AP European History focuses on developing students’ abilities to think conceptually about European history from approximately 1450 to the present and apply historical thinking skills as they learn about the past. Five themes of equal importance—Interaction of Europe and the World, Poverty and Prosperity, Objective Knowledge and Subjective Visions, States and Other Institutions of Power, and Individual and Society—provide areas of historical inquiry for investigation throughout the course. These require students to reason historically about continuity and change over time and make comparisons among various historical developments in different times and places.
The goals of this class are to develop (a) an understanding of the principal themes in modern European history, (b) an ability to analyze historical evidence, and (c) an ability to analyze and express historical understanding in writing. The content of the course follows Advanced Placement guidelines of the College Entrance Examination Board; consequently, instruction is given at the college level.
Classroom Procedures and Grading
Each unit will have a test.
"Reading check" quizzes will be given randomly. If you miss an "RCQ", there will be no make up. The following quiz will double in value. If you are out again, the value will then triple and so on to cover the quizzes missed.
Quizzes, other than RCQs, may or may not be announced.
Homework and classwork may or may not be collected. Homework topics (particularly readings) will usually be important the next day in lecture and class discussion.
There will be several projects during the semester. Details will be discussed at a later time.
Prepare to take the AP Exam in early May. Form a study group for tests and other large assignments!
Actively participate in class and complete all assignments thoroughly and promptly. Let’s make the most of our time together.
Attend class daily, arriving on time. Missing class is very detrimental to your progress.
Keep a well-organized and complete notebook and bring it to class every day. Use the charts, lecture and reading notes in your notebook to study for tests. Keep up with the notebook all year!
Internet ready devices, including smartphones, are welcomed in class for academic purposes. Misuse of these devices may result in the loss of privileges and additional work to complete.
The outlined themes that follow indicate the important areas that might be treated in an APEH course. The ideas suggested do not have to be treated explicitly as topics or covered inclusively, nor should they preclude development of other themes. In addition, questions on the exam will often call for students to inter-relate categories or to trace developments in a particular category through several chronological periods. For this reason, students and teachers need to address periodization in history and to relate periodization, as appropriate, to the following:
Interaction of Europe and the World
Poverty and Prosperity
Objective Knowledge and Subjective Visions
States and Other Institutions of Power
Individual and Society
Unit 1: 1450 – 1648
Sub-Unit A: Renaissance
Sub-Unit B: Reformation and Religious Wars
Sub-Unit C: Exploration and Conquest
Sub-Unit D: Absolutism and New Thinking
Unit 2: 1648 – 1815
Sub-Unit A: Absolutism and New Thinking 1648 – 1725
Sub-Unit B: Expansion of Europe 1650 – 1800
Sub-Unit C: Changing Life of the People 1700 – 1800
Sub-Unit D: Revolution in Politics 1789 – 1815
Unit 3: 1815 – 1914
Sub-Unit A: Industrialization and its Impact 1780 – 1850
Sub-Unit B: Ideologies and Upheaval 1815 – 1850
Sub-Unit C: Life in the Urban Society 1840 – 1900
Sub-Unit D: Nationalism 1850 – 1914
Sub-Unit E: The West and The World 1815 – 1914
Unit 4: 1914 – Present
Sub-Unit A: War and Revolution 1914 – 1919
Sub-Unit B: Between the Wars 1918 – 1939
Sub-Unit C: The Cold War
Sub-Unit D: Post Cold War World
CR1a The course includes a college-level European history textbook
CR1b The course includes diverse primary sources, including written documents, maps, images, quantitative data (charts, graphs, tables), and works of art
CR1c The course includes multiple secondary sources written by historians or scholars interpreting the past
CR2 Each of the course historical periods receives explicit attention
CR3 Students are provided opportunities to apply learning objectives in each of the five themes throughout the course
CR4 The course provides opportunities for students to develop coherent written arguments that have a thesis supported by relevant historical evidence – Historical argumentation
CR5 The course provides opportunities for students to identify and evaluate diverse historical interpretations
CR6 The course provides opportunities for students to analyze evidence about the past from diverse sources, such as written documents, maps, visual sources, and quantitative data – Appropriate use of historical evidence
CR7 The course provides opportunities for students to examine relationships between causes and effects of events or processes – Historical causation
CR8 The course provides opportunities for students to identify and analyze patterns of continuity
and change over time and connect them to larger historical processes or themes – Patterns of
continuity and change over time
CR9 The course provides opportunities for students to explain and analyze different models of historical periodization – Periodization
CR10 The course provides opportunities for students to compare historical developments across or
within societies in various chronological and geographical contexts – Comparison
CR11 The course provides opportunities for students to evaluate ways in which specific historical
