1 Which of the following is a correct statement about the Gilded Age?
A. The average real wages of blue-collar workers declined.
B. The average number of hours people worked increased.
C. Prices of farm products rose sharply.
D. Business activity expanded and contracted frequently.
E. The federal debt from the Civil War required heavy federal taxes.
2 The Homestead Act of 1862 failed because
A. it charged too much for government land
B. the land allotments were insufficient for farming arid land
C. it did not adequately convert the Native Americans to farmers
D. gold was discovered on land set aside for farming
E. too few settlers were willing to migrate west
3 All of the following are true of railroad expansion in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT that it
A. opened new territories to commercial agriculture
B. accelerated the growth of some older cities and created new taxes.
C. was financed by private corporations without government assistance.
D. led to new managerial forms and techniques.
E. was often capitalized beyond what was needed.
4 One of the major effects of the Industrial Revolution of the late nineteenth century in the United States was
A. An increased emphasis on worker health and safety issues
B. An increased emphasis on speed rather than quality of work
C. An increased emphasis on high-quality, error free work
D. An increase in the number of small industrial facilities, which could operate more efficiently than larger, more costly industrial plants
E. A decrease in worker productivity as a result of continuous clashes between unions and management.
5 Which of the following statements best describes the clothing industry in the late nineteenth century?
A. Because of the emphasis on domesticity, clothing manufacture became primarily a home industry.
B. The discovery of new fabrics such as nylon and polyester led to more comfortable and functional clothing.
C. The United States began to import increasing quantities of clothing, sending American industries into a depression.
D. Styles became increasingly ornate and clothing became much more expensive.
E. The sewing machine made mass manufacturing affordable.
6 The term "robber barons" refers to
A. wealthy landowners in the antebellum South
B. late nineteenth century industrialists
C. early nineteenth century Federalists
D. early twentieth century Populists
E. late eighteenth century British mercantilists.
7 Government subsidies for the building of transcontinental railroads during the nineteenth century mainly took the form of
A. Large cash payments based on the mileage of track built
B. A one-time blanket appropriation for the building of each separate transcontinental line
C. Generous land grants along the railroad’s right-of-way
D. The option of drawing supplies and materials from government depots
E. The provision of large amounts of convict labor at no charge to the railroad company.
8 The establishment of transcontinental rail lines and the construction of America's massive rail network had all of the following effects EXCEPT
A. they led to the rapid industrialization of the Old South following the Civil War
B. they allowed for rapid distribution of goods throughout the country
C. their building spurred a series of important technical advances
D. they made the country smaller in the sense that they dramatically reduced the time needed to traverse the continent.
E. they resulted in the establishment of standardized time zones throughout the country.
9 The horizontal integration of American industry (i.e. one firm acquiring control of other firms that produce the same product) that occurred at the end of the nineteenth century was primarily a response to
A. economic competition
B. high tariffs
C. powerful labor unions
D. federal monetary policy
E. federal regulation of business
10 The use of alternating current to allow transmission of electric power over long distances was perfected by
A. Thomas Edison
B. George Westinghouse
C. J.P. Morgan
D. John D. Rockefeller
E. Andrew Carnegie
11 Which of the following were the most persistent problem facing municipalities in the United States throughout the last quarter of the nineteenth century?
A. Decreasing municipal tax bases.
B. Inadequate water and sewer systems
C. Deteriorating transportation systems
D. A decline in the number of manufacturing jobs.
E. Gang violence among unemployed youths.
12 Between 1860 and 1910, the area of the United States which underwent the largest percentage increase in population was
A. the Northeast
B. the Old South
C. the Mid-Atlantic
D. the Far West
E. the Great Plains
13 The growth of most American cities in 1880 was determined primarily by
A. urban planning by local officials
B. public needs
C. federal regulations
D. British models of ideal urban growth patterns
E. profit motives
14 Which of the following was primarily responsible for the declining death rate in American cities at the end of the nineteenth century?
A. Fewer poor people moved to the cities in the late nineteenth century.
B. Cities began to provide free medical care to those who needed it
C. Doctors began to provide free medical care to poor people
D. Better transportation enabled more people to seek medical care.
E. Cities built sewers and supplied purified water.
15 The "Gospel of Wealth" referred to the idea that
A. excess wealth would prevent those who possessed it from going to heaven. Therefore, the only way they could get to heaven was to give away their wealth to charities and philanthropic causes.
