Abigail Adams Wentworth Cheswell Mercy Otis Warren



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Abigail Adams

Wentworth Cheswell

Mercy Otis Warren

James Armistead

Bernardo de Galvez

Haym Salomon

John Q. Adams

William Carney

Philip Bazaar

Hiram Rhodes Revels

Thomas Hooker

Charles de Montesquieu

John Locke

William Blackstone

John James Audubon




“Do not put such unlimited power in the hands of husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could.”

“I am a notable African American who rode to warn colonists about British Regulars’ movements and served in the Continental Army.”

“America stands armed with resolution and virtue; but she still recoils at the idea of drawing the sword against the nation from whence she derived her origin.”

“Although I served as a spy and double agent in the American Revolution, I remained a slave until 1787. The Marquis de Lafayette assisted me.”

“I practiced an anti-British policy and kept New Orleans open to free trade, including the American colonies.”

“Some people consider me the Indispensable Financial Genius of the American Revolution.”

“Yet, if the South is right, what are we to do with that embarrassing, annoying document, The Declaration of Independence? What of its conceits? ‘All men created equal,’ ‘inalienable rights,’ ‘life, liberty,’ and so on and so forth?”

“When the color sergeant was shot down, this soldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors thereon. …he was twice severely wounded.”

“I was a Chilean immigrant who served in the Union Navy during the Civil War. I received a Medal of Honor for my bravery in the attack on Fort Fisher.”

“I was the first African American to serve in Congress; some called me the ‘Fifteenth Amendment in flesh and blood’ as I traveled the country speaking and educating.”

"The foundation of authority is laid in the free consent of the people," because "by a free choice the hearts of the people will be more inclined to the love of the persons chosen, and more ready to yield obedience."

“The sublimity of administration consists in knowing the proper degree of power that should be exerted on different occasions.”

“All mankind... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions.”

“If [the legislature] will positively enact a thing to be done, the judges are not at liberty to reject it, for that were to set the judicial power above that of the legislature, which would be subversive of all government.”

“I never for a day gave up listening to the songs of our birds, or watching their peculiar habits, or delineating them in the best way I could.”

Websites:



Abigail Adams

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abigail_Adams

Wentworth Cheswell

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/58161116/Wentworth-Cheswell-1st-Black-Judge

Mercy Otis Warren

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/mercy_otis_warren.html

James Armistead

http://www.biography.com/articles/James-Armistead-537566

Bernardo de Galvez

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernardo_de_G%C3%A1lvez_y_Madrid,_Count_of_G%C3%A1lvez http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1982/3/1982_3_30.shtml

http://xenophongroup.com/patriot/arrt/bibliography03.htm#weblinks



Haym Salomon

http://goldismoney2.com/showthread.php?10281-Haym-Salomon-The-Revolution-s-Indispensable-Financial-Genius

John Q. Adams

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/john_quincy_adams.html

http://www.historycentral.com/amistad/amistad.htmlv



William Carney

http://thismightyscourge.com/2009/03/19/william-h-carney-sergeant/

Philip Bazaar

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Bazaar

http://www.cmohs.org/recipient-detail/73/bazaar-philip.php



Hiram Rhodes Revels

http://baic.house.gov/historical-essays/essay.html?intID=3

http://baic.house.gov/member-profiles/profile.html?intID=14



Thomas Hooker

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/thomas_hooker.html

http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/cdf/ff/chap07.html

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/order.asp


Charles de Montesquieu

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/c/charles_de_montesquieu.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_de_Secondat,_baron_de_Montesquieu



John Locke

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/john_locke.html


William Blackstone

http://thinkexist.com/quotes/william_blackstone/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Blackstone

http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/blackstone.html

http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb-0000.htm

http://www.history1700s.com/articles/article1121.shtml


John James Audubon

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/john_james_audubon.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_James_Audubon


Placards:



Abigail Adams

Abigail Adams was the wife of American Patriot and second President John Adams, serving as the first First Lady in the White House. Yet she was revolutionary in her own right. She advised her husband throughout his career as lawyer, writer, and statesman. Her letters to her husband serve as valuable documentation of the Revolutionary War and political thought. One letter encourages John Adams to “remember the ladies” when writing the document that became the Declaration of Independence. She ran the family’s farm while John Adams was away for many years serving the colonial and the new nation’s governments, both at home and overseas. She was the mother of six children; her son John Quincy Adams was elected the sixth president and served in many local and national offices. She opposed slavery as did her husband and son.