circumstances of time and place connect to broader regional, national, or global processes
CR12 The course provides opportunities for students to recognize and explain disparate,
sometimes contradictory evidence from primary sources and/or secondary works about the
past – Synthesis
CR13 The course provides opportunities for students to apply insights about the past to other
historical contexts or circumstances, including the present – Synthesis
Spielvogel, Jackson, Western Civilization, 9th Edition, Updated AP, Wadsworth, 2016
Merriman, John, A History of Modern Europe, 3rd Edition, Norton, 2010
Primary Source Readers:
Perry, et al., Sources of the Western Tradition, 4th and 5th Editions, Houghton Mifflin, 1999, 2004
Within each unit students will be asked to do a variety of writing assignments. There will also be periodic quizzes over content—both online and in class. The majority of formal assessment will be done at the end of each unit. At that time students will be given a unit test that consists of 20-30 multiple choice-type questions. These multiple-choice questions will be centered around images, graphs, and quotes directly connected to the unit content. They will also have 2 - 4 short-answer questions over each unit, and one long essay or DBQ over each unit.
Primary Source Websites:
EuroDocs: Primary Historical Documents from Western Europe
Internet Modern History Sourcebook
Unless otherwise stated, all work must be your own, and cannot be shared with other students. Collaboration is encouraged when specifically authorized by the teacher, but each student’s final product must be his or her own thoughts, an original creation. Students will manifest honesty and truthfulness in their academic pursuits. They will obey academic procedures and test regulations. Cheating and plagiarism will not be tolerated. A grade of zero will be assigned to any student breaking test regulations or caught cheating on a test, quiz, or any assignment given where there is evidence of help when not appropriate. Additionally, students will not use projects or papers completed in one class for another class. As an aid in determining correct documentation of sources, students will submit major projects and essays to turnitin.com.
The key to avoiding plagiarism is to make sure you give credit where it is due. This may be credit for something somebody said, wrote, emailed, drew, or implied ... Here, then, is a brief list of what needs to be credited or documented:
* Words or ideas presented in a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium
* Information you gain through interviewing or conversing with another person, face to face, over the phone, or in writing
* When you copy the exact words or a unique phrase
* When you reprint any diagrams, illustrations, charts, pictures, or other visual materials
* When you reuse or repost any electronically-available media, including images, audio, video, or other media
Guidelines for Primary Source Critiques
Carefully read the document, then write an analysis that:
gives an abstract of the document (summary—1 paragraph)
explains the historical context of the document.
examines any possible bias of the author.
Include purpose, intended audience, and point of view
value and limitations of the document.
This should be no more than 250 words total. Be brief and to the point!
III. Crafting Historical Arguments from Historical Evidence
6. Historical Argumentation
7. Appropriate Use of Relevant Historical Evidence
IV. Historical Interpretation and Synthesis
Skill Type I: Chronological Reasoning
Skill 1: Historical Causation
Historical thinking involves the ability to identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationships among multiple historical causes and effects, distinguishing between those that are long-term and proximate, and among coincidence, causation, and correlation.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Compare causes and/or effects, including between short-term and long-term effects.
-Analyze and evaluate the interaction of multiple causes and/or effects.
-Assess historical contingency by distinguishing among coincidence, causation, and correlation, as well as critique existing interpretations of cause and effect.
Skill 2: Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time
Historical thinking involves the ability to recognize, analyze, and evaluate the dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time of varying length, as well as the ability to relate these patterns to larger historical processes or themes.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Analyze and evaluate historical patterns of continuity and change over time.
-Connect patterns of continuity and change over time to larger historical processes or themes.
Skill 3: Periodization
Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, evaluate, and construct models that historians use to divide history into discrete periods. To accomplish this periodization, historians identify turning points, and they recognize that the choice of specific dates accords a higher value to one narrative, region, or group than to another narrative, region, or group. How one defines historical periods depends on what one considers most significant in society — economic, social, religious, or cultural life — so historical thinking involves being aware of how the circumstances and contexts of a historian’s work might shape his or her choices about periodization.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Explain ways that historical events and processes can be organized within blocks of time.
