A team rs 2013 2014 Booklet gcse revision Guide Part 1 Crime # War # Poverty # Environment #

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A Team RS 2013 2014 Booklet

GCSE Revision Guide Part 1

Crime # War # Poverty # Environment #

All you need for the Mock on 18th December

Key points from text books and mark schemes: 70% of the course

Use this to make your revision cards/notes/power points

SGE available after School Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays

Revision MP3 will be e-mailed / Back of booklet = actual exams

Mocks /Revision /Lessons are training. Right: Tennis player Laura Robson trains for the upcoming 2014 season.

  1. Causes of Crime, Aims of Punishment

  2. Christian Views On Crime

  3. Muslim Views On Crime

  4. Christian Views on War

  5. Muslim Views on War

  6. Christian Views On Poverty

  7. Muslim Views On Poverty

  8. The Environment

  9. Christian Views On The Environment

10.Muslim Views On The Environment

1. Causes/Effects of Crime and Aims/Types of Punishment

There are many factors that cause crime. People could be greedy and want something. People could be poor and need something. Drink and drugs cloud and alter the mind and cause theft and violence as addicts need to pay for their habit. If people are mentally ill or have lacked education, they may not be conscious of right and wrong or have been taught about right and wrong. Some people commit crime because they feel they can get away with it or it gives them some sort of buzz. Peer pressure can create gangs and expectations to commit crime whilst some religious believers may point to a lack of religious belief or the Devil.

Clearly, when someone breaks the Law they need punished but what does punishment try and do. Firstly, some believe punishment should protect society. The criminal should be taken out of society via the death penalty or prison. Many people believe reformation is the key. This is where someone’s behaviour is attempted to be changed so they do not re-offend. On the other hand, other people believe reform is difficult and too soft. Third, some people believe deterrence is the main aim of punishment. This means putting people off so they don’t commit crimes. People see what will happen to them if they commit a crime and then do not commit that that crime. Some people disagree with this and no not believe people can be deterred. Finally, there is the aim of retribution where the aim is revenge - punishment on behalf of the victim. However, others question whether two wrongs make a right.

What are the different types of punishment? Are they effective?

There are fines but the poor cannot pay and the rich will not think twice about paying. There is a community service but is this tough enough and should helping the community be a sanction? Suspended sentences are an interesting idea whereby the person knows next time they will suffer double the punishment if they break the Law again. Corporal Punishment is where pain is inflicted on the prisoner as punishment whilst Capital Punishment is where the prisoner is put to death. On the one hand, people say these type of punishments save money, deter, stop re-offending and are right for bad deeds. On the other hand, other people stress that two wrongs do not make a right, that there should be reformation and forgiveness, that deterrence does not work and violence leads to violence. Finally, prison is much debated. Prison is supposed to protect, punish, deter and reform. This issue is explored in "The Shawshank Redemption". Does prison re-habilitate? Does prison reform? Or does prison cost too much money and cause re-offending? Some people believe prison is not tough enough whilst others believe mistakes can be made and people can be wrongly imprisoned.

Past Paper Questions

  • Explain the causes of crime (4)

  • Explain the aims of punishment (4)

  • Explain two aims of punishment (4)

  • Putting criminals in prison does not solve anything. What do you think? (3)

  • Reformation is the most important aim of punishment. What you think? (3)

2. Christian Views On Crime

All Christians believe in Forgiveness. God forgives us and Christians try to reflect God. This is challenging and some Christian state that there are crimes which only God can forgive.

Jesus preached about the importance of Forgiveness. How can God forgive us when we do not forgive others? He told parables to show this. These are in the Bible section known as the New Testament Gospels. In the Parable of The Unforgiving Servant, a Servant owes the King money. The King, after the Servant pleads for more time to pay off the debt, grants the Servant more time. However, The Servant does not show the same compassion to those who owe him money. He bullies and threatens them. When he hears about this the King (who represents God in the story) throws the Servant in Jail because he had not helped others as he himself had been helped.

The Parable of the Lost or Prodigal Son teaches about Forgiveness also. Jesus told this parable in response to a question as to who was a person’s neighbour when Jesus had taught we must love our neighbour like we love yourself. A son asks his father for his inheritance and goes off and squanders it on living a party lifestyle. When the son is hungry and poor (happy to eat the pigs’ food the story says) he decides to return Home and beg forgiveness from his father (who represents God in the story). The father sees hs son on the horizon and runs to meet him. The son says sorry and father is very happy and throws a great banquet in celebration. But, the father’s other son questions this. He had never put a foot wrong and yet he was not receiving such a party. The father says to this second son that everything he had would be his but it was important to celebrate the return of the lost son. Jesus concludes the story by saying that there will joy in Heaven when a bad person repents or turns things around.

