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AP American History

Unit IX World War I and 1920s Exam


1 In reaction to a perceived insult to the U.S. flag and in order to hasten the downfall of Mexican leader Victoriano Huerta, President Woodrow Wilson

A. Ordered General John J. Pershing to take U.S. troops across the border into northern Mexico

B. Withdrew previously granted U.S. diplomatic recognition of Huerta’s regime.

C. Ordered the occupation of Mexico City by U.S. troops.

D. Ordered U.S. forces to occupy the Mexican port city of Vera Cruz

E. Sent a strong diplomatic protest.
2 In 1914, President Woodrow Wilson sent General John J. Pershing into Mexico with the purpose of ending raids on United States soil and capturing

A. Pancho Villa

B. Porfirio Diaz

C. Francisco Madero

D. Venustiano Carranza

E. Victoriano Huerta

3 The principal foreign policy issue confronting the Wilson administration between the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 and United States involvement in the conflict in 1917 was the

A. future of United States overseas possessions.

B. territorial and political integrity of Poland.

C. freedom of the seas

D. question of Pan-American collective security organization.

E. issue of war debt repayment by the Allies.

4 Which of the following had the greatest effect in moving the United States toward participation in the First World War?

A. The German disregard of treaty obligations in violating Belgian neutrality.

B. Germany’s declaration of its intent to wage unrestricted submarine warfare.

C. A German offer to reward Mexico with U.S. territory should it join Germany in a war against the United States.

D. The beginning of the Russian Revolution

E. The rapidly deteriorating situation of the Allies.

5 In the Arabic Pledge of 1916 Germany promised not to

A. Aid Mexico in any war against the United States

B. Attempt to buy war materials in the United States

C. Use submarines for any purpose but reconnaissance

D. Attempt to break the British blockade

E. Sink passenger ships without warning.

6 The “Zimmerman Papers” were infamous because they

A. Exposed German atrocities against the Jews and other prisoners of war and contributed directly to the U.S. entry into World War I.

B. Exposed a German plot to enlist Mexico into an alliance with Germany in a war against the United States

C. Exposed corruption in the U.S. Justice Department leading to a total reorganization of the department and the formation of the FBI.

D. Exposed a British plot to disguise their warships as American merchant ships, encouraging German submarines to attack any ship flying the American flag, hopefully luring the United States into World War I.

E. Revealed the existence of Communist spies in the highest levels of American government, following World War I, and led to the “Red Scare” in which hundreds of innocent people were victimized in witch hunts trying to weed out Communists.

7 Industrial committees which helped mobilize the country’s war efforts during World War I were

A. Instrumental in preventing corruption and labor dissension from crippling the mobilization campaign.

B. So dominated by greedy businessmen cashing in on the war they were disbanded and replaced by the War Industries Board.

C. The key to an efficient war effort following the collapse of the War Industries Board.

D. Ruled unconstitutional by the conservative Supreme Court and were forced to reorganize as unfunded private consulting groups.

E. Not formed until so late in the war effort that they had little impact other than to streamline the process for the transfer of men and equipment from the United States to France.

8 The primary function of the Food Administration during the First World War was to

A. Keep farm prices high by limiting the amount of food produced on American farms.

B. Insure an adequate supply of food for American needs by arranging for imports from America’s British and French allies.

C. Oversee the production and allocation of foodstuffs to assure adequate supplies for the army and the Allies.

D. Monitor the purity and wholesomeness of all food items shipped to France to feed the American Army there.

E. Create and operate large-scale government-owned farms.

9 The primary function of the war boards during the First World War was to

A. increase cooperation among business, labor, and government.

B. encourage the breakup of monopolies.

C. nationalize the banking industry.

D. limit the influence of social scientists on government policy.

E. minimize the tax burden on the lower classes.

10 During the First World War, the Committee on Public Information issued propaganda to persuade the American people of all the following EXCEPT

