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who do not believe that miracles ever occurred, the fiery furnace and the lion's den will seem in­credible, but it is not incredible that a writer in the exile believed them. The " atmosphere " of the book betrays its place of origin. " The more I read Daniel," says Lenormant, " the more I am struck with the truth of the tableaux of the Baby­lonian court traced in the first six chapters." The tablets now undergoing decipherment show a peo­ple given over to superstition, magic, and talis­mans. The naivetk of truth appears in the men­tion that the Chaldeans spoke in Aramaic. They were frightened. There was no time for the com­position of a reply in the court language. The un­conscious revelation of the emergence of Law as superior even to the will of kings, when the Persian power came in. " The law of the Metes and Per­sians, which altereth not," shows contemporaneity. The simplicity of truth appears through all. The book is " sealed " at its close. This means: it is ended, or, it is attested, or, it is such that, as in Isa. xxix. 10 14, some will pretend they can not understand. All these are true of Daniel.


BIBLIOGHAYHT: The earlier commentaries are mostly worth­

less; few of the modern ones are much better. In

English the best by far and of the highest intrinsic value

in 8. R. Driver, in Cambridge Bible for Schools, 1900.

Consult also the commentaries by A. Bevan, Cambridge,

1892; J. D. Prince, London, 1899; K. Marti, T>abingen,

1901; and C. H. H. Wright, Daniel and its Critics, Lon­

don, 1906. Discussion of critical problems are in Driver,

Introduction, chap. xi.; A. H. Sayce, " • Him Criticism "

and . . . as Monuments, pp. 495 537, London, 1893;

G. Behrmann, Das Bush Daniel, G6ttingen, 1894; DB,

i. 551 557; EB, i. 1001 15; JE, iv. 430 432. Particu­

lar questions are treated in J. Meinhold, Die Composition

des Bushes Daniel, Greifewald, 1884; item, Beitrdpe zur

Erkittrunp des Daniel, Leipsie, 1888; A. Kamphausen,

Das Buch Daniel and die neuere Gaechichtaforechunp, ib.

1892; H. Gunkel, BcASpfung and Chaos, pp. 266 270,

323 335, G6ttingen, 1895; C. Braston, Blades Bur Daniel,

Paris, 1896. On the unity consult: A. von Gall, Die

Einheitlichkeit des . . . Daniel, Giessen 1895; G. A.

Barton, in JBL, avii (1898), 62 86. On the seventy

weeks: F. Fraidl, Die Exepese der 70 Wochen in der alien

and mittleren Zeit, Graz, 1883; Van Lennep, De 70 jaar­

tpaken van Daniel Utrecht, 1888. For the teat: Hebrew

is by A. Kamphausen, in BBOT, New York, 1896; best

LXX. teat by Swete, Old Testament in Creak, vol. iii..

Cambridge, 1896. Consult: M. Lohr, in ZATW, xv

(1895), 75 eqq., 193 sqq., avi (1896), 14 aqq.; A. Bludau,

Die alesandrini8che Uebarsetaung tea Buttes Daniel, Frei­

burg, 1897.



His General Policy (§ 1). Severe Measures in the Eichefeld (§ 2). The Results (§ 3). Events After Daniel's Death (§ 4).

Daniel Brendel of Homburg (b. 1523; d. 1582)

became elector of Mainz in 1555 to the chagrin of

the citizens by a majority of one vote over the

palgrave Reichardt, who had Protestant leanings.