Elsewhere, when Jesus sees a woman about to be stoned, he commands that “Those without sin should cast the first stone”. The stones are dropped. Jesus tells the woman, caught committing adultery, to sin no more. Jesus also forgives the person on the cross being crucified with him who stood up for Jesus when he was being mocked. Finally, Jesus spoke about the importance of loving enemies and turning the other cheel precisely because this was challenging. “You have heard it said “Eye for eye and tooth for tooth”. But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5)

Because of the above reasons and because they feel that is not a deterrent, that mistakes are made and life is sacred, many Christians are against Capital Punishment.

There are also Christians who believe in Capital Punishment. This was commanded in the Old Testament of the Bible. Do not kill, lie or steel state the 10 Commandments in Exodus 20. “If anyone injuries his neighbour, whatever he has done, must be done back to him: fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth” (Leviticus 24) .

Some see the ruler as God’s Servant to lay down the law as St. Paul did in Romans 1. Christians for Capital Punishment would stress that it was a deterrent and that severe crimes deserve severe punishments

Many Christians would believe in Prison because it protects society, offers justice and enables reform and rehabilitation. Prison chaplains will try and work to help the person as they will believe that no one is beyond God’s love.

Past Paper Questions

  • For Christians, reformation is the most important aim of punishment What do you think? Give reasons for your answer showing you have thought about more than one point of view (6)

  • Christians should always be prepared to forgive. What do you think? (3)

  • Murderers should always receive the death penalty (capital punishment).’ What do you think? Give reasons for your answer showing you have thought about more than one point of view (6)

  • Murderers should always receive the death penalty (capital punishment).’ What do you think? Give reasons for your answer showing you have thought about more than one point of view (6)

  • Explain Christian attitudes to imprisonment (6)

3. Muslim Views On Crime

Muslims believe Allah created the world. Any crime is going against the world Allah created. “Whoever works righteousness benefits his soul; whoever works evil, it is against his own soul: nor is thy Lord ever unjust to His Servants” (Qur’an 47:46). This quote means that we cheat and harm ourselves when we do wrong and that Allah will reward us if we do good.

There are three types of sins in Islam. Shirk is putting anything on a level with Allah. This insults Allah. Zalim is disobeying the rules of Islam through murder, theft and rape. Fasiq is lying, envy, cursing, corruption. Some of these crimes are crimes against the Government or Community. Severe crimes are considered unforgivable though the idea of blood money (where the victim is paid money) is used on some occasions.

Muslims believe Justice or Fairness is important. Everyone must be treated equally. The poor must be helped and criminals must be punished. Where there is injustice, there is rebellion. People say something is not fair and there are complaints, problems and protests. But, Muslims believe, Justice must be calm and balanced. A fair trial and fair decision is important: “Let not the hatred of others to you make you do wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety; and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do” (Qur’an 5:8). This quote is saying that hatred should not change Justice. It also says Allah sees everything that people do in life.

Muslims believe that, after a person has been punished, harmony and brotherhood should be restored and we continue to work together.

Some Muslim countries believe in Corporal Punishment as a punishment. This is where pain is inflicted on the prisoner. Some Muslims believe it is a deterrent because it puts people off committing crime and this is why is it not used much in Muslim countries. So, people say they will not steel because they will lose and arm if they do. They are scared. Such Muslims believe it prevents re-offending by being a public punishment. People are scared into doing Right. These Muslims believe it punishes people now rather than in the After Life and state that Muhammad (pbuh) practiced this. The Qur’an seems to support this by saying those who commit adultery and theft should whipped or flogged one hundred times. “Cut off his (the thief’s) hands: a punishment by way of example from Allah for their crime” (Qur’an 5:38). Not all Muslims agree with this. Some say it is too harsh. They say it causes further problems and that we must be sure of the person’s guilt. They say that we must be forgiving as Allah is. Also, what happens if there is a mistake made?

Some Muslims believe in Capital Punishment. A severe punishment for a severe crime. The Qur’an seems to back this up: “Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal” (Qur’an 5:45) and “Take not life, which Allah hath made sacred, except by way of justice and law” (Qur’an 6:151). Once again, some Muslims believe this is a deterrent. Other Muslims would, once again, stress forgiveness and would state that blood money would be a better way forward and what if mistakes were made?

Not all Muslims agree with Corporal and Capital Punishments. They might also believe not only it goes against God's Mercy and Compassion but it also creates more violence which could cause more trouble.

Muslims do believe in forgiveness. God is forgiving and The Qur’an praises those who show mercy. Blood money can be asked for. “Nor can goodness and evil be equal. Repel (counter) evil with hat is better. Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate” (Qur’an 41: 34). This quote says that different people can be brought together.