Wentworth Cheswell

Wentworth Cheswell was an African-American teacher. His grandfather was the first African-American to own property in the New Hampshire colony. His father was a successful carpenter and home builder. Wentworth received an extensive education and became a school teacher. He was elected to the town council known as “the selectmen” as well as other town offices. During the American Revolution he supported the Patriot cause, signing the Association Test, which pledged commitment to “take up arms to resist the British.” He served in a company of Light Horse Volunteers from New Hampshire. His service included rides like Paul Revere, warning colonists of British Regulars’ movements. After fighting in the American Revolution, he worked on town records and recorded information on artifacts, causing him to become known as the first archeologist of New Hampshire.






Mercy Otis Warren

Known by many as the “Conscience of the American Revolution,” Mercy Otis Warren wrote plays and other writings supporting the Patriot cause. Her husband James Warren was a prominent figure in the Revolution as well. Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and John Adams depended on her advice. The Committees of Correspondence were established during a meeting at her home, and she remained involved in many of the events of the Revolution through the 1770s and 1780s. Her plays include The Defeat, The Group, The Blockheads, and The Motley Assembly. She was an Anti-Federalist, opposing the ratification of the Constitution.



James Armistead

Born a slave in colonial Virginia, James Armistead served as a double spy during the American Revolution. His master allowed him to enlist in the Continental Army. General Lafayette was his superior officer, and during Armistead’s service, he conveyed vital information about the movements of British troops and their weapons. The Continental Army’s victory at Yorktown ending the war and gaining victory for the Americans was supported by Armistead’s intelligence reports.








Bernardo de Galvez

As Governor of Spanish Louisiana in the 1770s, Don Bernardo de Galvez played an important role in the American Revolution. He did many things to help the Patriot cause. He supported them by supplying them with needed resources, using the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers to transport the cargo to areas in the western theatre of the war. The supplies were used in the Patriot victory at Vincennes in February 1779. When Spain entered the American Revolution in 1779, Galvez fought against the British. He led Spanish troops along the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico, attacking and capturing British forts. While thousands of British troops were busy with the Spanish troops, they were distracted from fighting against the Continental Army further east. His victories include Manchac, Baton Rouge, Natchez, and Pensacola. His military work prevented the British from surrounding the Patriots from the south. He kept New Orleans and other ports open so that vital supplies could reach American troops. He was involved in drafting the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783. His name appears in many places along the Gulf of Mexico, including Galveston, Texas.



Haym Salomon

Haym Salomon was a Jewish man who immigrated to the English colonies from Poland. He was responsible for supporting the Patriot cause of the American Revolution with his personal wealth. He was a financial broker in New York City when the war began. In 1776 the British arrested him as a spy but later released him. After assisting British prisoners of war to escape, he was apprehended and faced execution. He was able to escape and continued his financial business. He served as the paymaster to the French troops in America. Salomon supported the Bank of North America, established by the Continental Congress to raise money to support the Continental Army. He was broke when he died, possibly as a result of his providing his own money to pay for the war.







John Q. Adams

America’s sixth president, John Quincy Adams played an important role in the congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War. After losing re-election to the presidency, Adams ran and was elected to the House as a representative from Massachusetts. He served there until his death following his collapse on the floor of Congress in 1829. From 1936 to 1844, the House invoked the Gag Rule for the first time, prohibiting any discussion of the slavery issue. Adams often ignored the rule and spoke out against slavery at every opportunity. He sponsored numerous petitions calling for abolition of slavery and the slave trade in the capital. A gifted orator and lawyer, he participated in a landmark Supreme Court case. United States v. The Amistad Africans involved a slave revolt on a ship. Adams argued on behalf of the Africans and won the case. He is the only U.S. President to have argued a case before the Supreme Court. His voice was a strong advocate for the abolition of slavery, which was a contributing factor to the causes of the Civil War.



William Carney

William Harvey Carney was a former slave who fought in the Civil War. A member of the acclaimed 54th Massachusetts Infantry, he served under U.S. Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. This unit was one of the first regiment consisting of African American soldiers commanded by white officers. The company started its historic service on May 28, 1863. Initially the soldiers were involved only in manual labor, but after successful service in an attack on Darien, Georgia, they began to fight in actual campaigns. One of the most famous battles involving the 54th Massachusetts was the Battle of Fort Wagner near Charleston, South Carolina. The regiment was instrumental in the Union’s attack on this fort. Although the Union was not successful, the soldiers of the 54th Massachusetts received glowing commendations for immense bravery. William Carney received the Medal of Honor after the war. His company’s flag bearer stumbled as the troops advanced on the fort. Carney snatched the flag and carried it in his place. He said, "Boys, the old flag never touched the ground!"