A. The United States was fighting for freedom and democracy

B. The United States was fighting against a barbarous nation

C. Buying bonds was important to support he war effort

D. A German invasion of the United States was a possibility

E. Congress should reject the League of Nations.

11 Black Americans during World War I, for the most part,

A. Were treated with dignity in Europe

B. Suffered little discrimination at home

C. Believed integration was becoming a reality in American society

D. Refused to participate in the war effort

E. Endorsed the policy of nonviolent resistance.

12 Many Mexicans migrated to the United States during the First World War because

A. revolution in Mexico had caused social upheaval and dislocation

B. immigration quotas for Europeans went unfilled as a result of the war.

C. the war in Europe had disrupted the Mexican economy

D. American Progressives generally held liberal views on the issue of racial discrimination

E. the United States government recruited Mexican workers to accelerate the settlement of the Southwest.

13 Which of the following is a correct statement about the United States at the close of the First World War?

A. It joined the League of Nations

B. It emerged as the world's leading creditor nation.

C. It accorded diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union

D. It repealed the prohibition amendment to the Constitution

E. It received large reparations payments from Germany

14 What proposal did President Woodrow Wilson make in 1918 that convinced the Germans they would be treated fairly if they surrendered?

A. The Twenty-One demands

B. The Fourteen Points

C. The Versailles Proposals

D. The Belfast Declaration

E. The “New Freedom” policy

15 All of the following were part of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points EXCEPT

A. Self-determination

B. Open diplomacy

C. Freedom of the seas

D. A league of Nations

E. A restoration of the balance of power.

16 In the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Versailles, Woodrow Wilson was willing to sacrifice other portions of his Fourteen Points in order to gain Allied approval of

A. A ban on secret diplomacy

B. A strengthening of the Austrian Empire in order to restore the balance of power

C. A union of Germany and Austria in accordance with the right of self-determination of peoples

D. New rules of blockade that would provide more complete freedom of the seas

E. A League of Nations

17 What was the reaction in the U.S. Senate to the terms of the 1918 Treaty of Versailles?

A. The Senate overwhelmingly supported the major provisions of the treaty and only demanded a few minor adjustments before ratifying it

B. The Senate felt that in many ways the treaty was too harsh on Germany, but that overall it was a good plan for postwar peace

C. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations, but felt that the treaty was too important to be destroyed by partisan politics. As a result, the Senate narrowly passed the ratification measure making the treaty official.

D. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and had trouble with several treaty articles. As a result, the Senate didn’t ratify the treaty until the second time Wilson sent it to them. Even then, the Senate refused to ratify the provisions calling for U.S. membership in a League of Nations

E. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and for the treaty that the peace conference produced. Wilson refused to compromise on various treaty provisions and the Senate rejected the treaty both times it was sent to them.

18 Woodrow Wilson hardened Senate opposition to the Trreaty of Versailles by his refusal to compromise on the issue of

A. Reparations limited to the amount Germany could afford to pay

B. Plebiscites to determine the new borders of Germany

C. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia

D. Protectorate status for African colonies seized from Germany

E. The unconditional adherence of the United States to the charter of the League of Nations.

19 The rejection of the Versailles Treaty by the United States Senate signaled what future for American foreign policy?

A. The United States retreated into isolationism and backed away from a world leadership role.

B. The United States rejected playing a secondary role to the European powers and took a more aggressive role in dominating world politics.

C. The United States began taking an active part in promoting internationalism through its leadership in the League of Nations.

D. The United States formed a defensive alliance with Britain and France to protect against any further abuses by the Germans.

E. The United States launched an aggressive campaign to force all the European powers to relinquish their colonial holdings to American control and eventual independence.

20 President Woodrow Wilson’s idealism led to

A. International acceptance of the Fourteen Points

B. Conflicts with European leaders

C. The creation of the United Nations

D. The Treaty of Versailles

E. Conciliation between France, Great Britain, and Germany.

21 All of the following were factors in the failure of the United States to join the League of Nations after the First World War EXCEPT

A. fear of further involvement in foreign wars

B. personal and political rivalries between President Woodrow Wilson and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.

