Ap european History Essays



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AP European History Essays
Compliments of Liesbeth Gallon, Class of 2001 and Sebastian Nilsson, Class of 2004

November 2010


2. Analyze the ways in which European monarchs used both the arts and the sciences to enhance state power in the period circa 1500–1800. (Group A 2010 North A.)
3. Analyze the various Protestant views of the relationship between church and state in the period circa 1500–1700. (Group A 2010 North A.)
4. Analyze the various effects of the expansion of the Atlantic trade on the economy of Western Europe in the period circa 1450–1700. (Group A 2010 North A.)
5. Compare and contrast how TWO of the following states attempted to hold together their empires in the period circa 1850 to 1914. (Group B 2010 North A.)

Austria-Hungary

Russia

Ottoman Empire.



6. Compare and contrast the goals and achievements of the feminist movement in the period circa 1850–1920 with those of the feminist movement in the period 1945 to the present. (Group B 2010 North A.)
7. Analyze the ways in which the theories of both Darwin and Freud challenged traditional European ways of thinking about religion, morality, and human behavior in the period circa 1850–1950. (Group B 2010 North A.)
2. Compare and contrast the economic and social development of Russia with that of the Netherlands in the period 1600–1725. (Group A 2010 Europe)
3. Assess the ways in which women participated in and influenced TWO of the following. (Group A 2010 Europe)

The Renaissance

The Reformation

The French Revolution


5. Analyze the political and economic effects of changing population patterns in Western Europe in the period circa 1950 to the present. Cite specific examples from at least TWO countries. (Group B 2010 Europe)
6. Analyze the ways in which the ideas of seventeenth-century thinkers John Locke and Isaac Newton contributed to the ideas of eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinkers. (Group B 2010 Europe)
7. Analyze the development of the various forms of European socialism in the 1800s. (Group B 2010 Europe)
2008 A Group A

2. Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform from the period of Peter the Great (1689–1725) through Catherine the Great (1762–1796). 2008 A Group A

3. Describe and analyze the changes that led to Europe’s rapid population growth in the eighteenth century. 2008 A Group A
4. Analyze the economic and social challenges faced by Western Europe in the period from 1945 to 1989. 2008 A Group A
2008 A Group B

5. European women’s lives changed in the course of the nineteenth century politically, economically, and socially. Identify and explain the reasons for those changes. 2008 A Group B


6. Analyze the major factors responsible for the rise of anti-Semitism in nineteenth century Europe. 2008 A Group B
7. Analyze the ways in which the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period (1789–1815) led people to challenge Enlightenment views of society, politics, and human nature. 2008 A Group B

2008 B Group A

2. Contrast late-nineteenth-century European attitudes and policies about race to those after 1950. 2008 B Group A
3. Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following groups challenged British liberalism between 1880 and 1914. 2008 B Group A

Feminists

Irish nationalists

Socialists

4. Analyze the similarities and differences in the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck to bring about the unification of Italy and of Germany, respectively. 2008 B Group B
5. Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European politics in the period 1517 to 1648. 2008 B Group B

6. Analyze the impact of TWO cultural and/or technological developments on European education in the period 1450 to 1650. 2008 B Group B


7. Compare and contrast the political ideas of Hobbes and Locke. 2008 B Group B
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Write an essay that:

Has a relevant thesis

Addresses all parts of the question

Supports the thesis with specific evidence

Is well organized

Responds to the AP Essay grading format (points 1-9)




  1. To what extent is the term “Renaissance” a valid concept for a distinct period in early modern European history?




  1. Describe and discuss the role of women during the Renaissance.




  1. To what extent and in what ways did women participate in the Renaissance?




  1. Compare and contrast the relationship between the artist and society in the Renaissance/Reformation period to the relationship between the artist and society in the late nineteenth century. (2006)




  1. Choose three works of Renaissance art and explain how they reflect the ideas of the period.




  1. “The Protestant Reformation was primarily an economic event.” Defend or refute this statement by determining the relative importance of economic policies and religious causes.




