boston Tea Party and the Boston Massacre. These were all conflicts that arose in this period of time. These events and Acts were the main causes of the Revolutionary war also.
In 1764, the British parliament imposed the Sugar Act on the colonies. This raised the revenue for North American colonies. This act was the first attempt to gain back the expenses from the French and Indian war through the colonies. It also helped to maintain the British troops in North America. The colonists rejected to this act and said it was taxation without representation. Some of the merchants agreed not to import British goods creating more conflict between the colonies and the British. In 1765, the British passed the Stamp Act to tax American colonies. This was also their way to gain money for their expenses of the French and Indian War. This Act was strongly opposed by the colonists and they formed the Stamp Act Congress, to petition the Act. This caused boycotts through the colonies which caused the British Merchants to protest because the exports were reduced. So the Parliament repealed the act in 1766, than passed the Declaratory Act. This act asserted parliaments authority to make laws binding on the American colonies. This angered colonists.
On 1767, the British parliament passed the Townsend Acts. This Act basically taxed the American colonists. Some of the examples that it targeted for taxing were imports, paint, glass, paper, and tea. The Colonists again protested this act as being taxation without representation and resisted compliance. This caused the colonial merchants to cut British imports in half by 1769. On March 5, 1770, the Boston Massacre took place. A bunch of men and boys were taunting British soldiers, which caused them to open fire. This incident caused the death of five colonist men. It was a conflict that brought about the American Revolution.
Another event that showed conflict between the colonists and the British was the Boston Tea Party. It occurred on the night of December 16, 1773. Patriots apart of this party dressed up as Indians and threw 342 chests of tea from three British ships into the Boston Harbor. The leader of this cause was Samuel Adams. The cause of this event was that colonists wanted to show their anger about the imposed tax on tea and to protest British monopoly of the colonial tea trade authorized by the Tea Act. The colonists liked this protest but the British took it very serious and later passed the Intolerable Acts in 1774. In outrage to the Boston Tea Party, the British closed the Boston Harbor, and revived the idea of American houses being home to British Troops. This made the colonists mad and further united them into their opposition of the British.
There were many key events and Acts that caused the conflict between the British and the colonies. There was no doubt that the British tried to take advantage of the Colonies and use them as there labor force. However, the colonies wanted freedom and to escape the hardships of the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Declaratory Act, Townsend Act and the Intolerable act. These all aggravated the relations between the two and caused the American Revolution. They could no longer coexist and needed to be separated. There were too many conflicts and two different viewpoints of economy, politicians, religion and the way they lived. During the period of 1763- 1774, the conflicts were abundant and the outcome was necessary for the future of the colonies.
Essay 4: Describe the major events of the Revolutionary War from 1775-1783. Why did the Patriots win?
There were several major events during the Revolutionary War from 1775 through 1783. These events were mostly specific battles that took place. The battles helped to show the strength and skills that both armies had and determined the outcome in which the war would be in the end. The colonies underestimated or were not ready for the power of the British. However, they fought heroically and with pride. Some of the major events of the Revolutionary war were the battle of Lexington, Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Saratoga and Battle of Yorktown. These were all important battles over the period of time from 1775-1783 that determined the fate of the war. The Patriots won because they knew the geography of the lands and the French helped them to defeat the British.
On April 19, 1775, the first battle of the Revolutionary war occurred in Lexington. A small group of patriots stood and fought a group of 600 British Soldiers. The reason for this battle was that the British wanted to investigate and were headed for Concord. This was an important event because it signaled the start of the American Revolution. On June 17, 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill took place. This was one of the first major battles in which the British defeated the Americans. The cause of this battle was that the Americans wanted to take over Boston and get revenge on the British forces for the incident in Lexington. These two battles were major defeats in the Revolutionary war. However, they were important because they showed the power of the British but the pride that the Americans had to stand up against this deadly force.
An important engagement of the American Revolution was the Battle of Long Island on August 27, 1776 through August 30, 1776. This was the first large-scaled battle of war and had to commanding officers, George Washington and William Howe. The Battle of Saratoga was a major turning point in the American Revolution. This war lifted the spirits of the Americans at the time when Washington was suffering defeats in Pennsylvania. During this was it also ended the threat of the British to New England. Some important dates in this battle were October 7, 1777 and October 17, 1777. On October 7, the patriots were defeated in the second Battle of Freeman’s Farm. However, on October 17, Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga.
The Battle of Yorktown was the last and major battle of the Revolutionary war. This war took place on 1781 and was a major win for the colonists. The U.S. forces with the help of the French worked together to give the British forces under Cornwallis a massive defeat. About 5,500 French soldiers led by Lieutenant General Jean Rochambaeu, arrived in America. Cornwallis was blocked in at Yorktown by the French and Americans. On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered. This declared victory for the patriots. The Patriots won because they knew the vast area of the land and could easily maneuver through the states. While the British were at a disadvantage in which they did not know the land as much. An important reason why the Patriots won was that they received help from the French. The French provided sea power which the Americans had little. So with the help of the French they could easily conquer Cornwallis by bowing him in at Yorktown.
The American Revolution was a major event in U.S. History. It gave today’s people their freedom and provided the colonists a brighter future. The events that took place in the Revolution were very important. It demonstrated the pride and the want for freedom that the colonists dreamed off. Through the battle of Lexington, Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Saratoga and Battle of Yorktown it all showed the courage of the American people. Due to the fact that they had a better understanding of the geography gave them an advantage over the British. Most important, was the help of the French that empowered them to do the impossible, defeat the British with pride and glory. They started a war that had a high cost of resources and lives, but came out victorious and held through the years of 1775-1783. There was no doubt in the end that the Patriots won and that they had created a better society because of it.
Essay 5: Summarize how the Declaration of Independence was written. Explain why it was written. Evaluate its major features and values.