C. President Woodrow Wilson's illness.

D. a group of United States senators who opposed American participation on any terms.

E. the influence of the Soviet Union within the League.

22 The Palmer Raids of 1919 were conducted against

A. suspected communists and anarchists

B. Republicans bitterly opposed to the Wilson administration

C. alleged financial backers of Marcus Garvey

D. labor organizers for the American Federation of Labor.

E. White racist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan.

23 Which of the following statements about Ameircan cities between 1890 and 1930 is correct?

A. Area of residence increasingly became an indicator of social class

B. Poor people moved to the outskirts of cities

C. Industries shifted from the cities to the suburbs

D. Widespread racial integration of communities occurred

E. Neighborhoods losts their ethnic identification.

24 The case of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Venzetti in the 1920s illustrated

A. America’s “Return to Normalcy”

B. The lack of compassion toward immigrants

C. The treatment of Indians

D. The reckless vigilante spirit that existed in the Southern states

E. The extent of the “Red Scare”

25 The case of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Venzetti in the 1920s illustrated

A. America’s “Return to Normalcy”

B. The lack of compassion toward immigrants

C. The treatment of Indians

D. The reckless vigilante spirit that existed in the Southern states

E. The extent of the “Red Scare”

26 Which of the following accurately describes the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s?

A. Its activities were limited to the South.

B. It favored immigration restriction as well as White supremacy.

C. It repudiated fundamentalist Protestantism.

D. Many of its members were elected to Congress.

E. It appeared for the first time during this decade.

27 D. W. Griffith’s epic film The Birth of a Nation (1915) became controversial because of its

A. portrayal of the Sons of Liberty as a radical mob

B. celebration of American freedoms at a time of protest against radical groups

C. Celebration of America’s cultural diversity

D. Depiction of Ku Klux Klan activities as heroic and commendable

E. Sympathetic treatment of Germany in the years before the First World War.

28 Which of the following celebrated trials best illustrates the cultural conflict in the 1920s between fundamentalism and modernism?

A. The Scottsboro trial

B. The Leopold-Loeb Trial

C. The John T. Scopes Trial

D. The Albert B. Fall trial.

E. The Sacco-Vanzetti Trial.

29 "Now, a word about the whole Bible. I believe it is a master stroke of Satan to get us to doubt any portion of the Bible. If he can get us to doubt just one thing in that book, he has accomplished a great point, and it is going to be the overthrow of many a man's and woman's faith."
The passage above, from the nineteenth century, expresses the viewpoint of the proponents of

A. fundamentalism

B. deism

C the higher criticism

D the Social Gospel

E. the Gospel of Wealth.

30 A number of changes took place in the intellectual life of college-educated Americans between about 1880 and 1930. Which of the following changes was LEAST characteristic of this group in this period?

A. Growth in influence of religious fundamentalism

B. Rise of pluralistic and relativistic world views

C. Accelerated professionalization of intellectual roles

D. Expanded popularity of nonrational explanations for human behavior

E. Increased attention to the methods and outlook of the sciences

31 The Scopes Trial had the effect of

A. Eliminating state restrictions on the teaching of evolution in schools.

B. Highlighting the intolerance of religious fundamentalism and its conflict with contemporary science and secularism

C. Emphasizing the importance of the First Amendment when a person’s ideas are not popular among the majority of Americans.

D. Pointing out the necessity of preventing the state from interfering in religious matters.

E. Reestablishing the predominance of fundamentalist religious ideas over secular scientific pronouncements which had dominated American thought throughout the early 1920s.

32 The 1925 Scopes Trial in Dayton, Tennessee

A. Concerned the struggle to tax church property in Tennessee

B. Was an effort by the state of Tennessee to ban the use of snakes in religious services

C. Focused on the efforts of the Protestant fundamentalists to impose prohibition on the state

D. Demonstrated the rural fundamentalist belief that the theory of evolution was a subversive attempt to destroy the meaning of the Bible.