-Analyze and evaluate competing models of periodization of European history
Skill Type II: Comparison and Contextualization
Skill 4: Comparison
Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, compare, and evaluate multiple historical developments within one society, one or more developments across or between different societies, and in various chronological and geographical contexts. It also involves the ability to identify, compare, and evaluate multiple perspectives on a given historical experience.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Compare related historical developments and processes across place, time, and/or different societies, or within one society.
-Explain and evaluate multiple and differing perspectives on a given historical phenomenon.
Skill 5: Contextualization
Historical thinking involves the ability to connect historical events and processes to specific circumstances of time and place and to broader regional, national, or global processes.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Explain and evaluate ways in which specific historical phenomena, events, or processes connect to broader regional, national, or global processes occurring at the same time.
-Explain and evaluate ways in which a phenomenon, event, or process connects to other similar historical phenomena across time and place.
Skill Type III: Crafting Historical Arguments from Historical Evidence
Skill 6: Historical Argumentation
Historical thinking involves the ability to define and frame a question about the past and to address that question through the construction of an argument. A plausible and persuasive argument requires a clear, comprehensive, and analytical thesis, supported by relevant historical evidence — not simply evidence that supports a preferred or preconceived position. Additionally, argumentation involves the capacity to describe, analyze, and evaluate the arguments of others in light of available evidence.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Analyze commonly accepted historical arguments and explain how an argument has been constructed from historical evidence
-Construct convincing interpretations through analysis of disparate, relevant historical evidence.
-Evaluate and synthesize conflicting historical evidence to construct persuasive historical arguments.
Skill 7: Appropriate Use of Relevant Historical Evidence
Historical thinking involves the ability to describe and evaluate evidence about the past from diverse sources (including written documents, works of art, archaeological artifacts, oral traditions, and other primary sources), and requires paying attention to the content, authorship, purpose, format, and audience of such sources. It involves the capacity to extract useful information, make supportable inferences, and draw appropriate conclusions from historical evidence, while also noting the context in which the evidence was produced and used, recognizing its limitations and assessing the points of view it reflects.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Analyze features of historical evidence such as audience, purpose, point of view, format, argument, limitations, and context germane to the evidence considered.
-Based on analysis and evaluation of historical evidence, make supportable inferences and draw appropriate conclusions.
Skill Type IV: Historical Interpretation and Synthesis
Skill 8: Interpretation
Historical thinking involves the ability to describe, analyze, evaluate, and construct diverse interpretations of the past, and to be aware of how particular circumstances and contexts in which individual historians work and write also shape their interpretation of past events. Historical interpretation requires analyzing evidence, reasoning, contexts, and points of view found in both primary and secondary sources.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Analyze diverse historical interpretations.
-Evaluate how historians’ perspectives influence their interpretations and how models of historical interpretation change over time.
Skill 9: Synthesis
Historical thinking involves the ability to develop meaningful and persuasive new understandings of the past by applying all of the other historical thinking skills, by drawing appropriately on ideas and methods from different fields of inquiry or disciplines, and by creatively fusing disparate, relevant, and sometimes contradictory evidence from primary sources and secondary works. Additionally, synthesis may involve applying insights about the past to other historical contexts or circumstances, including the present.
Proficient students should be able to:
-Combine disparate, sometimes contradictory evidence from primary sources and secondary works in order to create a persuasive understanding of the past.
-Apply insights about the past to other historical contexts or circumstances, including the present.
First Semester Unit 1: (9 weeks) 1450 – 1648
Sub-Unit A: Renaissance
-To what extent did the Renaissance usher in a new era for Europe?
-What were the beliefs and achievements of the Italian humanists and artists during the early Renaissance?
-How and why did the Renaissance lead to the “new monarchies” and more centralized political systems?
-What was the impact of the European era of exploration and discovery on both Europe and the rest of the world? -The worldview of European intellectuals shifted from one based on ecclesiastical and classical authority to one based primarily on inquiry and observation of the natural world.
I. A revival of classical texts led to new methods of scholarship and new values in both society and religion
A. Italian Renaissance humanists promoted a revival in classical literature and created new philological approaches to ancient texts. Some Renaissance humanists furthered the values of secularism and individualism.
B. Humanist revival of Greek and Roman texts, spread by the printing press, challenged the institutional power of universities and the Roman Catholic Church and shifted the focus of education away from theology toward the study of the classical texts
C. Admiration for Greek and Roman political institutions supported a revival of civic humanist culture in the Italian city-states and produced secular models for individual and political behavior.