  1. “Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.” Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day.




  1. To what extent did the political authorities influence the course of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century?




  1. Compare and contrast the attitudes of Luther and Calvin towards political authority and social order.




  1. Is the Reformation a reaction to the ideas of the Italian Renaissance?




  1. “The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Renaissance.” Defend or refute this statement using specific examples from 16th century Europe.




  1. Describe and analyse the responses of the Catholic authorities towards the Reformation




  1. Analyse the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in the sixteenth century. (2006)




  1. How did the disintegration of the medieval Church and the coming of the Reformation contribute to the development of nation-states in Western Europe between 1450 and 1648?




  1. Focusing on the period before the sixteenth hundreds, describe and analyse the cultural and economic interactions between Europe and the Western hemisphere.




  1. Account for the growth and decline of European witch hunts in the period 1500 to 1650. (2005)




  1. What enabled the Europeans to embark on their expeditions of exploring the world during the 15th and 16th centuries?




  1. Explain how economic, political and religious factors promoted European explorations from 1450 to about 1525.




  1. Describe and analyse the ways in which the development of printing altered both the culture and the religion of Europe during the period 1450 to 1600.




  1. What contributed to Spain’s greatness and demise from the 16th to the 17th centuries?




  1. Analyse the effects of the Columbian exchange (the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World) on the population and economy of Europe in the period 1550 to 1700. (2006)




  1. Describe the social and economic system established by Spain in the New World during the 16th century.




  1. Analyse the changes of European economy from 1450 to the seventeenth hundreds brought about by the voyages of exploration and colonization. Give specific examples.




  1. In the 17th century, how did England and the Dutch republic compete successfully with France and Spain for control of overseas territory and trade?




  1. Trace the development of the English political system and role of Parliament between 1603 and 1688.




  1. Compare and contrast Cromwell’s Protectorate to Robespierre’s Reign of Terror.




  1. Compare and contrast the political and economic development of England to France during the 17th and 18th centuries. How did Colbert (1619-1683) and Adam Smith (1723-1790) seek to increase the wealth of their respective countries? How did their recommendations differ?




  1. Compare and contrast the policies of Walpole in England with those of Fleury in France.




  1. Discuss the economic policies and institutions that characterized mercantilist systems from 1600 to 1800. (2005)




  1. Both Jean –Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) and Adam Smith (1723-1790) sought to increase the wealth of their respective countries. How did their recommendations differ? (2002)




  1. Analyse the influence of the theory of mercantilism on the domestic and foreign policies of France between 1600 and 1715.




  1. Compare and contrast the reigns of Louis XIV and Philip II.




  1. Describe and analyse how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.




  1. Compare and contrast the social and economic roles of the state in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe (before 1789) to the social and economic roles of the state in Europe after WW II. (2006)




  1. Analyse the major ways through which Tsar Peter the Great (1689-1725) sought to reform his society and its institutions in order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe.




  1. How did the rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia create one of the most powerful European states?




  1. Trace the development of Prussia from the early 1600s to 1790.




  1. Analyse the political and social factors that account for the rise in Prussia between 1640 and 1786.




  1. Compare and contrast the goals and major policies of Peter the Great of Russia (ruled 1682-1725) with those of Frederick the Great of Prussia (ruled 1740-1786). (2002)




  1. What were the results and how successful were Peter the Great’s policies for Westernization?




  1. Identify the social and economic factors in pre-industrial England that explain why England was the first country to industrialise.




  1. Machiavelli suggested that a ruler should behave both 'like a lion' and 'like a fox'. Analyse the policies of TWO of the following European rulers, indicating the degree to which they successfully followed Machiavelli's suggestion.

Choose two: 1 Elizabeth I of England

2 Henry IV of France



3 Frederick II of Prussia


  1. What were the chief differences between the lives of Central European peasant farmers and those in Western Europe during the 18th century?




  1. Describe and analyse the influence of the Enlightenment on both elite culture and popular culture in Europe in the 18th century.