B. real wealth comes from the love of those around you not from money
C. money talks
D. being wealthy wasn't sinful so long as you didn't hurt other people in the process of gathering that wealth.
E. rich people obtained their wealth because God gave it to them.
16 "This, then, is held to be the duty of the man of wealth: to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer and strictly bound as a matter of duty to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community--the man of wealth thus becoming the mere agent and trustee for his poorer brethren."
These sentiments are most characteristic of
C. the Gospel of Wealth
D. the Social Gospel
E. Social Darwinism
17 Which of the following was used as “scientific evidence” by wealthy American industrialists in the latter half of the nineteenth century to prove that they deserved the wealth they had accumulated?
A. Broca’s research into the functioning of various centers of the human brain
B. Darwin’s theory of natural selection
C. Freud’s theories of human psychology
D. The research of Louis Pasteur on biological processes
E. Karl Marx’s research on the economic development of societies
18 How did the American government affect industrial growth?
A. It followed a policy of laissez faire
B. It closely regulated the pace of the growth
C. It provided incentives for growth
D. It balanced agrarian and industrial demands
E. It increased taxes on industry
19 Which of the following was true of the American labor movement in the late nineteenth century?
A. It was controlled by immigrant socialists and anarchists.
B. It was confined to factory workers.
C. It was protected from employer harassment by federal law and policy.
D. It was allied with the Democratic Party.
E. It was involved in a number of violent strikes.
20 Which of the following labor organizations endorsed the philosophy of “bread and butter” unionism by concentrating on demands for higher wages, shorter hours, and improved working conditions?
A. The Knights of Labor
B. The Molly Maguire’s
C. The American Federation of Labor
D. The Industrial Workers of the World
E. The National Labor Union.
21 The American Federation of Labor under the leadership of Samuel Gompers organized
A. skilled workers in craft unions in order to achieve economic gains
B. all industrial and agricultural workers in "one big union"
C. unskilled workers along industrial lines
D workers and intellectuals into a lobar party for political actions
E. workers into a fraternal organization to provide unemployment and old-age benefits
22 The Haymarket Incident involved
A. A riot between striking workers and police.
B. A scandal involving corruption within the Grant administration.
C. Allegations of corruption on the part of Republican presidential candidate James G. Blaine.
D. A disastrous fire that pointed out the hazardous working conditions in some factories.
E. An early challenge to the authority of states to regulate the railroad industry.
23 The only dominant, broad based labor union in the United States from 1870 to 1890 was the
A. National Labor Union
B. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
C. American Federation of Labor (AFL)
D. Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO)
E. Knights of Labor
24 How did the U.S. government initially react toward movements to establish trade unions in business and factories in the latter half of the nineteenth century?
A. It strongly supported the trade union movement and forced businesses to allow the development of unions
B. It mildly supported the development of trade unions but took no active measures to help establish unions until business abuses of workers became undeniable
C. It stayed out of business affairs, supporting neither businesses nor unions, unless one side or the other broke the law
D. It supported the establishment of unions in all businesses except defense industries and jobs which had civil service organization
E. It actively supported business efforts to destroy unions before they could effectively establish themselves
25 The anti-combination laws passed by numerous states in the late 1880s were a response to which of the following organizational innovations?