II. The invention of printing promoted the dissemination of new ideas.
A. The invention of the printing press in the 1450s aided in spreading the Renaissance beyond Italy and encouraged the growth of vernacular literature, which would eventually contribute to the development of national cultures.
B. Protestant reformers used the press to disseminate their ideas, which spurred religious reform and helped it to become widely established.
III. The visual arts incorporated the new ideas of the Renaissance and were used to promote personal, political, and religious goals
A. Princes and popes, concerned with enhancing their prestige, commissioned paintings and architectural works based on classical styles and often employing the newly invented technique of geometric perspective.
Sub-Unit B: Reformation and Religious Wars
-What were the underlying and immediate causes of the Protestant Reformation?
-What were the origins and ideals of the new reform religions, and how did they differ from Catholicism and each other?
-How did the Catholic Church revive itself and slow down the spread of Protestantism?
-What rivalries developed during this period, and what was the relationship between these rivalries and the religious wars of the era? -Religious pluralism challenged the concept of a unified Europe.
I. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations fundamentally changed theology, religious institutions, and culture.
B. Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin, as well as religious radicals such as the Anabaptists, criticized Catholic abuses and established new interpretations of Christian doctrine and practice.
C. The Catholic Reformation, exemplified by the Jesuit Order and the Council of Trent, revived the church but cemented the division within Christianity.
II. Religious reform both increased state control of religious institutions and provided justifications for challenging state authority.
A. Monarchs and princes, such as the English rulers Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, initiated religious reform from the top down (magisterial) in an effort to exercise greater control over religious life and morality.
B. Some Protestants, including Calvin and the Anabaptists, refused to recognize the subordination of the church to the state. C. Religious conflicts became a basis for challenging the monarchs’ control of religious institutions.
III. Conflicts among religious groups overlapped with political and economic competition within and among states.
A. Issues of religious reform exacerbated conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility, as in the French Wars of Religion.
B. The efforts of Habsburg rulers failed to restore Catholic unity across Europe.
C. States exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests.
D. A few states, such as France with the Edict of Nantes, allowed religious pluralism in order to maintain domestic peace.
Sub-Unit C: Exploration and Conquest Before Columbus: Trading States, Role of Europe, Role of Ottoman, and Persian Empires
- Who was involved in trade, and what roles did each country, state, or empire involved play in trade at that time?
- What motivated Europeans to explore? What allowed them to explore? I. European nations were driven by commercial and religious motives to explore overseas territories and establish colonies.
A. European states sought direct access to gold and spices and luxury goods as a means to enhance personal wealth and state power.
B. The rise of mercantilism gave the state a new role in promoting commercial development and the acquisition of colonies overseas.
C. Christianity served as a stimulus for exploration as governments and religious authorities sought to spread the faith and counter Islam, and as a justification for the physical and cultural subjugation of indigenous civilizations.
II. Advances in navigation, cartography, and military technology allowed Europeans to establish overseas colonies and empires.
III. Europeans established overseas empires and trade networks through coercion and negotiation.
A. The Portuguese established a commercial network along the African coast, in South and East Asia, and in South America.
B. The Spanish established colonies across the Americas, the Caribbean, and the Pacific, which made Spain a dominant state in Europe.
C. The Atlantic nations of France, England, and the Netherlands followed by establishing their own colonies and trading networks to compete with Portuguese and Spanish dominance.
D. The competition for trade led to conflicts and rivalries among European powers.
IV. Europe’s colonial expansion led to a global exchange of goods, flora, fauna, cultural practices, and diseases, resulting in the destruction of some indigenous civilizations, a shift toward European dominance, and the expansion of the slave trade.
A. The exchange of goods shifted the center of economic power in Europe from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic states and brought the latter into an expanding world economy.
B. The exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases — the Columbian Exchange — created economic opportunities for Europeans and facilitated European subjugation and destruction of indigenous peoples, particularly in the Americas.
I. Economic change produced new social patterns, while traditions of hierarchy and status persisted.
A. Innovations in banking and finance promoted the growth of urban financial centers and a money economy.
B. The growth of commerce produced a new economic elite, which related to traditional elites in different ways in Europe’s various geographic regions.
C. Hierarchy and status continued to define social power and perceptions in rural and urban settings.
II. Most Europeans derived their livelihood from agriculture and oriented their lives around the seasons, the village, or the manor, although economic changes began to alter rural production and power.