E. Supported efforts of the Ku Klux Klan to prevent southern European immigrants from settling in the state.

33 In the late nineteenth-century controversy over the social and religious implication of Darwinian theory, all of the following popular beliefs were felt to be threatened by Darwin EXCEPT the

A. theological doctrine of "design"

B. accuracy of the Old Testament.

C. reality of change in the world.

D. uniqueness of man in nature.

E. concept of the deserving poor.

34 All of the following help to explain the presence of large numbers of expatriate American intellectuals in Europe during the 1920s EXCEPT the

A. repressive effects of Prohibition and the resurgence of conservatism in the United States.

B. attraction of European cities, especially Paris, as centers of innovation and creativity.

C. tradition among American writers of taking up temporary residence in Europe.

D. claims of young American writers and critics that American culture was materialistic and hostile to the development of their art.

E European tradition of wealthy patrons supporting struggling American artists and writers.

35 American writers of the 1930s have often been called the "lost generation" because they

A. found it difficult to get their work published

B. were disillusioned with the course of American life.

C. failed to achieve fame in their lifetimes.

D. were politically radical in a conservative era.

E. preferred to write for a European rather than an American audience.

36 The “Lost Generation” refers to

A. Those young adults whose lives and families were devastated by the Great Depression of the 1930s

B. The millions of young men killed in the senseless trench warfare of World War I

C. Young writers disillusioned by the materialism, decadence, and conformity dominating 1920s America.

D. The thousands of workers killed or injured in efforts to form and promote worker safety in turn-of-the-century America

E. The generation of young Americans caught up in the turmoil of war protests and moral collapse during the 1960s

37 Which of the following best characterizes the writers associated with the literary flowering of the 1920's, such as Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald?

A. Sympathy for Protestant fundamentalism.

B. Nostalgia for he “good old days”

C. Commitment to the casue of racial equality

D. Advocacy of cultural isolationism

E. Criticism of middle-class conformity and materialism.

38 Which of the following words best describes the spirit of American intellectuals in the late 1920s?

A. Alienation

B. Complacency

C. Romanticism

D. Patriotism

E. Pietism

39 H.L. Mencken, Ernest Hemingway, and F. Scott Fitzgerald were all

A. Classical musicians of the 1920s

B. American expatriates living in Paris during the 1920s

C. American painters of the 1920s

D. American writers of the 1920s

E. Prominent actors in the silent movies of the 1920s

40 Sinclair Lewis generally depicted small-town America as

A. An island of sincerity amid the cynicism of American life

B. The home of such traditional virtues as honesty, hard work, and wholesomeness

C. Merely a smaller-scale version of big-city life

D. Dreary, prejudiced, and vulgar

E. Open and accepting but naive and easily taken in

41 Georgia O’Keefe, Thomas Hart Benton, and Edward Hopper were all

A. American painters of the 1920s

B. Pioneers in the field of a distinctly American music

C. Known for their abstract paintings of flowers and other objects

D. Pioneers in the building of skyscrapers

E. American literary figures of the first decade of the twentieth century.

42 Marcus Garvey, leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, argued for

A. Equal rights

B. A return to Africa

C. Racial desegregation

D. Violence in the cities

E. More representation in Congress for Washington D.C.

43 Which of the following had integration rather than Balck separatism as a goal?

A. W. E. B. DuBois and the Niagara Movement

B. Marcus Garvey and the Back-to-Africa movement

C. Elijah Muhammad and the Black Muslim movement

D. Stokely Carmichael and the Black Power movement

E. Huey Newton and the Black Panther movement.

44 Which of the following accurately describe(s) the Harlem Renaissance?

I It flourished during the 1920s

II It was centered among Blacks in the South

III It consisted of a period of dramatic Black intellectual and artistic creativity.