A. The creation and growth of international cartels.
B. The development of industry-wide trade associations.
C. The joining of skilled and unskilled workers in industrial unions.
D. The formation of agricultural marketing cooperatives.
E. The use of stockholding trusts to create business oligopolies.
26 During the last decade of the nineteenth century, the primary use of the Sherman Antitrust Act was to
A. break up business monopolies
B. regulate interstate railroads
C. protect American industry from foreign competition
D. curb labor unions
E. promote economic expansion
27 Which of the following is true of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890?
A. It had little immediate impact on the regulation of large corporations
B. It quickly limited the number of mergers taking place
C. It led to federal control of the railroads
D. It forced businesses to adopt pooling agreements.
E. It ended effective cooperation between businesses and the federal government.
28 The development of a national railway system
A. provided needed jobs for an overabundant labor supply
B. had little effect on the economic changes of the late 19th century
C. led to an integrated national economic system
D. had little help from the political system
E. was not completed until the early twentieth century
29 All of the following statements are true of Henry George EXCEPT
A. He argued that increasing prosperity was causing increasing poverty.
B. He believed government should take a laissez faire philosophy
C. He asserted that economic inequality was the result of private ownership of land
D. He favored a single tax on the “Internal increment” of land.
E. He desired large-scale public works.
30 Henry George’s most famous book was
A. Looking Backward
B. Progress and Poverty
C. The Jungle
D. The Shame of the Cities
E. Sister Carrie
31 Edward Bellamy’s book Looking Backward
A. A fictional exposé of the meatpacking industry
B. A detailed program for social reform
C. The catalyst of the social gospel movement
D. A denunciation of machine politics in big city government
E. A futuristic utopian fantasy.
32 A member of the Social Gospel movement would probably
A. Consider such social sins as alcohol abuse and sexual permissiveness as society’s most serious problems
B. Assert that the prior were themselves at fault for their circumstances
C. Maintain that abuses and social degradation resulted solely from a lack of willpower on the part of those who committed them
D. Hold that religion is an entirely individualistic matter
E. Argue that Christians should work to reorganize the industrial system and bring about international peace.
33 Mark Twain’s classic stories, such as Tom Sawyer
and Huckleberry Finn
, were primary examples of the _______ trend in turn of the century American literature
34 Which of the following best describes the Plains Indians?
A. sedentary and pacific
B. fisherman and farmers
C. nomadic and warlike
D. human sacrifice and temples
E. builders of great cities
35 Jane Addams was a turn-of-the-century activist most well-known for her work in
A. settlement houses
B. the temperance movement
C. nursing home care for war veterans
D. the suffrage movement
E. children's literature
36 Louis Sullivan’s pupil who opposed the construction of skyscrapers and favored a form of architecture in harmony with natural surroundings was
A. George Gray Barnard
B. Virgil Thompson
C. Victor Herbert
D. Lorado Taft
E. Frank Lloyd Wright
37 The initial government policy toward the Plains tribes was:
A. to exterminate them
B. to define boundaries for each tribe and sign treaties with them
C. to give each Native Americans “40 acres and a mule” for farming
D. to provoke intertribal warfare
E. to ignore them and hope they would eventually die out
38 The decline of "open range" ranching in the West resulted primarily from
A. low beef prices which made "open range" ranching unprofitable
B. government policies giving priority use of the range to sheep herders, thus denying cattlemen equal access to the open range.
C. overgrazing and intense competition for use of the land between ranchers and farmers
D. the increased use of sharecropping techniques by cattle ranchers which lessened their need for open range policies.
E. the high cost of replacing cattle which constantly wandered off in the open range
39 The most important factor in the destruction of the Plains Indians’ societies by whites in the late nineteenth century was
A. The use of modern weapons by white soldiers and cavalrymen
B. The destruction of the buffalo herds by whites
C. The introduction of alcohol by whites to Indian society
D. The encroachment of railroads onto Indian lands
E. The use of reservations by whites to limit the movements of Indians
40 Which of the following expresses the first policy taken by the federal government toward the Indians of the Great Plains?
A. The Indians should be confined to two large reservations, one north of the Platte River and the other south of it
B. Since the Great Plains are a desert anyway, the Indians may be allowed to keep the entire area
C. Indians should be given individual parcels of land by the government rather than holding land communally as tribes
D. The Indians are subhuman and ought to be exterminated
E. The Indians should be induced to accept permanent residence on a number of small reservations.
41 Which of the following constitutes a significant change in the treatment of Native Americans (Indians) during the last half of the nineteenth century?
A. The beginnings of negotiation with individual tribes
B. The start of a removal policy
C. The abandonment of the reservation system
D. The admission of all Native Americans (Indians) to the full rights of United States citizenship
E. The division of the tribal lands among individual members.
42 The second Sioux War (1875-1876), which saw the defeat of Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
, was caused by all of the following EXCEPT
A. the extension of the route of the Northern Pacific Railroad
B. the gold rush in the Black Hills
C. a concentrated effort on the part of the major Protestant denominations to convert the Sioux to Christianity
D. corruption within the Department of the Interior
E. overland migration of settlers to the Pacific Northwest
43 Helen Hunt Jackson’s book entitled A Century of Dishonor
A. American imperialism and its effects on the middle class
B. Discriminatory practices employed by the United States government against African-Americans.
C. The atrocities of the Spanish-American War
D. The long record of broken treaties and injustices against American Indians.
E. The abuses involving big business trusts in America.
44 Helen Hunt Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor
was significant because it aroused public awareness of the
A. Injustice of having taken land from Mexico in the Southwest
B. Need for reforms in federal land policy
C. Wrongs that the federal government had inflicted on American Indians
D. Hardships endured by Chinese laborers while building the transcontinental railroad.
E. Plight of sharecroppers in the Deep South.
45 The intent of the Dawes Act of 1887 was to
A. Assimilate American Indians into the mainstream of American culture
B. Recognize and preserve tribal cultures of American Indians
C. Legally establish the communal nature of American Indian landholding
D. Restore to American Indians land seized unjustly
E. Remove all American Indians to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma).
46 The “New Immigration” was made up primarily of
A. Europeans who came for economic rather than religious reasons.
B. Europeans who were better off financially than those of the “Old Immigrants.”
C. Persons from Northern and Western Europe.
D. Persons from Southern and Eastern Europe.
E. Persons from Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
47 Which of the following statements is true about immigration to the United States during the last two decades of the nineteenth century?