A. Subsistence agriculture was the rule in most areas, with three-crop field rotation in the north and two-crop rotation in the Mediterranean; in many cases, farmers paid rent and labor services for their lands.
B. The price revolution contributed to the accumulation of capital and the expansion of the market economy through the commercialization of agriculture, which benefited large landowners in western Europe.
C. As western Europe moved toward a free peasantry and commercial agriculture, serfdom was codified in the east, where nobles continued to dominate economic life on large estates.
D. The attempts of landlords to increase their revenues by restricting or abolishing the traditional rights of peasants led to revolt.
III. Population shifts and growing commerce caused the expansion of cities, which often found their traditional political and social structures stressed by the growth.
A. Population recovered to its pre–Great Plague level in the 16th century, and continuing population pressures contributed to uneven price increases; agricultural commodities increased more sharply than wages, reducing living standards for some.
B. Migrants to the cities challenged the ability of merchant elites and craft guilds to govern and strained resources.
C. Social dislocation, coupled with the weakening of religious institutions during the Reformation, left city governments with the task of regulating public morals.
Sub-Unit D: Absolutism and New Thinking
-Thirty Years’ War: Causes and Outcomes
- Development of Absolutism in Western Europe: France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia
- Development of Constitutionalism: England and the Dutch Republic
- Development of Absolutism in Eastern Europe: Russia and the Ottoman Empire
-New Ways of Thinking: Scientific, Philosophical, and Art – Baroque
Unit 2: (9 weeks) 1648 – 1815
Sub-Unit A: Absolutism and New Thinking, 1648 – 1725
- In what ways did everyday life stay the same during this era? In what ways did it change?
-How and why did the scientific revolution occur?
-What were the effects of the new science on politics, religion, and learning?
-How did absolutism develop in Europe during the 17th century, and how was it different than the new monarchies?
- What were the common features of the absolute monarchies in the 17th and early 18th centuries?
-What were the similarities and differences between absolutism in France and in Russia?
-Why did a constitutional form of government develop in England, and how was it different from the absolute monarchies?
-What are the general characteristics of the Enlightenment, and how did this period impact intellectual thought in the 18th century?
-Who were the most important enlightened despots of this period, and to what degree did they successfully implement enlightened policies in their countries?
-Why did new political rivalries develop between the great powers of Europe during the 18th century?
-How did Europe change socially, economically, and culturally during the 18th century? I. In much of Europe, absolute monarchy was established over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries.
A. Absolute monarchies limited the nobility’s participation in governance but preserved the aristocracy’s social position and legal privileges.
B. Louis XIV and his finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, extended the administrative, financial, military, and religious control of the central state over the French population.
C. In the 18th century, a number of states in eastern and central Europe experimented with enlightened absolutism.
D. The inability of the Polish monarchy to consolidate its authority over the nobility led to Poland’s partition by Prussia, Russia, and Austria, and its disappearance from the map of Europe.
E. Peter the Great “westernized” the Russian state and society, transforming political, religious, and cultural institutions; Catherine the Great continued this process.
II. Challenges to absolutism resulted in alternative political systems.
A. The outcome of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution protected the rights of gentry and aristocracy from absolutism through assertions of the rights of Parliament.
B. The Dutch Republic developed an oligarchy of urban gentry and rural landholders to promote trade and protect traditional rights.
III. After 1648, dynastic and state interests, along with Europe’s expanding colonial empires, influenced the diplomacy of European states and frequently led to war.
A. As a result of the Holy Roman Empire’s limitation of sovereignty in the Peace of Westphalia, Prussia rose to power and the Habsburgs, centered in Austria, shifted their empire eastward.
B. After the Austrian defeat of the Turks in 1683 at the Battle of Vienna, the Ottomans ceased their westward expansion.
C. Louis XIV’s nearly continuous wars, pursuing both dynastic and state interests, provoked a coalition of European powers opposing him.
D. Rivalry between Britain and France resulted in world wars fought both in Europe and in the colonies, with Britain supplanting France as the greatest European power.
IV. The French Revolution posed a fundamental challenge to Europe’s existing political and social order.
A. The French Revolution resulted from a combination of long-term social and political causes, as well as Enlightenment ideas, exacerbated by short-term fiscal and economic crises.
B. The first, or liberal, phase of the French Revolution established a constitutional monarchy, increased popular participation, nationalized the Catholic Church, and abolished hereditary privileges.