His official policy was determined openly and

mainly by political, rather than by re­

r. His ligious considerations. He sought to

General maintain a good understanding with

Policy. his powerful neighbor of the Palat­

inate, though at a later period he ap­

pears more reserved than at first; he discreetly

abstained from intermeddling in French and Neth 

erlandiah affairs; and in imperial transactions he allied himself closely with Emperor Maximilian II. That this policy was not prompted by ecclesias­tical indifference is witnessed by measures in other connections: in 1561 Daniel founded a Jesuit college at Mainz, and he furthermore expressed his regard for the Jesuits by presents, by admitting them to the cathedral pulpit, by founding a school, by patronizing a Jesuit confessor, and by the stim­ulus he gave to other spiritual princes toward founding Jesuit colleges. In only one part of his archbishopric in the so called Eichsfeld region, be­tween Thuringia and the Harz country did Daniel carry through the Counterreformation; in the electorate proper (Mainz and its vicinity), Protes­tant elements continued to be tolerated, even in the government and in the elector's official household. The Reformation had quite early penetrated the Eichsfeld, especially by way of Erfurt, and about the middle of the sixteenth century the entire dis­trict was fairly Protestant. At the outset Daniel, like his predecessors, tolerated this state of affairs; but afterward, albeit with a regard to the rights of sovereignty duly drawn up and subscribed for him by the Protestant nobility, he interfered with rigor.

To subdue a disobedient vassal, he betook him­

self to the Eichsfeld in June, 1574, with a consider­

able array of troops, and accompanied by two

Jesuits. The nobleman in question was quickly

overcome, and the Protestant preachers were driven

out of the two towns, Duderstadt and Heiligenstadt.

Since the elector proceeded only against the towns,

and at the same time granted freedom of conscience

to the territorial knighthood, any

a. Severe general resistance to these extraor

Measures dinary measures was for the time in the being averted. A zealous convert,

Eichsfeld. Lippold of Stralendorf, was entrusted,

as temporal chief officer, with the

prosecution of the work thus begun; and the spiri­

tual commissioner, Heinrich Bunthe, was of equally

strict Catholic sentiments. At the beginning of

1575 they were joined by the Jesuit Elgard and

other Jesuits despatched to the elector by the Curia.

Elgard soon made himself indispensable, and meas­

ures animated by a spirit heretofore unknown in

the Eichsfeld rapidly multiplied. At Duderstadt

they sought to take the churches from the Protes­

tants; visitations began alike in the towns and in

the country, that is, within the sphere of the knightly

patronages; the Protestant clergy were driven

away, and ecclesiastical burial was refused to their

adherents. Against this manner of procedure the

knightly estate of the district now rose up, reen­

forced by the neighboring princes of Hesse and

electoral Saxony, but without effectual results;

still more energetic measures were prosecuted in

favor of the Counterreformation. A fresh impor­

tation of Jesuits ensued; the dispersion of the

Protestant clergy continued; the frequenting of

outside Protestant churches and participation in

the communion according to the Lutheran rite

were forbidden; and even very secular methods

were applied to render the population submissive,

such as the prohibition of the export of Duderstadt



The victory of the Roman party at the Diet of Regensburg, 1576, led to new oppressions of the Protestants. The still remaining Protestant preachers were driven away; the churches were forcibly withdrawn from Protestant worship and were consecrated anew; the people were forced to attend mass with the aid of the electoral officers and their troops. As time passed, indeed, it hap­pened again and again that upon withdrawal of the temporal power the Roman clergy who had been introduced by force were at once expelled, while parsonages and churches again were occupied by the returning Protestant preachers. In spite of all their prospective advantages, the number of con­verts remained very small; where no Protestant service could be longer observed, the people got along without spiritual provision entirely or trav­eled for miles to take part in secret worship or in Protestant worship still tolerated for want of re­pressive power. The elector's arrangement, how­ever, was enforced by the sanction of the emperor Rudolph, who admonished the Council of Duder stadt to obey the elector; nor did the interven­tion of Protestant electors have any effect.

