A. general remarks



Download 34.12 Kb.
Date27.05.2016
Size34.12 Kb.
#71185


ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN
00000000I. INTRODUCTION TO ANGLO-SAXONS IN ENGLAND

A. GENERAL REMARKS

1. 500-1066 ANGL0-SAXON PERIOD OF ENGLISH HISTORY

2. BEGINNINGS ARE OBSCURE

3. INVASIONS OF ANGLES, SAXONS, JUTES, ETC. GRADUAL PROCESS

4. AFTER INITIAL ROVING ATTACKS

5. ONCE ANGLO-SAXONS SETTLE IN

6. BRITAIN BECOMES KNOWN AS ANGLE LAND = ENGLAND

7. BY 7TH C. VARIOUS KINGDOMS ARISE

8. KNOWN AS HEPTARCHY - AS 7 KINGDOMS

a. SAXON KINGDOMS OF

(1) WESSEX= WEST SAXONS

(2) SUSSEX = SOUTH SAXONS

(3) ESSEX = EAST SAXONS

b.0 ANGLO KINGDOMS OF

(1) EAST ANGLIA = EAST ANGLES

(a) NORTH FOLK, SOUTH FOLK, = NORFOLK, SUFFOLK

c.00 MERCIA

d. NORTHUMBRIA = NORTH OF HUMBER RIVER

e. JUTE KINGDOM OF KENT

9.0 3 MAJOR KINGDOMS TOOK TURNS BEING SUPREME

a. NORTHUMBRIA 7TH C.

b. MERCIA 8TH C.

c. WESSEX 9-10TH C.

B.00 MERCIA

1. MOST FAMOUS KING OFFA 757-96

a. SUCCESSOR TO KING PENDA - SOURCE OF PENNY

b. CAME NEAR TO UNITING ALL ENGLAND UNDER HIS OWN RULE

c. CONTEMPORARY OF CHARLEMAGNE

d. OFFA'S DIKE

e. CYNETHRYTH

(1) WIFE OF OFFA

(2) STANDS OUT AS INDIVIDUAL IN HER OWN RIGHT

(3) BUT ALSO HAS REPUTATION AS BEING TYRANT

(4) DETAILS OF HER TYRANNY HAVE VANISHED

(a) BUT SHE IS KNOWN TODAY BECAUSE COINS STRUCK IN HER NAME & WITH HER PORTRAIT

(b) EARLIEST PORTRAIT OF ENGLISH WOMAN BY MANY CENTURIES

(c) NO QUEEN CONSORT IN LATER CENTURIES EVER ALLOWED TO ISSUE COINS IN HER OWN NAME

(d) ONLY KING WHO WILL RECOGNIZE HIS CONSORT'S EXISTENCE ON HIS OWN COINS HENRY VIII

(e) WITH WIVES KATHERINE OF ARAGON, ANNE BOLEYN & JANE SEYMOUR

f.00 REPUTATION FOR TYRANNY FAR WORSE THAN CYNETHRYTH

(1) HER DAUGHTER EADBURG

(2) WIFE OF BEORHTRIC, KING OF WESSEX

(3) ACCORDING TO ASSER, CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHER OF KING ALFRED

(4) SHE BEHAVED IN ODIOUS MANNER TO GOD & MAN

(5) IF SHE COULD NOT REMOVE HER ENEMIES FROM POWER BY ACCUSING THEM TO KING, SHE POISONED THEM

(6) IN END POISON SHE PREPARED FOR YOUNG MAN DRUNK IN ERROR BY KING

(7) AS SHE COULD NOT REMAIN IN WESSEX AFTER HER HUSBAND'S DEATH SHE WENT OVERSEAS WITH VAST TREASURE TO COURT OF CHARLEMAGNE