A. United States immigration laws sharply reduced the number of eligible immigrants.
B. Irish immigration came in larger numbers than earlier in the century.
C. Nativist agitation brought about a decline in immigration.
D. The United States government entered into a "gentleman's agreement" to ban immigration from certain countries.
E. Southern and Eastern Europeans came in larger numbers than earlier in the century.
48 Immigrants coming to America from Eastern and Southern Europe during the late nineteenth century were most likely to
A. Settle in large cities in the Northeast or Midwest.
B. Settle on farms in the upper Midwest
C. Seek to file on homesteads on the Great Plains.
D. Migrate to the South and Southwest.
E. Return to their homelands after only a brief stay in the U.S.
49 Which of the following best accounts for the fact that Slavic immigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s settled principally in Midwestern cities like Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Chicago?
A. The immigrants' inability to speak English was a serious obstacle to securing work on the East Coast.
B. Housing was better and food cheaper in the newer cities of the Midwest
C. Midwestern steel, meatpacking, and other mass production industries offered many unskilled jobs.
D. Immigration authorities subsidized rail fares for westward migrants.
E. Ethnic and religious prejudice was less widespread in the Midwest than in eastern cities.
50 Which of the following regions was most heavily represented among immigrants to the United States during the years from 1865 to 1890?
A. Northern and Western Europe
B. Southern and Eastern Europe
E. Central and South America
51 The Homestead Act did NOT work well in the Far West because:
A. Native Americans destroyed too many farms
B. cattlemen opposed small farmers
C. 160 acres was too small because of the lack of rainfall
D. 640 acres was too large to make a living
E. the best land was on reservations for Native American reservations
52 Between 1890 and 1914, most immigrants to the United States came from
A. Southern and Eastern Europe
B. Northern and Western Europe
C. Latin America
D. Southeast Asia
53 All of the following account for nativist sentiment against the “new immigrants” of the late nineteenth century EXCEPT that the immigrants
A. Practiced different religions
B. Had different languages and cultures
C. Were willing to work for lower wages than were native-born workers
D. Were not familiar with the United States political system
E. Dominated the professions of law, medicine, and engineering.
54 Which of the following groups was the first target of congressional legislation restricting immigration?
A. Northern and Western Europeans
B. Southern and Eastern Europeans
E. Central and South Americans.
55 U.S. presidents between 1876 and 1900 were considered among the weakest in American history. A major reason for this was that
A. None of them served more than one term in office
B. They considered themselves caretakers, not dynamic initiators of new legislation
C. Congress enacted several new laws restricting presidential power during this period.
D. They were the products of machine politics, political followers who were typically incompetent leaders
E. They were limited in their actions by the overwhelming Populist sentiment of their time.
56 The first major industry to attract large numbers of people to the West was:
A. cattle ranching
C. fur trapping
57 The political machines such as Tammany Hall which ran American cities at the turn of the century derived their strongest support from
A. Industrial leaders and business elites
B. Organized religion
C. Wealthy landowners living in rural areas outside the cities
D. Poor immigrants and ethnic communities in the inner city
E. Munchkins from Lilaputty
58 The presidential election in 1876 between Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes
A. Resulted in contested electoral votes being submitted from three Southern states
B. Forced Congress to appoint an Electoral Commission to decide the issue of the contested electoral votes.
C. Was decided by the House of Representatives when neither the Democratic nor Republican candidate received a majority of the electoral vote.