When Daniel died in 1582 very little had been gained for the Roman Church. The Roman clergy, to be sure, were everywhere present; divine serv­ice, baptisms, marriages, and burials were en­forced according to Roman rite; but the people at

large remained almost solidly loyal to 3. The the Protestant faith. In only one

Results. place, perhaps, was a somewhat

firmer basis gained for the Counter­reformation. A Jesuit school had been opened in Heiligenstadt in 1575; in 1581 a well endowed college with seven alumni scholarships was erected by the elector; and the neighboring Evangelical peasants had to contribute bond service thereto. The school at first attracted more scholars from the surrounding districts than from the Eichsfeld itself; but the scholastic festivities, with their cleverly chosen allurements, the public presenta­tion of Biblical dramas, in the course of time won candidates for instruction from the home town and country as well. The Jesuits were never discour­aged by the failure of their plans or intimidated by the odium exhibited against them.

Daniel's successor, Wolfgang of Dalberg (1582­1601), continued the work already begun; the same coercive measures with their merely momentary results were applied over and over again, while all complaints and petitions of the knighthood met with the same negative answer. The knighthood proper, however, were now allowed the liberty of Protestant worship behind closed doors, though not for their dependent subjects. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War (1618) conditions had changed somewhat; the Jesuit school in Heili 

genstadt had gradually exerted its 4. Events influence; this town had again be 

After come predominantly Roman Catholic,

Daniel's and in like manner throughout the

Death. district the Protestants had been

driven back. In Duderstadt alone there still persisted a secret band of Protestants who remained steadfast through all the military

oppressions, and eventually secured their right of

existence. During the first period of the war the

quartering of imperial troops and Tilly's soldiers

was one means employed to distress the Protestants

and bring them into subjection; subsequently there

came respites of better times with the Swedish

troops. It was decreed at the Peace of West­

phalia (1648) that the status of Jan. 1, 1624, should

be in force with respect to church affairs a ruling

not exactly favorable to the Protestants. Public

Protestant worship, however, was allowed in Duder­

stadt, and a dozen noble parishes received freedom

of religious practise by the terms of the Peace.

Oppression of the Protestants at the hands of

electoral officers, however, did not cease till the

termination of the electoral state of Mainz and the

incorporation of the Eichafeld into the kingdom of

Prussia. WALTER GOETz.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Tl. 88ISrlu9, Ree MQgunttae2, i. 862 sqq., Frankfort, 1722; H. Hoppe, Die Reataurataan des Katho­iiziemus . . . auf dem Eichefelde, Marburg, 1850; W. Burghard, Die Gegenre%mation auf dem Bichejelde, 1576­79, vole. i. ii., ib. 1890 91; L. von Wintzingeroda Knorr, in Schriften dea Veresne far Re%rmaMionapesehichk, Nos. 36, 42, Halle, 1892 93; H. Moritz, Die Wahl Rudolte I1., Marburg, 1895.

DARN, CHRISTIAN ADAM: Lutheran; b. at Tilbingen Dec. 24, 1758; d. at Stuttgart Mar. 19, 1837. He was of Huguenot descent, and studied at Balingen, later at the cloister school at Blau­beuren, and after 1777 in his native city. In 1793 he was called to a deaconry in G&ttingen, in 1794 as assistant at St. Leonhard in Stuttgart. In 1812 he was transferred to Oeschingen, a village twelve miles from Tdbingen, and in 1817 to Mdssingen, near Stuttgart. He was recalled to Stuttgart in 1824, first to the cathedral church, one year later to St. Leonhard, where he preached eleven years to crowded congregations. From his youth he was under the influence of Bengel and Pietism. A strong champion of the ethical demands of the Gospel in the lax times of the Napoleonic wars, he had a deep, stern conviction of sin. Christianity was to him essentially an " institution of pardon, atonement, and compensation." The Christ of the Gospels was not only his constant example, but also medi­ator and redeemer. In the Eucharist he found "the most intimate blessed union with Christ." He wrote a large number of occasional tracts on various subjects among the rest against cruelty to animals and vivisection. With Rieger he founded in 1811 the charity organization of Stuttgart. He labored long for a revision of the hymnal, which finally appeared, five years after his death; it contains the most beautiful of his hymns, " Gekreuzigter, zu deinen Fiissen! "

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Denkmal der Liebe fur den roollendeten C. A. Dan?, Stuttgart, 1837; A. Knapp, in Gesammelte Werke, vol. ii., ib. 1875; Der Chriatenbote, 1 (1880), 204.