On the other hand, other Muslims still believe in strict punishments set out by The Qur’an to stop anarchy and because they believe only God can truly forgive.

Ultimately , Muslims believe that there is only one Judge – Allah. This will occur on the Day of Judgement. Here, Allah will unite our body and soul. That is why Muslims believe we should be buried at death. We will go before Allah who will ask us questions about our life and religion. Allah will be compassionate and merciful. The righteous will go to the gardens and springs of Heaven whilst the bad will go to Hell, states the Qur’an

Past Paper Questions

  • Explain Muslim attitudes to Corporal Punishment (3)

  • Explain Muslim teaching about Judgement after Death (3)

  • Explain Muslim teaching about Justice (3)

  • "A Muslim should always forgive" Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer showing you have thought about more than one point of view (6)

  • "Corporal Punishment stops people committing crime" Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer showing you have thought about more than one point of view (6)

4. Christian Views On War

War is a large-scale violent conflict. There have been 250 wars since WW2. Some wars are called Civil Wars in a country. War can be caused by people trying to defend their country, people defending their religion, people defending an ally, people wanting more land, people wanting more wealth or people trying to stop mass murder. Wars in the 20th century have killed 1 billion people.

Some Christians believe in War. After all, Jesus used force to clear the Temple of people buying and selling. The reasons they give are part of what has been called Just War Theory which has been in existence for many centuries. St Augustine and St Thomas Aquinas proposed the theory. For a war to be just or right certain conditions must be met. First, it must be declared or started by a proper authority – a Government preferably working with the United Nations. In other words, not a terrorist. Second, there must be a good motive for the War – it must have a good reason eg self defence. Third, once this aim has been achieved, there must be peace. Fourthly, War must be a last resort or option after all other options have been tried. Fifth, there must be a good chance of success and, sixth, it should lead to a better future. Finally, innocent civilians should not be harmed and methods should be proportionate – there should not be excessive force used. The war must be fought in the right way – non combatants need respected, torture is wrong and nuclear weapons are wrong.

Some Christians so not agree with War or Violence. They are called Pacifists. They were stretcher bearers in the First World War or drove ambulances in the Second World War. Martin Luther King was a Pacifist. The reasons they are pacifists is they believe Jesus would not use violence as he believed that peacemakers were holy and that we should forgive and love our neighbour. Jesus said if we live by the sword we will die from it (Matthew 26) – in other words what goes round will come around. Jesus, in Matthew 5, said we should love our enemy, we should turn the other cheek and peacemakers were important. "Blessed are the peacemakers". "Do not repay evil with evil said St. Paul". Christian pacifists also believe that killing goes against the 10 Commandments. Life is sacred or holy and killing is wrong. Christian Pacifists might follow the example of Martin Luther King who believed violence led to violence and only love could defeat hate. Finally, Christian Pacifists say war costs money and damages the environment.

Two modern forms of warfare are Nuclear War and Terrorism. Terrorism is caused by grudges, poverty, inequality and extremism. The Nuclear Bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed 140,000 instantly. Many more suffered illness for decades afterwards. Nowadays there is something called nuclear proliferation where more countries are obtained weapons.

Christians would believe both are wrong because they cause suffering and death and go against life being sacred. They cause hatred and go against the 10 Commandments. They harm the environment, go against Jesus’ idea to love neighbour and cause racism. Terrorists use violence or the fear and threat of violence to achieve political or religious goals.

Having said that, many Christians support this country having Nuclear Weapons as a deterrent to keep the peace. This works by one country not using their nuclear weapons because they know there is another country that would fire them. Also, some Christians would have supported the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as it saved lives by bringing the war to an end. Some Christians might also use principles of Just War and “an eye of an eye” to support the use of nuclear weapons.

Past Paper Questions

  • Explain why some Christians are Pacifists (3)

  • Christians should never agree with Terrorism. What do you think/ Explain your opinion? (3)

  • Explain why some Christians believe nuclear warfare is wrong (3)

  • Explain briefly why some people might agree with nuclear weapons (3)

  • Explain Just War Theory (6)

  • ‘Christians should never fight.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Christian arguments in your answer. (6)

  • What is pacifism? (2)

  • Explain two reasons why a country might become involved in a war. (4)

  • Explain why some Christians are always opposed to war. (6 marks)

  • ‘Nuclear war is always wrong.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Christianity in your answer.