D. Both (A) and (B)
E. Both (A) and (C)
59 William M. Tweed of New York City
A. Headed a “ring” of politicians that cheated New York City of $100,000,000 through fraudulent city contracts and extortion
B. Was an outspoken supporter of fiscal integrity in municipal government
C. Pioneered the regulation of tenement house construction and sanitation
D. Urged the New York state legislature to adopt the governmental reforms advocated by the Progressives
E. Served as Secretary of Interior in President Ulysses Grant’s administrations.
60 The inventor of barbed wire was
A. John Chivington
B. Joseph Glidden
C. Frederick Jackson Turner
D. William F. Cody
E. Joseph McCoy
61 Frederick Jackson Turner was:
A. founder of the National Grange
B. the historian who first developed the frontier thesis
C. the most notorious of the western badmen
D. discoverer of the Comstock Lode
E. a famous wagon train boss
62 Which of the following was NOT a factor in American industrial development?
A. an abundance of natural resources
B. a heavy influx of immigrants
C. new technological innovations
D. industrialization of the South
E. an abundance of labor
63 Which industry was considered the nation’s “first big business?”
64 Which of the following individuals is INCORRECTLY associated with the industry he helped to found?
A. Andrew Carnegie – steel
B. J.P. Morgan – finance
C. Henry Bessemer – railroads
D. John D. Rockefeller – oil
E. William Kelly - steel
65 In which type of organization does a company own all elements from raw materials to finished product?
A. horizontal integration
C. vertical integration
D. corporate management
66 The Homestead Strike:
A. forced management to meet the workers demands
B. was resolved through negotiation and bargaining
C. had little interference from the government
D. emphasized the cost of industrialization
E. was peaceful compared to the Haymarket riot
67 The greatest inventor of late 19th and early 20th century America was:
A. Cyrus Field
B. Thomas Edison
C. Henry Bessemer
D. J.P. Morgan
E. George Westinghouse
68 The two transcontinental railroad lines met at:
A. Sacramento, California
B. Reno, Nevada
C. Promontory, Utah
D. Santa Fe, New Mexico
E. Salt Lake City, Utah
69 As a result of the Plessy v. Ferguson
A. African American education was to be separate but equal to white education
B. integration of schools was to occur with deliberate speed
C. illiteracy among school age children would be eradicated
D. de facto segregation could no longer occur
E. teachers at black schools were paid the same as their counterparts at white schools
70 In the 1880s, the issue of tariffs on imported goods became a major controversy because
A. the free trade policies in effect at that time were allowing underpriced foreign goods to destroy fledgling American industries and virtually eliminate American crop exports to Europe
B. individual states refused to give up their right to enact tariffs on goods brought across state lines from neighboring states.
C. high tariffs were resulting in unnecessarily high prices on manufactured goods, hurting both farmers and consumers while protecting several wealthy manufacturers.
D. Democrats forced the enactment of free trade legislation in the U.S. but European countries responded by raising their tariffs on U.S. manufactured goods, throwing the U.S. economy into a depression.
E. Democrats allowed tariffs to be enacted only on imported farm goods, which protected American farmers but left U.S. manufacturers vulnerable to European tariffs.
71 After 1870, the measure of a nation’s industrial progress was determined by:
A. the production of steel
B. the production of iron
C. the number of railroad lines
D. agricultural output
E. per capita exports
72 The Social Darwinists
A. believed the laws of nature applied to society
B. were active reformers in the late 19th century
C. had enormous influence on American society
D. raised important questions about the conditions of society
E. stressed society’s responsibility to aid the poor
73 The U.S. economy in the late 19th
century was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
A. consolidation of businesses into trusts
B. technological innovations
C. acceptance of unions and collective bargaining
D. growing concentration of wealth
E. control of industries by bankers
74 Why did the Knights of Labor fail?
A. It could not provide effective national leadership
B. It was unable to organize the workers
C. It had no successful strikes
D. It was unable to develop a set of objectives
E. Terence Powderly was imprisoned
75 The most famous of the urban political bosses in the late 19th
A. William Tweed
B. Henry George
C. Jane Addams
D. Dwight L. Moody
E. James McManes
76 The _____________ was established to help provide isolated farmers with social and cultural activities.
A. Knights of Labor
B. Populist Movement
C. National Grange
D. Farmers Alliance
E. Ku Klux Klan
77 Standard Oil was an example of a:
D. holding company
E. vertical integration
78 The leader of the Knights of Labor was
A. Jay Gould
B. Samuel Gompers
C. Terence Powderly
D. John L. Lewis
E. Eugene Debs
79 The great strike of 1877, in which more than fifty people died, involved
A. steel workers
C. railroad workers
D. oil workers
E. textile workers
80 The journalist who exposed How the Other Half Lives
in urban tenements was:
A. John Root
B. James Whitcomb Riley
C. Samuel Lane Loomis
D. James E. Ware
E. Jacob Riis