Philip Bazaar

Seaman Philip Bazaar was a Medal of Honor recipient as a result of his service during the Civil War. An immigrant from Chile, South America, Bazaar was assigned to the USS Santiago de Cuba, a wooden steamship under the command of Rear Admiral David D. Porter. In the latter part of 1864, Union General Ulysses S. Grant ordered an assault on Fort Fisher, a stronghold of the Confederate States of America. It protected the vital trading routes of Wilmington's port, at North Carolina. Rear Admiral Porter was in charge of the naval assault, and General Benjamin F. Butler was in charge of the land assault but was later replaced by Major General Alfred Terry. A second assault was ordered for January 1865. Bazaar was aboard the USS Santiago de Cuba and served in both assaults on the fort. On January 12, 1865, both ground and naval Union forces attempted the second assault. Bazaar bravely entered the fort during the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. Bazaar and his comrades were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions.




Hiram Rhodes Revels

After the Civil War, Hiram Rhodes Revels became the first African American to serve in the U.S. Congress. He was appointed a Senator from Mississippi in 1870, filling a seat vacated by Albert G. Brown in 1861. Brown had left the Senate when Mississippi seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. Some controversy ensued due to the Dred Scott decisions’ ruling about citizenship. Revels’ nomination survived the debate due to his mixed heritage; he had both white and African American ancestors. Although his term lasted only one year, he was a strong voice in favor of racial equality. He was an exceptional orator. In one of his speeches he said, “I maintain that the past record of my race is a true index of the feelings which today animate them. They aim not to elevate themselves by sacrificing one single interest of their white fellow citizens.” His attempts at fostering opportunities for African Americans were mostly unsuccessful but set the stage for future civil rights actions. He went on to serve as the first president of Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College in Mississippi. He wrote a famous letter to President Grant, criticizing carpetbaggers’ influence of the African American vote and promotion of continued conflict from the Civil War. Senator and Secretary of State James G. Blaine said of Revels: “The colored men who took their seats in both Senate and House were as a rule studious, earnest, ambitious men, whose public conduct would be honorable to any race.”



Thomas Hooker

One of America’s first constitutions was developed by Thomas Hooker. He was a member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the 1630s. After a conflict over governmental power, he left Massachusetts Bay Colony and established his own settlement in what became Hartford, Connecticut. His settlement grew into the Connecticut Colony. Under his leadership, the colony developed a representative democratic government, outlined in the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. The document emphasizes the rights of the individual, including permitting all free men to vote for their representatives. It also limited the power of the governor and provided a structure that was later a part of the development of the U.S. Constitution.



Charles de Montesquieu

Montesquieu was a French Enlightenment writer whose ideas about government influenced the writers of the U.S. Constitution. He was one of the first to develop categories for governmental structures, which others used as foundations for political theories. He wrote about three “administrative powers” of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. These three parts of government interact as separate but interdependent entities. The concept of checks and balances and separation of powers comes from his writing. These concepts were important to Enlightenment philosophy and were incorporated into the U.S. Constitution. He proposed there were three main forms of government: monarchy, republics, and despotisms.






John Locke

An English philosopher, Enlightenment writer John Locke was a significant influence on the writings of America’s Founding Fathers. His Two Treatises of Government included discussions of liberty and the “social contract.” He proposed that reason and tolerance distinguish human nature. Since man is basically selfish in his original state of nature, government is necessary to provide order. However, everyone has a natural right to defend his “Life, Liberty, or Possessions,” a phrase rewritten by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence. Locke postulated that people set up their own governments based on an agreement or “contract” between the two entities. If the government breaks the contract by denying the citizens their rights, revolution is required. Separation of powers was another component of his theories. He emphasized the right of property and wrote extensively about labor and money. He also wrote about the self and consciousness, saying that the mind is a “taubla rasa” or blank slate, filled by experience. Thomas Jefferson considered him a major influence and one of the “greatest [men] that have ever lived, without any exception.”



William Blackstone

William Blackstone was an English jurist who lived during the 18th century. His Commentaries on the Laws of England dominated the common law legal system for decades and continues to impact American laws today. His works influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution. The four volume commentary includes his theory of common law. His work became a blueprint for American laws the leaders who drafted them. The second amendment, protecting the right to bear arms, was based on his commentaries, as well as impeachment for “high crimes and misdemeanors.” He believed laws were not created by men but existed naturally and were discovered, much the same way scientists discovered scientific law. He applied the systematic theories of natural science to the study of man. His works were so popular the first American publication sold out, requiring a second edition. It is still used in law schools and lawyers’ libraries.






John James Audubon

The study of birds was greatly advanced by work of John James Audubon. He is best known for his writings and illustrations of American birds. For many years, he studied American birds, using bird-banding for the first time in North America and recording extensive field notes. He published Birds of America in 1826; it included 435 hand-colored, life-sized pictures of 497 bird species and information on more than 700 North American bird species. He painted oil pictures and sold them as well. He contributed to Charles Willson Peale’s great museum of natural history, filling a room with birds’ eggs, stuffed animals, fish, and snakes. Although Audubon was born in Haiti and raised in France, he enjoyed living in America. His work characterizes American art and culture.







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