IV It brought about significant gains in civil rights.
A. I only

B. I and III only

C. II and IV only

D. I, II, and IV only

E. I, III, and IV only.
45 Which of the following best describes the Harlem Renaissance?

A. The rehabilitation of a decaying urban area

B. An outpouring of Black artistic and literary crseativity

C. The beginning of the NAACP

D. The most famous art show of the early twentieth century

E. The establishment of motion picture palaces.

46 The music most popular and most characteristic of American culture in the 1920s was

A. An American modification of the traditional classical European style

B. An early form of rock ‘n roll

C. Based on old Negro spirituals

D. Classically romantic

E. Jazz
47 The combination of European musical influences with African musical influences came together in 1890s New Orleans to form a new distinctly American musical style called

A. Gospel

B. Jazz

C. Folk

D. Country

E. Blues
48 W.C. Handy, Joe “King” Oliver, and “Jelly Roll” Morton were known for their accomplishments in

A. Jazz

B. Baseball

C. The civil rights movement

D. Boxing

E. Football

49 Factors helping to promote mass production and marketing in the 1920s included all of the following EXCEPT

A. The prevalence of large chains of retail stores

B. More individualistic, less bureaucratic structure of management within large corporations

C. The extension of consumer credit through installment buying

D. The development of assembly line techniques

E. Aggressive advertising in mass media.

50 The assembly-line production of Henry Ford’s Model T automobile resulted in which of the following by the end of the 1920s?

A. A sharp decrease in railroad passenger traffic

B. The federal goverenment’s abandonment of research on air travel

C. The development of a large international market for American automobiles

D. Widespread purchsoe of authomobiles by average American families.

E. Construction of the federal interstate highway system

51 All of the following were characteristic of the 1920s EXCEPT

A. Voting rights for women

B. Prohibition and bootlegging

C. Consumerism and easy credit

D. Progressivist reform and union growth

E. Ku Klux Klan power and popularity

52 The scandal in 1919 that affected the integrity of major league baseball was

A. “The Red Sox Scam”

B. “The Yankee Giveaway”

C. “The Philadelphia Folly”

D. “The Red Stockings Cash Deal”

E. “The Black Sox Scandal”

53 Charles Lindbergh became a national hero for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

A. He was seen as a modest, handsome daredevil.

B. He made a solo flight across the Atlantic

C. He advocated American leadership in world affairs.

D. He embodied American traditional values in the new industrialized society.

E. His success incorporated elements of technology and individualism.

54 By “normalcy,” President Warren G. Harding meant not only peace after the recent war but also.

A. A renewal of the Progressivist reform movement.

B. A return to an emphasis on domestic reform in place of Wilson’s foreign adventures.

C. An end to idealistic crusades and efforts at large-scale reform.

D. The establishment of new norms of international behavior

E. U.S. membership in the newly formed League of Nations.

55 Warren G. Harding may best be characterized as

A. A personally corrupt and dishonest man

B. Unsuccessful in foreign policy but highly successful in domestic affairs.

C. Having made a number of misjudgements in the men he appointed and with whom he associated.

D. Probably more dedicated to Progressive reform than either Wilson or Roosevelt had been.

E. Quiet and taciturn.

56 President Warren G. Harding’s administration could best be compared to that of

A. Abraham Lincoln

B. James Madison

C. Ulysses Grant

D. James Buchanan

E. John Tyler

57 Which of the following best describes the administrations of Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge?

A. “The Trusts must be broken!”

B. “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself!”

C. “The business of government is business!”

D. “The taste of empire is in the mouths of the people!”

E. “The world must be made safe for democracy!”

58 During the presidencies of Harding and Coolidge, which of the following was true about most of the federal regulatory agencies created during the Progressive era?

