Abstract the standardization of school-based assessment: cases on biology and indonesian language in senior high school



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ABSTRACT THE STANDARDIZATION OF SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT: CASES ON BIOLOGY AND INDONESIAN LANGUAGE IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL This research aims to develop the standardization of test items in order that schools have to standardize the test items that they use with an empirical evidence of validation. To support this activity, a guide for the standardization will be developed, starting with developing a learning continuum of achievement on Biology and Indonesia Language, followed by developing a guide for writing the instrument to measure the convergent and divergent patterns of learning achievement based on the learning continuum, and developing a guide for educational measurement to get the empirical data about the valid items using Program Quest in Indonesian. Teachers were invited to use those developed guides. The developed guides were validated by the teachers an supervisors in three provinces in the second years of this study, and were validated again by the instructors of LPMP in seven provinces in the third year. Thereby all of those guides can be used by the practician in the field. Keyword: standardization of test item, empirical evidence of validation, learning achievement 1

Objectives or purposes This research aims to develop the standardization of test items in order schools have to standardize the test items that they use with an empirical evidence of validation. To support this activity, the guidance of the standardization on the achievement assessment based on school will be developed. Perspective(s) or theoretical framework The Ministry of National Education Regulation No. 20, 2007 requires schools to assess students’ learning achievement at the end of learning program. For this reason, the standardization of test items is important but in Indonesia there has never been an independent testing centre. The schools have to standardize the test items they use as an empirical evidence of validation. In the implementation of school examination, written tests are still used. Written tests are still applied in the national examination and district examination in the U.S (Hargreaves & Schmidt, 2002: 69-95). Test items in the form of non-objective essays result in answers given by testees, which are broad and comprehensive (Roid & Haladyna, 1982: 58-62). This is very suitable with the measurement of divergent thinking skills (Arthenton, 2005: 1). However, there are many teachers’ weaknesses in constructing test items (Jehlen, 2007: 29-34), especially when it is related with the construct validity of a measurement (Edward & Bagozzi, 200: 155-173; Gorin, 2006: 21-35). In the use of written tests, writing the divergently patterned items and their empirical analysis is not much understood by the teachers. Automatically the teachers rarely use the 2

divergently patterned test items to measure the student’s competencies. This fact is in line with the research finding reported by Bambang Subali (2009: 203) who researched high school students’ competence in scientific process skill at divergent patterns. In the anticipation of the development of national assessment in other countries which also use essay type questions (Gorin, 2006: 21-36), and the efforts to control the quality of examination result (Allalouf, 2007: 36-43) as well as the problems they face (Brennan, 2001: 6- 18), need to develop a procedure of developing test items and empirical analysis which teachers can comprehend easily. To get the information of fit items with the model, this research looks for the testees’ competence level and the item difficulty level in Rasch Model (Keeves & Alagumalai, 1999: 27) the Quest Program (Adam & Khoo, 1996: 89). Research methods In the first year, this research developed a comprehensive manual model about the standardization of the evaluation of convergent and divergently patterned learning achievement, starting from the way to develop a learning continuum, constructing the matrix, writing the convergent and divergently patterned test items, peer teacher reviewing, and empirical analysis using the Quest Program to reveal the fitness of each item using the 1-PL model. In the second year, the developed manual was disseminated to teachers in three provinces. In the third year, it was disseminated to instructors of educational quality assurance offices in seven provinces. Data sources or evidence Data resources in the first year are 15 teachers on Biology and 15 teachers on Indonesian Language in the senior high schools in Yogyakarta Special Territory. To disseminate the 3

guidance of the standardization on the achievement assessment in second year, the researcher invited 60 teachers from three provinces. To disseminate again the guidance in the third year, the researcher invited about 10 – 15 instructors of educational quality assurance offices in seven provinces. Results and conclusions In the first year, the researcher began with developing the learning continuum of learning achievement in the high school subjects of Biology and Bahasa Indonesia, writing the manual for writing the convergent and divergently patterned items, and writing the manual for analyzing data using the Quest Program in Bahasa Indonesia. Later, Biology teachers and Bahasa Indonesia teachers from high schools were invited to use the manuals. As a result, some of the teachers asked for the revision of the two manuals. Most of the inputs are related to the more operational way of interpreting the result of the Quest Program. The use the Quest Program in the try out of the test items made by the teachers of Bahasa Indonesia shows that out of the 15 triangulated test batteries, six tests meet the requirement of the test items of 1-PL model and five test batteries have only <5% items which do not meet the requirements of the test items of 1-PL model. From the 15 test batteries the biology teachers made, nine test have the test items which meet the requirements of the test items of 1-PL model and four test have only <5% items which do not meet the requirements of the test items of 1-PL model. This result shows that all of the teachers have the experience in conducting standardized assessment and the manual for using the Quest Program in Bahasa Indonesia has been able to be used by the teachers in their work. 4

The result of the second year study shows the finding that all participating teachers stated that basically so far all of them had made the matrix and constructed the test items according to the matrix, but there is no teacher who stated that he or she had ever reviewed the competencies in his or her school curriculum. As to the use of the Quest Program, all of the research participants have the same perception that the program has a strength compared to the program they have been using so far. The result of the dissemination in the third year of study in the LPMP’s in seven provinces shows that the two manuals can be understood by the instructors. The follow up of this activity which is in the form of an offer to the instructors to analyze data through home assignments can be done very well after the well-done e-mail correspondence. Educational importance of this study for theory, practice, and/or policy This research support the school to conduct the educational measurement to become accountable in the schools examination. Connection to the themes of the congress Subtheme 2: Exploring the Relationship between Standard-Based Education and Educational Change Topic: Assessment and evaluation in standards-based education Refference: 5



Adams, R.J. & Kho, Seik-Tom. (1996). Acer Quest version 2.1. Camberwell, Victoria: The Australian Council for Educational Research. Allalouf, A. (2007). An NCME instructional module on quality control procedures in the scoring, equating, and reporting of test scores. Educational Measurement, Issues and Practice. Washington: Spring 2007. Vol. 26, Iss. 1; pp. 36-43. Atherton, (2005). http://www.learningandteaching. info/learning/converge.htm. Bambang Subali. (2009). Pengukuran keterampilan proses sains pola divergen dalam mata pelajaran biologi SMA di provinsi DIY dan Jawa Tengah. Disertasi tidak diterbitkan. Yogyakarta: Program Pascasarjana UNY Edward, J.R. & Bagozzi, R.P. (2000). On the nature and direction of relationship constructs and measurement. Psychological Methods. 2000. Vol. 5. No. 2; pp.155-174. Gorin, J.S. (2006). Test Design with cognition in mind. Educational Measurement, Issues and Practice. Washington: Winter 2006. Vol. 25, Iss. 4; pp.21-35. Hargreaves, A., Earl, L., & Schmidt, M. (2002). Perspectives on alternative assessment reform. American Educational Research Journal, Spring 2002, Vol.39, No. 1, pp.69-95. Jehlen, A. (2007). Testing how the sausage is made. NEA Today. Washington: Apr 2007. Vol. 25, Iss. 7; pp.29-34. Keeves & Alagumalai. (1999). New Approach to measurement. Dalam: Masters, G.N. & Keeves, J.P. (eds.). Advances in Measurement in Educational Research and Assessment (pp.23-42). Amsterdam: Pergamon, An imprint of Elsevier Science. Roid, G.H. & Haladyna, Th.M. (1982). A technology for test-item writing. Orlando: Academic Press, Inc. The Ministry of National Education Regulation No. 20. (2007). The educational assessment standard for basic education and high education. 6

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