39 unit 2 Latin America



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UNIT 2

Latin America


Mexico City

DID YOU KNOW?

The Amazon River has enough water to fill a million bathtubs.

There are hundreds of volcanoes in Central America.

More than 40 ships pass through the Panama Canal every day.

More than 6 million people from the United States and Canada visit Mexico each year.

Most American baseballs are made in Haiti.

Long ago, the Aztec Indians in Mexico played a game that was like basketball.

Amazon River

WRITE A TRAVELOGUE


In this unit you will be visiting many places in Latin America. Keep a travelogue about your trip through this region. Before reading Unit 2, write a paragraph that describes the places in the photographs above. After reading Unit 2, write three or more paragraphs that describe how Latin America is a region.

THEME: REGION

­

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CHAPTER 5



Land and People of Latin America

Where can you find the longest river in Latin America?

Think About As You Read

1. What kinds of landforms and climates are in Latin America?

2. What kinds of people live in Latin America?

3. How do people earn a living in Latin America?


New Words Latin

elevation

tropics

sea level

Equator

mestizos

Northern Hemisphere

developing nations

Southern Hemisphere

subsistence farmers

tropical climate

plantations

tropical rain forest
People and Places

Latin America

Caribbean Sea

Middle America

Central America

Andes Mountains

Amazon River

Portugal


Catholics

Venezuela


Which part of the world has the longest mountain chain? Which region has the most Spanish-speaking people? From where in the world do we get most of our coffee and bananas? The answer to all of these questions is Latin America.

Landforms of Latin America

Latin America includes all of the nations south of the United States. This region is called Latin America because most people speak Spanish or Portuguese. Both of these languages developed from Latin. Latin is a very old language that few people speak today.

Find Latin America on the map on page 41. Latin America has three parts. The islands in the Caribbean Sea form one part. Middle America is another part. This part includes Mexico and the countries of Central

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America. The third and largest part is the continent of South America.



Mountains cover large areas of Latin America. Some of these mountains are volcanoes. The tall Andes Mountains are in the west of South America. The Andes mountain chain is the longest one in the world. Plains and plateaus cover other parts of Latin America.

There are important rivers in South America. The longest river in South America is the Amazon River. Other large rivers join the Amazon. Many people use these rivers for transportation.

LATIN AMERICA

Mountains cover large areas of Latin America. What large mountain chain can be found in South America?

The Equator divides Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.

The Tropics

Most of Latin America is in a region called the tropics. This is a hot region near the Equator. The Equator is an imaginary line that divides the globe in half. The halves are called the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. The Equator is the line of latitude that is 0°. The plains near the Equator have a tropical climate. A tropical climate is hot all

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the time. It is hot because this region receives more direct sunlight for a longer period of time than other parts of the world. It is also very rainy in the tropics.



Latin America has the world's largest tropical rain forest. These thick forests are found near the Equator. They grow where the climate is very hot and very wet. The largest tropical rain forest is in South America. Smaller tropical rain forests can be found in Middle America and on islands in the Caribbean Sea.

Many parts of Latin America have cooler climates even though they are in the tropics. This is because of their elevation. Elevation tells you how high the land is above sea level. The climate becomes colder as the land's elevation gets higher. Some very tall mountains in the tropics are always covered with snow.

There are two other reasons why some parts of Latin America have cooler climates. First, the southern part of South America is very far from the Equator.

As you move away from the Equator, the climate becomes colder. The second reason is that ocean winds give the coastal plains and the islands in the Caribbean Sea milder climates.

These mountains in the tropics are always covered with snow.

An Indian weaver in Central America

History, People, and Culture

Indians were the first people to live in Latin America. Five groups of Indians built great nations in Latin America. They built good roads and large cities. Five hundred years ago people from Spain conquered most of Latin America. They forced Indians to be their slaves. Millions of Indians died while working for the Spanish. Then the Spanish brought slaves from Africa to work in Latin America.

Spain ruled most of Latin America. But Portugal ruled the huge nation of Brazil. Other countries in Europe also ruled smaller colonies.