A. They kept business divided into small, fiercely competitive units.

B. They were declared unconstitutional

C. They were abolished.

D. They served mainly to aid business.

E. They were placed in the hands of the states.

59 As president, Calvin Coolidge generally

A. Favored large government building projects

B. Urged Congress to raise taxes

C. Kept government spending low and encouraged private business

D. Took an active role in pushing legislation through Congress

E. Argued that the protective tariff should be lowered in ordered to provide a more healthy economic environment.

60 “The business of our nation is business” were the words of

A. Calvin Coolidge

B. Herbert Hoover

C. Warren G. Harding

D. Franklin D. Roosevelt

E. Charles Evans Hughes

61 “The business of our nation is business” were the words of

A. Calvin Coolidge

B. Herbert Hoover

C. Warren G. Harding

D. Franklin D. Roosevelt

E. Charles Evans Hughes

62 “There is no right to strike against the public safety, anywhere, any time,” was said by

A. Rutherford B. Hayes with regard to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877

B. Grover Cleveland on sending federal troops to help put down the Pullman strike

C. Calvin Coolidge on calling out the Massachusetts National Guard during the Boston police strike.

D. Senator Robert A. Taft speaking in favor of the Taft-Hartley bill.

E. Ronald Reagan with regard to the air traffic controllers’ strike.

63 Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon’s policies did which of the following?

A. Reduced income-tax rates for the wealthy to release money for private investment

B. Provided aid to the Allies during the First World War

C. Provided federal guarantees for bank deposits

D. Restricted loans to Mexico after the Tampico and Veracruz incidents.

E. Combated the Depression by giving lower-income groups more purchaisng power.

64 The political cartoonist who drew this picture probably believed that

A. European nations were pleased with aid given them by the Coolidge administration.

B. governmental agencies were receiving too much financial support from the Coolidge administration.

C. American industrial and commercial leaders approved of the Coolidge administration's business policies.

D. consumers had benefitted from the Federal Reserve Board's tight money policy from 1925 through 1928

E. Congress was pleased by President Coolidge's accommodating stance toward pork barrel legislation.

65 Which of the following is true about the concept of isolationism?

A. It emphasized the avoidance of binding political commitments to other nations.

B. It usually stressed the avoidance of commercial as well as political ties to other nations.

C. It had almost no influence on United States foreign policy after 1900.

D. It was generally applied to Europe and Latin America but not to Asia.

E. It became obsolete with the formulation of the Monroe Doctrine.

66 Following World War I, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the fight against the

A. Establishment of the new nations of Europe

B. Harsh treatment of Germany

C. United States occupation of Germany

D. Discrimination of blacks and women

E. League of Nations.

67 Which of the following is true about the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928?

A. It created an alliance between the United States and France.

B. It was a bilateral pact for naval disarmament.

C. It was rejected by the Senate.

D. It was a multilateral pact condemning recourse to war.

E. It contained provisions ("teeth") for enforcement of peace.

68 Which of the following is correct about the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922?

A. It was convened to equalize naval strength among the five major powers.

B. It imposed specific limitations on the number of battleships allowed to the signatory nations.

C. It outlawed the use of submarines in warfare.

D. It confirmed the isolationist nature of United States foreign policy during the 1920s.

E. It underscored the Harding administration's indifference to Japanese expansion in the Far East.

69 Despite its isolationist position in the 1920s, the United States government actively intervened throughout the decade in which of the following areas of European affairs?

A. International finance and reparations

B. Collective security against communism

C. Human rights

D. Resistance to fascism

E. Development of international trade.

70 Droughts, high tariffs, bankruptcies, and low prices during the late 1920s had the greatest impact on

A. Urban America

B. The United States Stock Market

C. Rural America

D. Maritime ventures

E. Northern manufacturers

71 For American farming, the years 1921 to 1929 were a period of

A. increase in the size of the farm population

B. rapid inflation in the price of farmland.

C. low prices for agricultural products.

D. increased government subsidization

E. increase in the number of small family-owned farms.

72 Of the following, the most important cause of the Great Depression was

A. soaring energy costs

B. serious dislocations in international trade

C. European abandonment of the gold standard

D. confiscatory social security taxes

E. excessive government spending.

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