  • ‘Acts of terrorism can never be justified.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Christianity in your answer. (6)

5. Muslim Views On War

Muslims believe there life should be a striving or struggle to obey Allah who is the Creator. Islam means submission. But this submission is not easy. Muslims believe The Five Pillars of faith, prayer, charity, fasting and pilgrimage assists this. Muslims call these daily struggles the Greater Jihad. Its Greater Jihad because Jihad means struggling or striving and the greater Jihad, involving more aspects. It’s the bigger picture. Muslims aim to have a Jihad against evil and sin. So, the purpose of life for a Muslim is to worship God, to obey God and follow The Qur’an. Islam is a way of life which means caring of being stewards for the earth. If Muslims do this they believe they will achieve Paradise or Heaven.

Peace is the absence of intimidation, conflict and violence. Peace in Islam also means no oppression, injustice, tyranny and corruption- it’s a state of harmony which enables all to be given the opportunity to achieve happiness and contentment. The Qur’an states that it is God’s will that Muslims establish peace in the world. Peace also refers to people’s own individual state of spiritual being. Muslims try and be peaceful in themselves They greet each other with a handshake and state Salamu Alaykum which means “peace be upon you”. They also say this when they conclude their prayers. Muslims try and live by the ideal of peace all the time. “Allah doth call us to the Home of Peace” (Qur’an 10: 25)

“If anyone slew a person – unless for murder or spreading mischief in the land – it would be as if he slew the whole people” (Qur’an 5.32) Some Muslims believe in Pacifism. Pacifism is the way of peace and non-violence . After all, the word Islam means peace. Muhammad (pbuh) in Makkah tried to make peace with his enemies and signed agreements with them. Muslim pacifists would point out that war makes things worse – it causes damage of God’s earth and God’s human life and violence leads to more violence. They believe in obeying the law of the land and, if there is an issue, like the cartoons in Denmark about Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims believe in non-violent protest called Jihad of the Tongue. Muslims believe this is one world we must live side by side to achieve peace. Muhammad (pbuh) made peace with his enemies.

So many Muslims believe in something called Disarmament. Disarmament is giving up weapons or renouncing war. It can be unilateral (one sided) or multilateral (an agreement involving a number of countries). It may mean reducing weapons rather than abolishing them completely.

On the other hand, many Muslims believe in war as a last resort. Qur’an 22:39 states that people can fight in a war if war has been waged against them first. Lesser Jihad is their Just War Theory. It is self-defence. It may be right to remove evil. Muslims believe there will be points when they need to fight to stand up for Islam and goodness. This Lesser Jihad and was commanded by The Qur’an. Lesser Jihad is a military struggle to defend faith, restore peace and stand up against evil. It should be started in self defence and should be ended when peace is desired. Muhammad (pbuh) said only a certain amount of people in the village should fight. Other circumstances where it right to fight stated by The Qur’an are defence of Muslim faith and territory, removal of oppressive rulers, punishment of enemies who break agreements and to correct an injustice. The Holy War cannot be used to get land or force countries to be Muslim and must never be for a leader’s purposes. All efforts at peace must have been made. It must be a last resort. It should be called by a fair spiritual leader. There are also rules for conduct in a war with holy buildings, the environment, animals and prisoners of war being respected and war ending when the enemy wants peace This may go hand in hand with Justice: “Allah loves those who are fair and just” (Qur’an 49:9)

Muslims do not agree with terrorism. Islam means peace. Terrorism kills innocent life which goes against the rules of Lesser Jihad. It also causes racism and hatred. Terrorism kills innocent life and The Qur’an is against this. It also forces religion on to people and The Qur’an is against this. Often terrorists kill themselves for their cause and The Qur’an is also against this. “Let there be no force in religion” (Qur’an 2:.256)”Do not take life which Allah hath made sacred” (Qur’an 17:33) “Do not kill yourself” (Qur’an 4:29)

There are similar arguments surrounding Nuclear Weapons in Islam as in Christianity. They go against Lesser Jihad. Islam believes in peace, money from weapons could be spent on War and Nuclear Weapons go against Lesser Jihad and harm God’s earth. Life is sacred or holy and nuclear weapons go against this. But some Muslims do believe they can be used as a deterrent so that they keep the peace whilst Muslims would also believe in self defence.

There will be disagreements in life. This is human nature. But there is a need for people to work together and compromise. The Qur’an teaches that when a wrong has been committed, Muslims should work on reconciliation. This means putting an end to disagreements and pursue friendly relationships. Muslims believe in Reconciliation. The Quran states we should not return evil for evil. Muslims believe in working together. Muslins believe that we should all be treated equally whilst forgiveness is right and revenge is wrong. The Qur’ an states : ‘If two parties of believers take up arms ... make peace between them.’ Surah 3.134: ‘Paradise is for ... those who curb their anger and forgive their fellow men . A Hadith says: “Hate your enemy mildly. One day he may become your friend and intimate”.