  1. ‘Parliamentary / Democratic political systems further economic growth more effectively than absolutist or totalitarian systems’. Analyse this statement by referring to at least two examples.




  1. Discuss the reasons why England led the other European countries during the Industrial Revolution.




  1. Compare and contrast two theories of government introduced in the period from 1640 to 1780. (2002)




  1. What effect did Enlightenment thinking have on European economic development?




  1. “Whereas in France the aristocracy maintained its privileges but lost political power, in England, the aristocracy gained political power but also had more responsibilities.” Comment on this statement.




  1. Between 1450 and 1800, many women gained power as rulers, some as reigning queens, others as regents. Identify two such powerful women and discuss how issues of gender, such as marriage and reproduction, influenced their ability to obtain and exercise power. (1994)




  1. “Napoleon was a destroyer of the principles of the French Revolution.” Discuss by providing specific examples.




  1. Is Napoleon an enlightened despot or a modern dictator? Discuss by providing specific examples.




  1. Was the French Constitution of 1791 a reflection of the Enlightenment or an “overture” of it?




  1. Describe and analyse the economic, cultural, and social changes that led to and sustained Europe’s rapid population growth in the period from approximately 1650 to 1800. (1997)




  1. Is the Romantic period a conservative or progressive movement?




  1. Discuss the extent to which 19th century Romanticism was or was not a conservative cultural and intellectual movement.




  1. Discuss two works from the Romantic period and describe how they responded to the attitudes and conditions of the time.




  1. Describe the ways in which conservative political and social views shaped the peace settlement of the Congress of Vienna.




  1. Explain the consequences of the peace settlement for the period between 1815 and 1848.




  1. Describe the differences among the Utopian Socialists, Karl Marx and Revisionist Socialists in their critiques of the 19th century European economy and society.




  1. Compare and contrast Enlightenment and Romantic views of the relationship between God and the individual. (2005?)




  1. Describe and analyse the differences in the ways in which artists and writers portrayed the individual during the Italian Renaissance and the Romantic era of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. (2002)




  1. Analyse the major social and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1871.




  1. Contrast the ways in which European skilled artisans of the mid-18th century and European factory workers of the late 19th century differred in their work behaviour and in their attitudes toward work.




  1. Analyse the ways in which Enlightenment thoughts addressed religious beliefs in the second half of the 19th century.




  1. Compare and contrast the relationship between the artist and society in the Renaissance/Reformation period to the relationship between the artist and society in the late nineteenth century. (2006)




  1. How did artists and intellectuals respond to the social, political and cultural conditions during the second half of the 19th century?




  1. Is Marx a child of the Enlightenment?




  1. Discuss the effects of the industrial economy on the Western European peasant women and working class women between 1830 and 1914.




  1. To what extent did the emancipation of the Russian serfs and other reforms in the 19th century contribute to the modernization of Russia before the First World War?




  1. How did the Church react to the challenges posed during the period from the Scientific Revolution to the end of the 19th century?




  1. What were the workers reactions to the (political, social and economic) changes taking place between 1850 and 1910?




  1. Discuss the impact of industrialization and urbanization on working-class families from 1750 to 1900. (2005)




  1. Describe the physical transformation of European cities in the second half of the 19th century and analyse the social consequences of this transformation. (1996)




  1. Analyse and compare the effects of nationalism in Italian and Austrian-Hungarian politics between 1815 and 1914.




  1. Analyse the policies of three European colonial powers regarding Africa between 1871 and 1914.




  1. Assess the extent to which the unification of Germany under Bismarck led to the establishment of totalitarian governments between 1871 and 1914.




  1. To what extent and in what ways did nationality tensions in the Balkans between 1870 and 1914 contribute to the outbreak of the First World War?




  1. Describe and analyse the conditions that led to WWI.




  1. How did conflicts around the world lead to the First World War?




  1. Compare and contrast the degree of success of treaties negotiated in Vienna (1814-1815) and in Versailles (1919) in achieving European stability.




  1. What major social, political and economic changes took place after WWI?




  1. Describe and analyse long-term social and economic trends in the period 1860 to 1917 that prepared the ground for revolution in Russia?