DANNHAUER, JOHANN CONRAD: Lutheran teacher of Spener; b. at K6ndringen (10 m. n. of Freiburg) Mar. 24, 1603; d. at Strasburg Nov. 7, 1666. He began his education in the gymnasium at Strasburg and was the master of a thorough phil­osophical training before he commenced his theo­logical work in 1624. He continued his studies at Marburg, Altorf, and Jena, lecturing at the same


time on philosophy and linguistics and winning recognition at Jena by his exegesis of the Epistle to the Ephesians. Returning to Strasburg in 1628, he entered upon an active career as administrator, teacher, and theologian. Made seminary inspector in 1628, he became in the following year professor of oratory, and in 1633 professor of theology, pastor of the cathedral, and president of the ecclesiastical assembly. Although the judgment of his contem­poraries, Bebel, Spener, and others, placed him in the front rank of the theologians of the time, Dannhauer has received scant justice at the hands of posterity. The influence exerted upon Spener by his teacher must not be underestimated because of the formal tone of the poem dedicated by the founder of the Pietists to his teacher's memory. Their relations were certainly not characterized by the warmth of personal friendship, but were rather in the nature of an intercourse based on common intexests. Dannhauer ordained Spener, and in all probability secured for him the post of private tutor at the court of the elector palatine. Spener, in return, seems to have been connected with the preparation of the second edition of the Hodosophia for the press and to have acted as critic of another work of Dannhauer's which has not yet been iden­tified. The estrangement between the two was apparently caused by Dannhauer's nephew, Bal­thasar Bebel, who was in control of the theological faculty at Strasburg at the time of the publication of Spener's Pia desideria. Dannhauer was a pro­lific writer, his principal works being as follows: Hodosophia christiana sine theologia positiva (1649); Katechismusmilch oder Erklltrung des kirchlichen Katechismus (1657 78) and Liber conscientice apertus sine theologia conscientiaria (1662 67).

(F. Bossa.)

BrnwoanAPBy: The best source is J. Reiseeieen, Btrma burpiache Chronik, 1867 77, ed. R. Reuse, Strasburg, 1879. Consult: E. L. T. Henke, Gem Calixtw, Halle, 18tH; ADA iv. 745 746; P. Gruaberg, P. J. $pener, vol. i., GSttingen, 1893.
DANOVIUS, dd n8'vf ds, ERNST JAKOB, Lu­theran; b. at Redlau or Meinkatz (near Danzig) Mar. 12, 1741; d. at Jena Mar. 18, 1782. He was educated at Danzig, Helmstadt, and Gbttingen, and in 1765 accompanied Abbot Schubert to Greifawald as tutor to his sons. Thence he was called to the rectorate of the Johannisschule at Danzig, and in 1768 went to Jena. His specialties were New Testament exegesis, symbolics, moral theology, and, most of all, dogmatics, but he felt little sym­pathy with historical theology. His point of view may be characterized as modern supernaturalism, substituting for inspiration a miraculous guidance of God, which gave protection against all error, yet by no means denying the human element in the sacred writings He avoided the excessive con­cepts of the divine likeness, denied that original sin was actual guilt in the descendants of Adam, and identified justification, in the widest sense of the term, with predestination. Danovius was pre­vented from giving expression to his views both by his faculty and by the government, and when he finally enunciated them in two Christmas pro­grams of 1774 75 he was publicly opposed by 111 23

the theological faculty of Erlangen. He defended

himself in a number of pamphlets (Drei Abhand­

lungen von der Rechtfertigung des Menschen vor Gott,

Jena, 1777, and Kurze Erkldrung Oer die neue van

D. Seiler der Lehre von der Recht f ertigung halber

herausgegebene Schrift, 1778). While he desired a

union with the Reformed, and while he did not

regard their doctrines of the absolute decree and

irresistible grace or their views of the Lord's Supper

as grounds of hindrance, he feared their teaching

concerning the incarnation, since it rendered doubt­

ful the efficacy of the meritorious works and death

of Christ.