2.00 ASSER TELLS THIS STORY IN ORDER TO EXPLAIN WHAT HE CALLS PERVERSE WEST SAXON CUSTOM

a. WHICH DENIED TITLE OF QUEEN TO KING'S WIFE

b. CUSTOM HE SAYS AROSE BECAUSE OF EADBURG'S EVIL CONDUCT

c. STORY OBVIOUSLY COLORED BY WEST SAXON HATRED OF MERCIAN PRINCESS

d. BUT NOT ONLY REASON

3.0 NOT UNTIL LATE 10TH C. THAT WIVES OF KINGS OF WESSEX BY THAT TIME KINGS OF ENGLAND

a. ONCE MORE RECEIVED QUEEN TITLE

4.0 UNTIL THEN KING'S WIFE KNOW AS LADY

5. HIS MOTHER KNOWN AS OLD LADY

C.0 WESSEX

1. ALFRED THE GREAT 871-99

a. MOST FAMOUS WESSEX KINGS

b. SUBDUER OF VIKINGS

c. CHURCHILL OF ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND

d. UNIFIED ENGLISH PEOPLES

e. BEGAN RECONQUEST OF DANELAW

(1) AREA OF VIKING SETTLEMENT

f.0 ALFRED & HIS DESCENDANTS CREATED WITH BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH MONARCHY

(1) THAT CONTINUES TODAY

g.0 ONLY ENGLISH KING TO HAVE TITLE GREAT

2.0 AETHELFLAED

a. AS ELDEST CHILD OF ALFRED THE GREAT

b. MARRIED TO AETHELRED

(1) RULER OF MERCIA

c.0 AFTER HER HUSBAND'S DEATH IN 911

d. AETHELFLAED HELD DOMINION WITH LAWFUL AUTHORITY FOR 7 YRS

e. & THEN KNOWN AS LADY OF THE MERCIANS

f. & SHE PROBABLY WAS EFFECTIVE RULER SOME TIME EARLIER

g. SINCE HER HUSBAND WAS SICK & INCAPACITATE FOR SOME YEARS

h. AETHELFLAED VIGOROUS & EFFICIENT IN RESISTING VIKING AGGRESSION

i. & FOR TIME SEPARATE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE RECORDS EVENTS OF HER DOING

j. COOPERATING WITH HER BROTHER

(1) EDWARD THE ELDER, KING OF WESSEX

k.0 IT WAS USE WHICH SHE MADE OF MILITARY FORCES OF WESTERN MIDLANDS

l. WHICH ENABLED HER BROTHER TO ENFORCE HIS AUTHORITY UPON ALL VIKING ARMIES IN ENGLAND SOUTH OF HUMBER

m. AMONG FEW ENGLISH WOMEN WHO IN ANY PERIOD HAVE PERMANENTLY INFLUENCED COURSE OF HISTORY

n. HER METHOD WAS TO PROTECT HER OWN COUNTRY BY FORTIFYING STRATEGIC POINTS

o. & THEN TO ASSAULT NEAREST FORTRESSES IN ENEMY HANDS

p. FOR TIME EVEN PEOPLE OF YORK RECOGNIZED HER AUTHORITY

q. SHE CONCLUDED ANTI-NORWEGIAN ALLIANCES WITH

(1) BRITONS, PICTS & SCOTS

r.0 LATER SOURCES DESCRIBE HER AS DIRECTING BATTLE AGAINST SCANDINAVIAN RAGNALD

s. SHE SENT PUNITIVE ARMY INTO WALES TO AVENGE KILLING OF ABBOT ECGBERT & HIS COMRADES

t. SHE RENOWNED BEYOND ENGLAND FOR ULSTER ANNALS CALLED HER

(1) VERY FAMOUS QUEEN OF SAXONS

D.000 ENGLISH DANELAW

1. CENTURY LATER CONQUEST OF ENGLAND & NORWAY BY CNUT OF DENMARK

2. CNUT'S IRREGULAR WIFE ANOTHER REMARKABLE WOMAN

a. AELFGIFU

b. DAUGHTER OF NOBLEMAN FROM NORTHAMPTONSHIRE

c. EVEN THOUGH CNUT MARRIED TO DUKE OF NORMANDY'S SISTER

d. AELFGIFU BORE CNUT TWO SONS

(1) ELDER CNUT MADE KING OF NORWAY

(2) UNDER AELFGIFU

(3) SHE GOVERNED NORWAY WITH SUCH SEVERITY THAT YEARS OF HER RULE ENDED BY REVOLT

e.0 AFTER DEATH OF CNUT AELFGIFU RETURNED TO ENGLAND

f. PREVAILED UPON LEADING NOBLEMEN OF COUNTRY TO RECOGNIZE HER 2ND SON, HAROLD AS KING

E.00 CONCLUDING REMARKS ON POWER OF ARISTOCRATIC & ROYAL WOMEN

1. ONE OF PERIPHRASES FOR "WOMAN" IN OLD ENGLISH IS FREOTHUWEBBE = WEAVER OF PEACE

2. DAUGHTERS OF ROYAL HOUSE USED TO HEAL ENMITY BETWEEN PEOPLES

a. OR TO CEMENT FRIENDSHIP

3.0 BEDE SHOWS US ONE SUCH WOMAN IN ACTION

4. AETHELBURH,

a. DAUGHTER OF CHRISTIAN KING AETHELBERHT OF KENT

b. MARRIED TO PAGAN EDWIN OF NORTHUMBRIA

c. POPE WROTE TO HER ENCLOSING SILVER MIRROR & IVORY & GOLD COMB ASKING HER TO USE HER INFLUENCE TO BRING HER HUSBAND INTO CHURCH

