African Imperialism Scramble for Africa

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African Imperialism
Scramble for Africa
In the 1870s the _________________ began to trade with Africans in the Congo.

Fearing they would miss out on various ________________________, the other European nations _____________ to establish their presence on the continent.

Berlin Conference

In 1884, to avoid ______________ amongst themselves, European leaders met at the Berlin Conference to set up rules for _______________________ Africa. No ___________________ were invited.

The European powers agreed that before they could claim territory they would have to set up an _______________. Whoever was the ____________ to build the outpost gained that area of land.

Southern Africa

The Boers

In the mid-1600s, Dutch farmers known as ____________ settled in southern Africa in Cape Colony. The Boers built __________________________ as a supply station.

In the 1700s, the Dutch herders and ivory hunters began to move ___________. The _________________ then acquired Cape Colony in the early 1800s.

The Anglo-Boer War

In the late 1800s, the discovery of ____________ and ____________________ in the northern Boer territory set off the Anglo-Boer war.

The war was from 1899-1902 and involved bitter ___________ fighting. The ______________ won, but at a great cost.

The Zulus

In the early 1800s in southern Africa, an African leader named _____________ conquered and united tribes to form the ____________ nation.

The Zulus were skilled and organized _________________. Shaka used his power and fought against European ______ traders and ivory hunters.

The Zulus also fought the _____________ as they migrated _______________ from Cape Colony.

The Anglo-Zulu War

The Zulus came into conflict with the ________________ as well. In 1879 the Zulus wiped out a British force at the battle of ________________________.

However, it was not long before the superior ___________ of the British overtook the Zulus at the battle of ____________.

European Territory

In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted ___________________.

Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races.
Britain’s claims in Africa were _______________ in size only to France, but included heavily populated areas with greater natural __________________.
Britain controlled ______________ because of its strategic location.
France was very powerful in _____________ Africa, and later spread into West and Central Africa. The territory France controlled was as large as the United States.
The newly formed __________________ empire had to fight many battles against African natives to take lands in the southern half of Africa.
Germany would ___________ its colonial territories after its loss in World War I.
The Italians crossed the Mediterranean and conquered __________. They then took Somaliland in the horn of Africa, but were beaten badly by the _________.
King Leopold and other wealthy Belgians exploited the riches of the _________, and brutalized the natives. Many Africans were enslaved, beaten, and killed.
Although the leaders of the old imperialism, the African claims of the _________ and __________________ were minimal.

Liberia and Ethiopia

Independent Africans

After the slave trade was outlawed, __________________ in the United States promoted the idea of returning freed slaves to Africa.

In the early 1800s, President Monroe helped free slaves settle in __________. The former slaves named the capital city ________________ in his honor.

The Ethiopians kept their freedom through a successful military resistance. Emperor Menelik II ________________________ the army, along with roads, bridges, and schools.
When the Italians invaded they were ____________________ so badly by Menelik that no other Europeans tried to take Ethiopia.

Effects of Imperialism

Positive Results

Negative Results

1. Unified national states created

1. Encouraged tribal wars by creating artificial borders

2. Improved medical care, sanitation, and nutrition

2. Created population explosion  famine

3. Increased agricultural production

3. Produced cash crops needed by Europeans, and not food for Africans

4. Improved transportation and communication facilities

4. Exploited natural resources: minerals, lumber, rubber, human rights

5. Expanded education opportunities

5. Downgraded traditional African culture  westernization

European Imperialism by 1914





Home Area (square miles)





Home Population (millions)





Global Colonial Area (mil. sq. miles)





Global Colonial Population (millions)






Percentage Colonized









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