The delivery of Danovius was admirable in the

professorial chair, though unpopular in the pulpit,

but his literary style was crabbed, and he wrote

slowly and with difficulty. His melancholy nature,

aggravated by excessive work, led him to take

his own life. In addition to the works already

mentioned and a number of programs, he wrote

Schrei,ben an Herrn D. Semler, lessen neuere Streitig­

keiten betre f f end (Jena, 1770) and Super ltbro Tor­

gensi Censura Holsato SWwlcensis vmriis obserum­

tiontbus illustrata (1780). He also edited the

OPuacula of J. D. Heilmann (1774 77), and made

a translation of a work by A. J. Roustan (pastor

of the Swiss church in London) under the title

Briefs sur Vertheidigung der chriatliehen Religion

(Halls, 1783). (G. FRAnst.)

BrswoonArm: C. G. F. Bohffts, Leben . . . lea E. J. Danovius, appendix to A. J. Rouetan, Brisfe eur Veri%tei 

dipung der ehriatliehan Religion, Halle, 1783; G. Frank,

GewAichh lee Rarionolimue, pp. 111 sqq., 127 128, Leip 

sie, 1875.

DANTE, dan't6 or dan'te, ALIGHIERI, a"lf gWrl.

Dantes_Banishment_(§_3)._His_Wanderings._Later_Life'>I. Life. Education and Early Life
(1 1). Florentine Parties (¢ 2). Dante's Banishment (§ 3). His Wanderings. Later Life (5 4). II. Literary Works.

L Life: Dante, the greatest poet of Italy and one of the greatest of the world, was born at Florence between May 18 and June 17, 1265, and died at Ravenna Sept. 14 (13 ? ), 1321. The name Dante is a contraction of Durante. He was the son of a notary. Nothing is known of his schools or teachers. Stories of his studies at the universities of Bologna, Padua, and Paris lack confirmation. He was an omnivorous reader, and compassed most of the learning of his age. He was a master of Latin, but knew neither Greek nor Hebrew. He was versed in dialectic, rhetoric, grammar, arithmetic, geome­try, astronomy, and music, and in the Provengal and Old French literature. He drew,

r. Educa  and had some knowledge of painting.

tion and He was thoroughly acquainted with

Early Life. the writings of Aristotle, through Latin translations, and derived from him his whole system of physics, physiology, and meteorology. He was familiar with the Bible, and with the writings of Aquinas, Bonaventura, and Albertus Magnus, and with those of Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine. He knew Ptolemy and Euclid in astronomy and mathematics, and was not ignorant of the Arabian philosophers Averroes and Avicenna. Of the Latin classical writers ho


shows an acquaintance with Vergil, Cicero, Lucan, Horace, Ovid, Livy, and Statius. At the age of nine he saw for the first time Beatrice, the daughter of Folco Portinari, for whom he conceived an ardent passion which stimulated his poetical genius and found its last expression in the Digina Commedia. Their intercourse was confined to occasional salu­tations, and she married in 1287 and died in 1290. Dante, some time before 1298, married Gemma Manetto Donati, who bore him four children.

The party divisions in Florence in Dante's time were twofold, one Italian, the other local. The former was between Guelfs and Ghibellines, the

latter between Bianchi and Neri

2. Floren  (" Whites and Blacks "). The Guelfs,

tine the popular party, were represented

Parties. by the burghers and trade gilds.