d. HE WAS CONVERTED BUT WE DON'T KNOW IF SHE DID SO OR NOT

e. BUT FACT THAT POPE SENT HER GIFTS INDICATES POWER WIVES WERE THOUGHT TO HAVE WITH THEIR HUSBANDS

F.00 ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN AS LAND OWNERS

1. ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN SOMETIMES CONSIDERABLE LANDOWNERS

2. SOME SUGGESTION PLACE-NAMES TAKEN FROM WOMEN AS OWNERS OF LAND

a. ADDERBURY, OXFORDSHIRE

(1) EADBURG'S MANOR

b.0 WOLVERHAMPTON

(1) WULFRUN'S CHIEF ESTATE

(a) WEALTHY STAFFORDSHIRE LADY

c.00 WISSINGTON, SUFFOLK

(1) WIGSWITH'S FARMSTEAD

d.0 ABRAM, LANCASTERSHIRE

(1) EADBURG'S FARM

3.00 OR INFAMOUS LADY GODIVA

a. EARLY OF MERCIA, LEOFRIC

(1) HIS WIFE GODGIFU

(2) HER NAME IS RESPONSIBLE FOR GROTESQUE INVENTION OF LADY GODIVA'S RIDE THROUGH COVENTRY

4.00 WOMEN COULD WILL THEIR LAND TO WHOMEVER

5. & OMIT THEIR SON AS HEIR

G.0 RUNNING HOUSEHOLD

1. MANY WOMEN RESPONSIBLE FOR RUNNING LARGE ESTATES

2. THIS WOULD INVOLVE DIRECTING SERVANTS

3. PREPARING STOCKS OF FOOD

4. SUPERVISING WORK OF HOME

a. BAKING

b. BREWING

c. PRESERVING

d. SPINNING

e. WEAVING

5.0 OF WORK DONE BY ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN LITTLE OF ARTISTIC NB SURVIVES

6. CLEARLY ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN OFTEN TOOK TO HEART PROVERB

a. WOMAN'S PLACE IS AT HER EMBROIDERY

H.00 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION ON ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN

1. HYGEBURG

a. ENGLISH NUN FROM HEIDENHEIM NUNNERY

b. HER WORK HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS EARLIEST EXTANT BOOK OF TRAVEL WRITTEN BY ENGLISH PERSON

c. ALSO FIRST BOOK WRITTEN BY ENGLISH WOMAN

2.0 DESPITE DANGERS & DIFFICULTIES OF TRAVEL MANY ENGLISH WOMEN DESIRED TO MAKE PILGRIMAGES

a. TO ROME IN 8TH C.

3.0 CHURCHMAN DID NOT LIKE IDEA OF WOMEN GOING ON PILGRIMAGES

4. BONIFACE, GREAT CONVERTER OF PAGAN GERMANS

5. EVEN WROTE LETTER TO ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY TO FORBID WOMEN TO UNDERTAKE PILGRIMAGES

a. BONIFACE SAID

b. THERE WERE VERY FEW CITIES ON ROAD TO ROME IN WHICH THERE IS NOT AN ADULTERESS OR HARLOT OF ENGLISH RACE; WHICH IS A SCANDAL & SHAME TO YOUR WHOLE CHURCH

6.0 NOTHING STOPPED WOMEN & WOMEN GOING ON PILGRIMAGES UP TO END OF ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD

7. TO SAFEGUARD NUNS GOING ON PILGRIMAGE LAWS OF KING ALFRED MADE ATTACK ON CHASTITY OF NUN PUNISHED BY 3 TIMES AMOUNT ATTACK ON LAY WOMAN

8. CONCLUSION THAT ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND MEN & WOMEN LIVED ON TERMS OF ROUGH EQUALITY WITH EACH OTHER





Download 34.12 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©www.essaydocs.org 2023
send message

    Main page