  1. “The Tsarist regime fell in 1917 because it had permitted tremendous change and progress in some areas, while trying to maintain political order that had outlived its time.” Assess the validity of this statement as the explanation of the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917.




  1. Describe the conditions in Russia during World War One and discuss whether it was ready for the Bolshevik-Marxist Revolution?




  1. What role did the peasants play during the Russian and French Revolutions?




  1. In the period 1815-1900, political liberalization progressed much further in western Europe than in Russia. Analyse the social and economic reasons for the difference. (2006)




  1. Compare and contrast the roles of the peasantry and of urban workers in the French Revolution of 1789 to those of the peasants and urban workers in the Russian revolution of 1917.




  1. Compare and contrast the roles of British workingwomen in the pre-industrial economy (before 1750) and their roles in the era 1850 to 1920.




  1. Explain and analyse the differences between Marx and Lenin.




  1. In what ways and why did Lenin alter Marxism?




  1. To what extent and in what ways did intellectual developments in Europe (1880-1920) undermine confidence in human rationality in a well-ordered dependable universe?




  1. Compare and contrast Hobbes’ and Freud’s views on human nature.




  1. How did artists in the twenties and thirties respond to the political, social and economic situation?




  1. Describe the differences between Eastern and Western Europe in the 1920s and 1930s.




  1. Account for the responses of the European democracies to the military aggression demonstrated by Italy and Germany in the 1930s.




  1. Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany.




  1. Discuss and analyse the political and economic reasons for the failure of parliamentary democracy in Germany after the First World War.




  1. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Weimar Republic.




  1. How did dictators in the 1930s sponsor and support the arts in comparison to previous 19th century rulers?




  1. Compare and contrast the patronage of the arts by Italian Renaissance rulers with that of dictators of the 1930s.




  1. Contrast European diplomacy in the periods of 1890 to 1914 and 1918 to 1939, respectively. Include in your analysis goals, practices and results.




  1. Compare and contrast the relationships between the great powers and Poland in the periods 1772 to 1815 and 1918 to 1939.




  1. “Dictators in 20th century Europe have had much greater control over culture and society than had divine rights monarchs of earlier centuries.” Assess the validity of this statement, using specific examples from each era to support your position.




  1. In what way was the United Nations a better organization that the League of Nations?




  1. Compare and contrast the social and economic roles of the state in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe (before 1789) to the social and economic roles of the state in Europe after WW II. (2006)




  1. Considering the period 1933 to 1945, analyse the economic, diplomatic, and military reasons for Germany’s defeat in the Second World War. (2006)




  1. Analyse the common political and economic problems facing Western European nations in the period 1945 to 1960 and discuss their responses to these problems.




  1. Identify four specific changes in science and technology, and explain their effects on Western European family and private life between 1918 and 1970.




  1. How did female rulers use their gender to exercise power? Choose three from below and describe and analyse their actions:

a) Isabella of Spain c) Catherine the Great e) Golda Meir



b) Queen Elisabeth I d) Margaret Thatcher f) Indira Gandhi



  1. How did the Cold War affect the political and economic development in Europe?




  1. Compare and contrast the extent to which Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin were ‘Westernizers’.




  1. Discuss the success of the welfare state and describe its features.




  1. Compare and contrast the attitudes toward science and technology held by the Enlightenment thinkers with the various attitudes held by European artists and intellectuals in the 20th century.




  1. Compare and contrast the women’s suffrage movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the European feminist movements of the 1960’s and 1970’s.




  1. To what extent did political authorities influence the course of the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century? (2002)




  1. Between 1945 and 1970, virtually all European colonies achieved independence. Discuss the changes within Europe that contributed to this development. (2002)




  1. Compare and contrast the victorious Allied powers’ treatment of Germany after the First World War with their treatment of Germany after WWII. (2005)




  1. Analyze the factors responsible for decolonization since the Second World War. (2005)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUJZgkhSCq8



 a meitanis / may 2010






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