The Ghibellines represented the aris­tocracy and the soldiery. Dante was originally a Guelf and a White. Later he passed over to the Ghibellines, but finally broke away from both parties. During Dante's earlier life the power was gradually shifting from the nobles to the people. In 1289 the Tuscan Ghibellines were routed at the battle of Catnpaldino (June 11), where Dante served as a soldier, as he did a little later at the siege and capture. of the Pisan castle of Caprona by the Florentines and Luccans. The revolution of 1293 overthrew the grandees, and the demo­cratic character of the constitution was confirmed by the reforms of Giano dell.: Bella, a noble with popular sympathies. Thenceforth the nobles were excluded from the office of prior. However, they continued their intrigues, which were now pro­moted by the newly elected pope, Boniface VIII. (1294), who aimed to concentrate in himself all authority, temporal and spiritual. The control of Tuscany was an important means to this end.

Without membership in one of the industrial gilds no one could hold office. Dante was en­rolled in the Gild of Physicians and Apothecaries in 1295 and in 1300 became one of the priors, in whom the executive power of the State was lodged. The division between the Whites and the Blacks­the Cerchi and Donati now came to the front. The Cerchi represented the democracy, and the Donati the pope and his policy. A fight took place between the two factions. Boniface des 

patched a legate to Florence, nominally

3. Dante's as a pacificator, really to support the

'Banish  Blacks. Dante with the signory re 

ment. fused his overtures. As the disturb­

ance continued, the priors banished

the leaders of both factions. Corso Donati went to

Rome and appealed to Boniface, who selected as his

tool Charles of Valois, brother of Philip the Fair of

France. He sent him to Florence with an armed

force, on the pretense of restoring peace, and his

arrival was the signal for a ferocious attack upon

the Whites by the Blacks. Dante's house was

sacked. The priors were deposed. On Jan. 27,

1302, Dante was pronounced guilty of extortion,

embezzlement, and corruption; of resistance to the

pope and Charles; and of assisting to expel the

Blacks, the servants of the Church. With four

others he was banished for two years, condemned

to pay a heavy fine, and excluded from holding office thereafter. On Mar. 10 a second sentence was pronounced, forbidding him to return to Florence on penalty of being burned.

It is impossible to follow the track of Dante's wanderings. It appears that, after the proscrip­tion, in 1302, 1303, and 1306, three attempts were made by the banished Whites to enter Florence. In the first and probably in the second of these Dante took part; but he soon broke finally with his

associates, and thenceforth was a 4. His Wan  party by himself. His first refuge

derings. was with the Scaligera at Verona,

Later Life. after which he wandered over the

greater part of Italy. He was at Padua in 1306, and the same year with the Mala­spini at Lunigiana. He was also at Mantua. It has been claimed that he resided in Paris, and that he visited England and Flanders. After the death of Henry VII., in 1313, he appears at Lucca. In 1316 the Government of Florence offered amnesty to political exiles, and Dante was granted permission to return on condition of undergoing the public penance of a malefactor. The offer was indignantly refused. In the latter years of his life he resided chiefly with Guido da Polenta at Ravenna, but was for a considerable time at Verona with Can Grande dells Scala. He was invited to go to Bologna to receive the poet's crown, but declined. He was sent as an ambassador to Venice by Polenta, upon whom the Venetians had made war. Shortly after his return he died, and was interred near the church of San Francesco.

