Ancient Greece: The Land, the Polis, the Achievements
Global History and Geography I Name: _____________________________
E. Napp Date: _____________________________
“Greece is a peninsula and islands in southern Europe. The Aegean, Mediterranean, Ionian Seas surround Greece. Many islands are part of Greece. Greece is mountainous. There are many mountains in Greece. Mount Olympus is significant mountain. The ancient Greeks thought that Mount Olympus was the home of the gods. The ancient Greeks believed in many gods. They also believed that Zeus was the king of all the gods.”
Multiple-Choice Questions: What effect did the geography of ancient Greecehave on its early development?
(1) The mountainous terrain led to the creation of independent city-states.
(2) A lack of natural seaports limited communication.
(3) An inland location hindered trade and colonization.
(4) Abundant natural resources encouraged self-sufficiency. One effect of rugged, mountainous geography on the civilization of ancient Greece was the development of
The Polis was an ancient Greek city-state. It originated from the natural divisions of the country by mountains and the sea. The polis centered on one town, usually walled, but included the surrounding countryside.
What was the Greek Polis? ___________________________________________________
Athens was the most famous of all the city-states of ancient Greece.
It was the birthplace of democracy and home to great philosophers like Plato and Socrates.
It was also home to historians, scientists, mathematicians, and other great thinkers.
Athens was famous for its giant fleet or ships, which they used to help defeat the Persians.
A great rivalry with another city-state, Sparta led to the Peloponnesian War. This war eventually ended in a victory for Sparta.
Sparta- had the strongest military of all ancient Greek city-states.
The focus of this city-state was constantly on war.
Boys were expected to be trained as soldiers, while girls were expected to grow up and bear children who grew up to be soldiers.
To make sure that the army got as many Spartan soldiers as it needed, Sparta depended on slaves from nearby settlement to do their manual labor.
When the Greeks were at war with Persia, many people turned to the Spartans to ensure their protection.
1. What were two important Greek city-states?
a) _____________________ b) _____________________ 2. What was the Greek word for city-state? ____________________ 3. Athens was the birthplace of this important idea… ______________________ 4. Who were two famous philosophers from Athens?
a) __________________, b) __________________ 5. Who won the Peloponnesian War? _____________________ 6. What were the Spartans famous for? ___________________________________________ 7. What were boy in Sparta expected to be when they grew up? ______________________________ 8. Who did the Spartans depend on to complete their manual labor? _____________________
The Parthenon was a temple of Athena built on top of the highest hill in Athens.
The goddess, Athena, was the protectress of Athens. They even named the city after her.
The Parthenon is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece.
The ancient Greeks invented columns.
The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy, and is one of the world's greatest cultural monuments.
Today Greece’s government spends a lot of time and money protecting and restoring the Parthenon to keep it looking magnificent.
1. What was the Parthenon? ____________________________
2. Where is the Parthenon located? ____________________________
3. What surrounds the Parthenon on all sides? ____________________________
4. What famous building in the United States has a similar feature? ____________________________
5. Who was the patron goddess of the city? ____________________________
A Matching Exercise:
They were the slaves of Sparta. They farmed.
Only free men born in Athens voted. Women, slaves, and foreigners could not vote.
This beautiful building is known for its columns.
Democracy in Athens
It was a militaristic city-state in Ancient Greece.
Its mountainous terrain separated cities. Seas were used for trade.
Word Bank: Polis, Olympics, Helots, Sparta, Athens, Persian, Peloponnesian, Mountains, Seas, Parthenon, Socrates, Women
An Introduction to Greek Mythology A long time ago, when the world was much younger than it is now, people told and believed a great many wonderful stories about incredible thing which neither you nor I have ever seen. They often talked about a god called Zeus, who was king of the sky and the earth; and they said that he sat most of the time amongst the clouds on the top of a very high mountain where he could look down and see everything that was going on in the earth beneath. He liked to ride on the storm-clouds and hurl burning thunderbolts right and left among the trees and rocks, and he was so very, very mighty that when he nodded, the earth quaked, the mountains trembled and smoked, the sky grew black, and the sun hid his face.
Who was Zeus? ________________________________________________________________________
What did Zeus like to do? ________________________________________________________________________
Zeus had two brothers, both of them terrible and great, but not nearly as great as Zeus himself. The name of one of them was Poseidon, and he was the king of the sea. He had a glittering, golden palace far down in the deep sea-caves where the fishes live and the red coral grows, and whenever he was angry the waves would raise mountain high, and the storm-winds would howl fearfully, and the sea would try to break over the land. The other brother was a sad, pale-faced being, whose kingdom was underneath the earth, where the sun never shone and where there was darkness and weeping and sorrow all the time. His name was Hades, and his country was called the Lower World, or the Land of Shadows. Men said that whenever any one died, Hades would send his messenger to carry him down into his cheerless kingdom; and for that reason they never spoke well of Hades, but were scared of him and thought of him as the enemy of life.
What would Poseidon do when he was angry? ________________________________________________________________________
Who was Hades? ________________________________________________________________________
Why were the people scared of him? ________________________________________________________________________
A great number of other gods lived with Zeus amid the clouds on the mountain top - so many that I can name only a few. There was Aphrodite, the queen of love and beauty, who was fairer by far than any woman that you or I have ever seen. There was Athena, the queen of the air, who gave people wisdom and taught them how to do many useful things. There was Hera, the queen of earth and sky, who sat at the right hand of Zeus and gave him all kinds of advice.
Who was Aphrodite? ________________________________________________________________________
What did Athena give the people? ________________________________________________________________________
There was Ares, the great warrior, who delighted in battle. There was Hermes, the swift messenger, who had wings on his cap and shoes, and who flew from place to place like the summer clouds when they are driven before the wind. And besides these, there were many others. They could look down and see what humans were doing, and often they were said to leave their lofty homes and wander unknown across the land or over the sea. And of all these mighty folk, Zeus was by far the mightiest.
What could the gods do? _______________________________________________________________________