Muslims do believe in protesting. A protest is an action to show disagreement against something. Protests occur when people feel there is an injustice. People write letters or boycott goods. On September 2005, a Danish newspaper published some cartoons about The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). These were published in fifty countries around the world. Muslim me, women and children marched to protest, Danish products around the world were boycotted. This cost the Danish economy 170 billion dollars. Some protesters were violent and made threats. In January 2006 the newspaper published an apology to Muslims. “Fight them until there is no more oppression” (Qur’an 2:193)

Past Paper Questions

  • What is disarmament? (2)

  • ‘Muslims should not support a government which has nuclear weapons.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. (6)

  • Describe Muslim beliefs about jihad. Refer to greater and lesser jihad in your answer.

  • Explain Muslim teaching on reconciliation.

  • Explain briefly what is meant by the greater jihad. (2)

  • Explain briefly what is meant by the lesser jihad. (2)

  • Explain why Muslims believe terrorism is evil. (3)

  • ‘It is good to be a pacifist.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer. (6)

  • Explain Muslim beliefs about the purpose of human life. (6)

  • ‘When Muslims protest, they should not use violence.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer.

  • Explain Muslim teaching about reconciliation. (6)

  • ‘Nuclear war can never be right.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer. (6)

  • Explain briefly what is meant by disarmament. (2)

  • Explain briefly why some Muslims support disarmament. (2)

  • ‘Muslims can be pacifists.’ What do you think? Explain your opinion. (3)

  • ‘The use of nuclear weapons can never be right.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer. (6)

6. Christian Views On Poverty

Every day, 40,000 children starve to death. 1 in 5 people in the world live in extreme poverty.50% of the world’s adults own just 1% of the world’s wealth. People lack food, education and literacy, water, sanitation, work and health.

Causes of poverty include a lack of education, disease, death, debt, war, national disaster, unfair trade and long term debt.

Christians believe in helping the poor. In 1 John it says God cannot help us if we do not help others. St Theresa said we are Jesus’ hands in the world. Jesus said the poor were blessed in Matthew 5. All humans are children of God and Jesus said we should love our neighbour. In Matthew 25, Jesus said that God would judge us on whether we had helped the poor, He said God would divide us as a farmer does sheep from goats. Those that help the poor and outcast, said Jesus, help God and him. Jesus told a parable about a rich man who did not help a beggar at his house in Luke 16. When the rich man died, he went to Hell whereas the poor man went to Heaven. In the After Life the rich man pleaded for a second chance but it was not given. Finally, in Luke 12, Jesus told a story about a rich man who hoarded his crops in big barns only for God to take his life. Jesus’ message here is clear – God will judge us if we do not help the poor.

How can Christians help? They can give emergency or long term aid. They can donate, get sponsored, create awareness in their own community, put pressure on Governments, go to the country concerned to help or say prayers. This is what Christian Charities like Christian Aid or CAFOD do.

These charities also believe in emergency and long term help or aid. Emergency aid is intended to meet a crisis (e.g. drought, hurricane) and intended to meet need in the short term (e.g. food, medical supplies, tents). Provision is tailored to particular needs, e.g. food, tents, water supplies, medical treatment to prevent or deal with disease, injuries. The public may be asked to donate. The aim is to help people survive who otherwise might quickly die. There is Long Term Aid too. This aims to create communities that can help themselves and are self sufficient and can stand on their own two feet. Examples of long term aid would be well digging, education, agricultural and medical advice and training, use of local partners enables communities to retain self-respect, projects to help war victims – e.g. drama workshops to work through trauma, funding students to attend universities in UK, creating awareness in this country through education and pressuring wealthy nations to drop debt and reform trade rules.

Should Christians give money in this way? Should money be given to corrupt governments? Should charity not start at home?

Well, Christians should not feel forced – they need the right motivation and have to decide for themselves. God gave us free will. And they should look after their families first and may not be able to afford giving in this way. Other people may question money going to corrupt governments or creating countries that are dependent and cannot stand on their own two feet. Corrupt governments may use the money to justify their existence and this may prevent change. They could spend this on war and weapons. Some people would say that charity begins at home. We have children sleeping in bathrooms in this country.

On the other hand, without this aid people would die. This help puts into practice Jesus’ rule to love our neighbour and we are all God’s children. After all, Christians are global citizens and these days we can trace where the money goes and target the money away from corrupt leaders. Futhermore the need of people in LEDCs is greater than ours. They do not have things like an NHS. Giving money to countries with bad governments can be targeted so people rebel. Long term aid also shows that you can give to people without them being dependent .