II. Literary Works: (1) The Vita Nuova: The story of his passion for Beatrice in prose, inter­spersed with brief poems. It explains the part which Beatrice plays in the Commedia. (2) The Convivio or " Banquet " (the form Convito is later): Projected in fourteen treatises, only four of which were written; a philosophical commentary on three of Dante's own Canzoni. It treats of questions of

geography, astronomy, etymology, and dialectics, but also of philosophy, patriotism, and nobility of soul. (3) Canzoniere : Minor poems, songs, bal­lads, and sonnets. (4) De monarchic : In Latin, in three books. Monarchy is the normal, divinely instituted form of government. The Roman Em­pire is invested with universal monarchy by the decree of God, and is perpetuated in the Hohen­staufena. The normal administration of human affairs is through two coordinate agents, the Em 

pire and the Church. The pope and the emperor are equally God's vicars. (5) De vulgari eloquentia ; A treatise in Latin. It examines the fourteen dialects of Italy, and discusses the meter of the canzone, giving rules for the composition of Italian poetry. Four books were projected, of which only two were written. (6) Epistles : Number and authenticity much disputed; fourteen have been

attributed to Dante, and ten are doubtfully accepted as genuine. (7) De agate et terra : A treatise in Latin. Dante's authorship has been generally de­nied, but some modern scholars, notably Profes­sor Edward Moore, believe it to be authentic. The question discussed is: Can water in its own sphere or natural circumference be in any place higher


than the dry land or habitable part of the earth? (8) The Bucolic Eclogues : Two Epistles in Latin hexameters, to Giovanni dal Vergilio, who blamed Dante for not writing the Commedia in Latin, and urged him to compose Latin poems, and to come to Bologna to receive the poetic crown. (9) The Divrind Comntedia : It is written in terza rima, and the theme is Dante's journey through hell, purga­tory, and paradise. The poem is called Commedia, because although it begins horribly with hell, it ends happily with paradise. The epithet " Divine " was a later addition of admirers. Dante says that the subject of the work, taken literally, is the state of souls after death, regarded as a matter of fact. Taken allegorically, it is man, so far as by merit or demerit in the exercise of free will he is exposed to the rewards or punishments of justice. The astronomical and geographical elements of the poem are derived from the Ptolemaic system of astronomy and from the geographical writings of Oroaius (4th cent.). Hell and purgatory are treated as geographical facts. Hell is directly beneath Jerusalem, the center of the land hemi­sphere. It is a hollow inverted cone, the interior circumference of which is divided into nine con­centric ledges, each devoted to the punishment of a distinct class of sinners. At the apex of the cone, the center of gravity, Lucifer is fixed in eternal ice. Purgatory is a lofty conical mountain rising from an island in the southern hemisphere. Its lower section, antepurgatory, is traversed by a spiral track of three rounds, which terminates at the gate of St. Peter. Above this is purgatory proper, which consists of seven concentric terraces, on each of which one of the seven deadly sins is expiated. At the summit of the mountain is the earthly para­dise, the original Eden, where is the river Lethe, whose waters obliterate the memory of sin and sorrow, and the river Eunoe, which restores the memory of good actions.

The poem consists of three parts, Inferno, Purga­torio, Paradiso. In Apr., 1300, Dante finds him­self astray in a rough and gloomy forest. Emerging from this, he attempts to ascend a hill, but is driven back by three ravenous beasts. He is met by the shade of Vergil, who proposes to conduct him through hell and purgatory, and then to commit him to the charge of Beatrice, who will guide him through paradise. On the evening of Good Friday, Apr. 8, they enter the gate of hell, and, passing through the successive circles, reach the apex, pass the center of gravity, and ascend to the island of purgatory. Through antepurgatory they reach the gate of St. Peter, are admitted, and traverse the successive terraces. At the summit Dante sees a magnificent symbolic vision of the triumph of the Church. Beatrice appears, and Vergil vanishes. Having been plunged in Lethe, and having drunk of Eunoe, Dante mounts with Beatrice through the nine heavens to the empyrean, where he beholds the bliss of the glorified, and the blessed Trinity.