In the early 1800s, Latin Americans fought to rule themselves. By 1826 most countries were free. Who are the people of Latin America today? Some are white people whose families came from Europe. Some people are Indians. Most people are mestizos. A mestizo is a person who has European

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and Indian ancestors. There are also many black people in the Caribbean countries and in Brazil. The Spanish culture is important in most of Latin America. People in most countries speak Spanish. The Spanish brought the Catholic religion to the region. Today most Latin Americans are Catholics. Almost three fourths of the people in Latin America live in cities. Some of the world's largest cities are in Latin America. Most of the cities are found on the plateaus and the coastal plains of Latin America. It is hard to live in tall mountains or in tropical rain forests. So these areas of Latin America have small populations.



A Catholic church in Mexico

Subsistence farmers will usually only grow enough food to feed their families. Any extra crops will be sold in a local market.

Earning a Living

Most countries in Latin America are developing nations. A developing nation is a nation with a low standard of living and not much industry. In the cities most people work at service jobs. Some people work in factories. Many people in Latin America are farmers.

There are two kinds of farmers in Latin America. There are poor subsistence farmers who work on small farms. They try to grow enough food for their families. The second kind of farmer grows cash crops. Coffee, bananas, and sugarcane are important cash crops in Latin America. Cash crops are grown on huge farms called plantations. A very small part of the

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population owns most of the plantations. Millions of poor farmers work on the plantations.



Latin America has many natural resources. Some countries have metals such as silver and copper.

In these countries many people work in mines. A few countries like Mexico and Venezuela have oil. But there is little iron and coal in Latin America. These two resources are needed to make cars, trucks, and other machines. This is one reason why there is not much industry in Latin America.

In the next chapters, you will learn more about the land, people, natural resources, and problems of different nations in Latin America. You will find out what people in these nations are doing to solve their problems.

Chapter Main Ideas

1. Many parts of Latin America are covered with mountains and tropical rain forests. The tropical rain forests grow where the climate is very hot and wet.

2. Most people in Latin America speak Spanish and follow the Catholic religion.

3. Most countries in Latin America are developing nations. Many people in Latin America are farmers.

Latin America has many natural resources. This iron mine is near the Amazon River.

Mine workers in South America

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USING WHAT YOU'VE LEARNED


Vocabulary


Match Up Finish the sentences in Group A with words from Group B. Write the letter of each correct answer on the blank line.
Group A

1. The is half of the globe.

2. A has European and Indian ancestors.

3. grow only enough food for their families.

4. means how high the land is above sea level.

5. The hot region of Earth near the Equator is the .

Group B

  1. Subsistence farmers

B. tropics

C. Elevation

D. Northern Hemisphere

E. mestizo


Remember and Read


Finish Up Choose the word or words in dark print that best complete each sentence. Write the word or words on the correct blank line.

Amazon


tropical

bananas

Spanish

Andes


  1. In most Latin American countries, people speak .

2. The world's longest mountain chain is the .

3. The longest river in South America is the .

4. A climate is hot all the time.

5. Coffee, sugarcane, and are important cash crops in Latin America.

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Think and Apply

Drawing Conclusions Read the first two sentences below. Then read the third sentence. Notice how it follows from the first two sentences. The third sentence is called a conclusion.


There are mountains in Middle America.

There are mountains in South America.



Conclusion: Many parts of Latin America have mountains.

Read each pair of sentences. Then look in the box for the conclusion you might make. Write the letter of the conclusion on the blank. The first one is done for you.



  1. Tall mountains near the Equator are covered with snow. Ocean winds cool the islands in the Caribbean Sea.

Conclusion: C

2. The first people in Latin America were Indians.

Later, people from Europe and Africa came to Latin America.

Conclusion:

3. Many people in Latin America have a low standard of living. Most countries in Latin America do not have much industry.

Conclusion:



  1. Most people in Latin America speak Spanish. Most people in Latin America are Catholics.

Conclusion:

Conclusions

A. There are many kinds of people in Latin America.

  1. The Spanish brought their language and religion to Latin America.

  2. C. Some parts of the tropics have cooler climates.

D. Many nations in Latin America are developing nations.
Journal Writing

Write a paragraph in your journal that tells about landforms, rivers, and tropical rain forests of Latin America.

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