Many Christians believe in Fair Trade products. Fair Trade was set up by Christian charities. The Bible tells Christians to protect and look after those who are defenceless and that Justice is important. Fair Trade ensures that people are given are fair price for their goods and are not exploited. The producer is paid a higher price for goods which is invested in local produce. Helping people in this way shows Christian love. On the other hand, some Christians may find Fair Trade products are unavailable and expensive. They might say God gave us free will not to buy these products.

Past Paper Questions

  • An individual Christian can do very little to protect the environment.’ What do you think? Explain your opinion. (3)

  • Explain briefly what is meant by emergency aid. (2)

  • ‘Aid should never be given to countries that are ruled unjustly.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Christian arguments in your answer. (6)

  • Choose one of the following aid agencies: CAFOD, Christian Aid, Tearfund, Trocaire Describe how the aid agency you have chosen helps people in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs( (6)

  • Everyone should buy fair trade products.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Christian arguments in your answer. (6)

  • Explain causes of poverty in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). (4)

  • Explain Christian teaching about caring for the poor (4)

  • ‘Everyone should give generously when Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) need emergency aid.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Christian arguments in your answer. (6

  • Explain briefly how voluntary aid agencies give emergency aid to Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). (3)

  • Explain briefly how individual Christians might help those in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). (3)

  • ‘British Christians should help the poor in Britain before helping the poor in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs).’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. (6)

7. Muslim Views On Poverty

Poverty is caused by several factors. Wars destroy countries and leave inhabitants in poverty. They create refugees. Natural disasters can devastate countries and cause poverty. Debt with unfair interest rates plunge LEDCs into poverty from which they cannot escape There is unfair trading terms with rich countries . There is a lack of education and poor nutrition and health care. There is a hot and dry climate in Middle East and central Africa meaning people cannot grow crops to feed themselves/animals.

Muslims believe in giving to the poor. As a Hadith states: “He who eats and drinks while his brother goes hungry is not one of us”. “If anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people” (Qur’an 5.32).

One of the 5 pillars is called Zakah and involves giving 2.5% of income to help the poor every year. There is also something called Sadaqah which is money given at any time. Muslims see this as part of their worship and respecting God’s creation. This can take the form of giving prayer, giving time or giving money. It could be to non-Muslim or Muslim charities. It should be given in a humble way…so the left hand does not know what the right is doing. This also stops them building up too much wealth. They must share. That said, Muslims can give time as well as money and they believe in looking after family first. The local Mosque offers financial and emotional support to Muslims.

God will judge Muslims for not helping the poor. “Those that bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah announce to them the most grevious penalty” (Qur’an 5:34)

Should a Muslim be rich? Wealth is given by Allah so there is nothing wrong with it inherently. But it is a test: “He raised you in ranks, some above others that He may try you in the gifts He hath given you” (Qur’an 6:165). Islam says it is wrong to make money on money so receiving (usury) and charging interest on a loan is wrong because it exploits the poor. Gambling is also not allowed. Muslims should work honestly for money, But Money is only good for what it can do in terms of caring for others and the family. Muslims believe that they should pay Zakah and follow the teaching of The Qur’an and the Life of Muhammad (pbuh) in caring for the poor. Allah will judge Muslims on the Day of Judgement for this. That said the family must come first.

Muslims believe they must look after the poor in their family first. “We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents” (Qur’an 46:15) Muslims have a responsibility to their family. They try and care for less wealthy members.

Muslims believe in emergency and long term aid. Emergency aid means helping people immediately after disasters happen, providing people and equipment to help search and rescue or find bodies, clearing rubble, medical help for those injured, short term shelter, food and fresh water. Long term aid means help given over many years to help people re-build their lives and communities, to deal with long term problems e.g. poverty and to help people become independent again.

An example of a Muslim Charity is Muslim Aid. Another example is Islamic Relief. A further example is Red Crescent. These provide long term and emergency aid. They support world development by campaigning, redistributing wealth and helping on the ground. They respond to emergencies such as natural disasters, wars and famine but also has plans to eliminate poverty, provide clear water, raise money, work with local people and create awareness through websites, newsletters and posters.

These charities work in the UK too. They raise money from charity events. They travel to an area to help. They give money or meat to the needy at Ramadan or a special celebration. They give regular money.

Some Muslims would only support Muslim charities as they know where the money is going, they can be sure the charity helps other Muslims and it is part of the Muslim community or ummah. Other Muslims would believe we should support all God’s children, non-Muslim charities would help in Muslim countries, anyone should be given help and there may not be a Muslim charity in your area.

Does giving to the poor just make the poor more dependent on others? On the one hand, some may say the money could be wasted by corrupt governments and the poor. Such aid may encourage dependency which does not help the person and things are more useful than money. On the other hand, such charity can be the difference between life and death in emergency aid, it restores self-esteem and, through long term aid, helps people become independent.