It is preeminently a moral and religious work. It is the story of the human soul in its relation to God. In the conditions of departed souls which it portrays it reflects the multiform aspects of the life of men and women of all ranks, stations, and

employments, from the emperor to the peasant. It is the consummate expression of medievalism in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The range of allusion is vast and wonderful in its variety. The portrayal of human character and human passion is vivid and subtle. The poet's intense, pervading moral purpose divests of vulgarity even the hideous details of the Inferno. He is a plain speaker, but no word or picture ever appeals to a sensual instinct. Under his dominant conception of man as the inheritor of a moral destiny, distinc­tions of time, race, and position disappear, and classic heroes and mythological monsters mingle with popes, martyrs, and Christian emperors. His biting satire respects neither civil nor ecclesiastical dignity. The poem is packed with similes, alle­gories, portraits, historical and personal references, and theological and philosophical disquisitions. It is intensely personal, often egotistic, revealing the poet's consciousness of his own genius, tinged with bitterness of spirit, yet displaying the sympathy and the tenderness of a great soul. Dante is impatient of vagueness. He is intensely realistic. Every space is measured, every region mapped, every dimension recorded. His similes are chosen with­out regard to their source, with the single view of illustrating his thought; and the moat grotesque images appear amid the very aublimities of heaven. With his wonderful sense of form he unites a deli­cate sense of color and sound.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lists of literature are: C. de Batinea, Bib­liopraha Dantcaca, 2 vole., Prato, 1845 46, supplemented by C. F. Carpellini, 1888, by B. dells Legs, 1883, and by Guido Biagi, 1888; G. J. Ferazzi, Manuals Danteaco, 5 vole., Basasno, 1885 77 (useful, but confused in arrange­ment); T. W. Koch, Dante in America, Cambridge, Mass., 1898 (for the Dante Society); W. C. Lane, Dante Col2eo­liana in the Harvard . . . and Boston . . . Libraries, Boston, 1890; W. M. Rossetti, Bibliography of the Works of Dance, London, 1905.

General and introductory critical works are: G. A. Scartasaini, Dame Handbuch, Leipaic, 1892, Eng. transl., London, 1893; H. C. Barlow, Critical, Historical and Philosophical Contributions to the Study of Dance, 2 vole., ib. 18&1 &5; E. Moors, Studies in Dance, 3 aeries, ib. 1898­1903 (very valuable); F. X. Kraus, Dante, aein Leben urad aein Werk, Berlin, 1897. More popular works are: M. F. Rossetti, A Shadow of Dance, Edinburgh, 1884; R. W. Church, Dante and Other Essays, London, 1888; J. A. Symonds, Introduction to the Study of Dance, ib. 1890; L. Ragg. Dante and His Italy, ib. 1907. On Dame's as­tronomy, geography, and chronology consult E. Moors, in Dante Studies, vol. iii., London, 1903, and his Time References in the Divina Commedia, ib. 1887.

Biographical works: The biographies by Boccaccio and Bruni are translated by P. H. Wicketeed, in A Provisional Trawl. of the Early Liven of Dance, Hull, 1898; a critical rdsumd of the five early biographies is by E. Moors, Dante and his Early Biographers, London. 1880. Consult further: F. X. Wegele, Dante Aliphiert'e Leben and Works, Jena, 1879 (valuable); G. A. $cartazzini. Dante Aliphieri, Frankfort, 1879.

Dictionaries and concordances are: L. G. Blanc, Vo­oabodario Danteeco, Leipaic, 1852; Donato Bocci, Di­zionaria . . delta Divina Commedia di Dante Aliphseri, Turin, 1873; G. A. Scartazzini, Enciclopedia Danteaca, Milan, 1898 99, continued by A. Fiamazzo. 1905 (sup­plement includes the Latin works; valuable); P. Toyn­bee, Dictionary of Proper Names and Notable Matters in . . . Dame, London, 1898 (useful); E. A. Fay, Concord­ance of the Diving Cony»iedia, Boston, 1894 (very valu­able); E. Sheldon and A. C. White, Concordanze Belle opera . . . di Dance, ib. 1905 (also indispensable).

Editions deserving notice are: The superb quarto of G. G. Warren Lord Vernon, in which the four earliest

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