Past Paper Questions

  • Give two causes of poverty. (2)

  • Describe the work of Muslim Aid. (4)

  • ‘Muslims should keep only the money they need to live.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. (6)

  • Explain briefly what is meant by emergency aid (2)

  • Explain briefly what is meant by long term aid. (2)

  • Muslims should only support Muslim charities.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer (6)

  • Describe the work of Muslim Aid. (4)

  • Explain what is meant by Sadaqah. (3)

  • Muslims should not spend money on themselves.’ What do you think? Explain your opinion. (3)

  • Explain the causes of poverty in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). (4)

  • Explain how Muslim organisations support world development (4)

  • Muslims should not be rich.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view (6)

  • Describe the way in which Muslim communities in the UK help to relieve poverty (4)

  • ‘Giving money to the poor only makes them more dependent on others.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer. (6)

8. The Environment
How is the environment being damaged? There is industrial discharge into rivers. There are oil slicks. There is litter and fly-tipping. There is deforestation. There is over-fishing, use of harmful pesticides, emissions from ships’ engines and the extinction of species. There is landfill. There is chemical pollution of water and seas.

The Greenhouse Effect is the natural process where the sun’s energy is trapped in the atmosphere by a blanket of gasses so the planet is warm enough to sustain life. The burning of fossil fuels increases this. The Ozone Layer is being destroyed which prevents harmful rays entering atmosphere

Climate Change is a change in the global temperature. Ice caps melt, sea levels rise and there is drought. The average temperature rises. Precipitation (rain/snow) and wind increases. Stern Report of 2006 stated that the world should spend to avoid worse effects of climate change otherwise this would affect GDP by 20%.

Deforestation destroys life and trees, an O2 producing source. Plants develop medicine also. 50% of mature forests felled in the last 200 years and this would be 80% by 2030. Trees stop flooding. They are the lungs of the earth.

There is pollution from car exhausts, power plants, nuclear waste, factories and aircraft. Seas are polluted by run off chemicals. Pollution affects air, land and soil. It contributes to climate change

Conservation means looking after the Environment. How can people care for the Environment? They can recycle. They can walk or use public transport. They can save energy at home. Natural resources could be shared. Carbon emissions can be cut. Plastic bags could be avoided. Water and wind power could be used more.

9. Christian Views On The Environment

Should humans do what they want with the environment? Some people believe God has given us the world to do what we want with. Some people believe humans are masters of the universe and come first. Some people believe family comes first. On the other hand, other people point out that God gave us the earth to look after, that we must care about future generations, that we should not dominate the world and that be should not be selfish or greedy.
What do Christians believe about the Environment? God creates the world good. The world is special. We should take care of the World. We should be stewards. We have the world on loan. God make us in God’s image and we are to rule of fish, birds and livestock. (Genesis 1). "The earth is the Lord's and everything in it" (Psalm 124) We are Tenants of the earth. God is interested in the whole world and establishes a Covenant. The prophet Isaiah talks about the mountains and hills bursting in song and the tress clapping their hands (metaphorically, obviously) to God. We should not destroy the biological diversity of God’s creation. Pope John Paul II stated that the misuse of the natural world was blasphemy, a crime against God. We need to change our lifestyle and be less consumers. Some Christians believe Environmental Problems are a punishment (like Noah in the Bible) and that they are a sign of the end of time. Christians believe we should use earth´s resources in a sustainable manner and love our neighbours of the future. Jesus spoke of his concern for sparrows.

Other Christians believe God gives them power to dominate or control the world.

What have Christians done? Some Christians have responded by getting involved in The Earth Charter movement. The Earth Charter gives rules on how we should live.
After 1992 Rio Earth summit, Christians responded by producing a report linking Christianity to this. The Bishops of London and Liverpool called for us to cut personal carbon emissions in Lent 2008. The previous Pope, Benedict, had 2700 solar panels installed on the Vatican
Some Churches have services highlighting green issues. A Christian leader called Bartholomew I called the abuse of the natural world sinful.
Some people state that a Christian can do little on their own and that everyone has to do it. On the other hand, other Christians state that stewardship has to start somewhere.
Is caring for the poor more important than caring for the environment? Some see both as important, both connected to each other as poverty can be caused by the environment , that humans are stewards of the world as God has given us power to look after the world. Othyer people would say that humans should come first, that if we looked after the poor, there would be less harm to the environment and that Jesus said humans are of more value that sparrows.
Past Paper Questions

  • Explain ways in which people are working to protect the environment. (4)

  • ‘The world exists for humans to use as they wish.’

  • Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Christian arguments in your answer. (6)

  • Explain Christian beliefs and teachings about the environment. (6)

  • ‘For Christians, ending world poverty is more important than caring for the environment.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view.

  • Give two other ways in which human actions are harming the environment. (2)

  • An individual Christian can do very little to protect the environment.’ What do you think? Explain your opinion (3)

10. Muslim Views On The Environment
Muslims also believe we are stewards. They call this Khalifahs. Allah creates us to obey/submit. Allah is one and so is creation. We are or stewards over creation. We are responsible and accountable on Judgement Day. We must respect God’s world. If we do not respect God’s world, there is suffering. Allah is one, creation is one. There is, in Creation, Harmony and Balance (Mizan). God puts in us a conscience to do this (Fitra). But we have created mischief and Allah tries to teach us a lesson through this . says The Qur’an. The Qur’an states that King Solomon was given the gift of being able to understand the birds and animals. Even when he was marching with his army, he still saw some ants and marvelled at them. If a Muslim is harmony with Creation, they will receive gifts from Allah. Solomon was a wise ruler. He even had compassion for a tiny ant.

Animals need cared for in Islam. They are a gift from Allah. There are no blood sports, zoos, circuses, battery hens, veal cages. The Qur’an states that animals have feelings and Muhammad (pbuh) believed in animal welfare. Muslims believe animals can be used for food but they need well cared for. In Islam, Halal meat is that which is slaughtered according to Muslim teaching. Food that is forbidden is called Haram. The throat cut quick so as to reduce pain. The blood is drained from the carcass. Animals are not killed in front of other animals. Animals can be experimented on for medicine but not cosmetics or the effects of man-made disease (lung cancer from smoking).

Is it right to experiment on animals? Should we use animals for whatever we want? Some Muslims believe that animals have feelings, that she should be killed without pain, that humans are animals, that The Qur’an and Muhammad (pbuh) taught that we should respect animals and that we should look after the environment. Other Muslims believe life is created by God, that animals do not have a soul, that we should only use animals for important research to do with illnesses , that animals are less important than humans and can be used for food.
Are people more important than the environment? On the one hand, some think that people come before nature and that if we cared about people, environmental problems would be solved. On the other hand, others believe we are stewards of the environment first and foremost and that environmental damage helps people.
Are the poor more important than the environment? On the one hand, yes. Zakah is a pillar of Islam, looking after the poor helps the environment and the Qur’an and Muhammad (pbuh) said we should care for the environment. On the other hand, if we do not care foir the environment, which we are stewards of, we cannot care for the poor.

The following quotes from The Qur’an are linked to this topic:

“He it is who created the heavens and the earth in six days – and His Throne is over the waters” (Qur’an 11.7)
“Whoever kills anything bigger than a sparrow without just cause will be accountable to Allah”(Hadith) .“To Him belong all the things in the heavens and on earth” (Qur’an 4.171)
“Allah’s care for his creatures is universal” (Qur’an 62.1)
“The earth is green and beautiful but Allah has made you stewards over it” (Hadith)
“Eat and drink but waste not by excess for Allah loves not the wasters” (Qur’an 7.31)

How do Muslims care for the environment? They will recycle, campaign, encourage walking or public transport and protect endangered species. Muslim countries and Governments have done the following:

ZANZIBAR: Banned fishing in coral
ASSISI, ITALY World religions gather to set out teachings on environment
TOWER HAMLETS, LONDON Muslim recycling project inspired by Qur’an
RIO, UNITED NATIONS EARTH SUMMIT Muslim countries work together
JEDDAH, SAUDIA ARABIA Muslim nations meet
BIRMINGHAM, UK Eco Islam published by The Islamic Foundation For Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Help control fishermen using dynamite near Zanzibar. Help out after Tsunami

Past Paper Questions

  • Explain two ways in which humans contribute to pollution. (4)

  • What is khilafah (stewardship)? (2)

  • “It is acceptable to experiment on animals.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer. (6)

  • Explain why many Muslims value the created world. (6)

  • ‘People should be allowed to use animals in any way they want.’

  • Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer.

  • Explain how some Muslims take part in conservation. (6)

  • ‘Caring for people is more important than caring for the environment.’

  • Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer.

  • Give two causes of pollution. (2)

  • Explain what Muslims believe about their role as stewards of the environment. (4)

  • ‘Animals do not have any rights.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, showing that you have thought about more than one point of view. Refer to Islam in your answer. (6)

  • What is meant by conservation? (2)

  • Explain why Muslims should care for the created world. (4)

  • Caring for the poor is more important for Muslims than caring for the environment.’ What do you think? Explain your opinion. (3)

  • Muslims always treat animals with respect.’ What do you think? Explain your opinion. (3)

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