C. After the execution of the Louis XVI, the radical Jacobin Republic led by Robespierre responded to opposition at home and war abroad by instituting the Reign of Terror, fixing prices and wages, and pursuing a policy of de-Christianization.
D. Revolutionary armies, raised by mass conscription, sought to bring the changes initiated in France to the rest of Europe.
E. Women enthusiastically participated in the early phases of the revolution; however, while there were brief improvements in the legal status of women, citizenship in the republic was soon restricted to men. F. Revolutionary ideals inspired a slave revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture in the French colony of Saint Domingue, which became the independent nation of Haiti in 1804.
G. While many were inspired by the revolution’s emphasis on equality and human rights, others condemned its violence and disregard for traditional authority.
V. Claiming to defend the ideals of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed French control over much of the European continent that eventually provoked a nationalistic reaction.
A. As first consul and emperor, Napoleon undertook a number of enduring domestic reforms while often curtailing some rights and manipulating popular impulses behind a façade of representative institutions.
B. Napoleon’s new military tactics allowed him to exert direct or indirect control over much of the European continent, spreading the ideals of the French Revolution across Europe.
C. Napoleon’s expanding empire created nationalist responses throughout Europe.
D. After the defeat of Napoleon by a coalition of European powers, the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) attempted to restore the balance of power in Europe and contain the danger of revolutionary or nationalistic upheavals in the future.
Sub-Unit B: Expansion of Europe, 1650 – 1800
I. Early modern Europe developed a market economy that provided the foundation for its global role
A. Labor and trade in commodities were increasingly freed from traditional restrictions imposed by governments and corporate entities.
B. The Agricultural Revolution raised productivity and increased the supply of food and other agricultural products.
C. The putting-out system, or cottage industry, expanded as increasing numbers of laborers in homes or workshops produced for markets through merchant intermediaries or workshop owners.
D. The development of the market economy led to new financial practices and institutions.
II. The European-dominated worldwide economic network contributed to the agricultural, industrial, and consumer revolutions in Europe
A. European states followed mercantilist policies by exploiting colonies in the New World and elsewhere.
B. The transatlantic slave-labor system expanded in the 17th and 18th centuries as demand for New World products increased.
C. Overseas products and influences contributed to the development of a consumer culture in Europe.
D. The importation and transplantation of agricultural products from the Americas contributed to an increase in the food supply in Europe.
E. Foreign lands provided raw materials, finished goods, laborers, and markets for the commercial and industrial enterprises in Europe.
III. Commercial rivalries influenced diplomacy and warfare among European states in the early modern era.
A. European sea powers vied for Atlantic influence throughout the 18th century.
B. Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British rivalries in Asia culminated in British domination in India and Dutch control of the East Indies.
Sub-Unit C: Changing Life of the People, 1700 – 1800
I. In the 17th century, small landholdings, low-productivity agricultural practices, poor transportation, and adverse weather limited and disrupted the food supply, causing periodic famines. By the 18th century, Europeans began to escape from the Malthusian imbalance between population and the food supply, resulting in steady population growth.
A. By the middle of the 18th century, higher agricultural productivity and improved transportation increased the food supply, allowing populations to grow and reducing the number of demographic crises (a process known as the Agricultural Revolution).
B. In the 18th century, plague disappeared as a major epidemic disease, and inoculation reduced smallpox mortality.
II. The consumer revolution of the 18th century was shaped by a new concern for privacy, encouraged the purchase of new goods for homes, and created new venues for leisure activities.
III. By the 18th century, family and private life reflected new demographic patterns and the effects of the commercial revolution.
A. Although the rate of illegitimate births increased in the 18th century, population growth was limited by the European marriage pattern and, in some areas, by the early practice of birth control.
B. As infant and child mortality decreased and commercial wealth increased, families dedicated more space and resources to children and child-rearing, as well as private life and comfort.
IV. Cities offered economic opportunities, which attracted increasing migration from rural areas, transforming urban life and creating challenges for the new urbanites and their families.
A. The Agricultural Revolution produced more food using fewer workers; as a result, people migrated from rural areas to the cities in search of work.
B. The growth of cities eroded traditional communal values, and city governments strained to provide protection and a healthy environment.
C. The concentration of the poor in cities led to a greater awareness of poverty, crime, and prostitution as social problems, and prompted increased efforts to police marginal groups.
Sub-Unit D: Revolution in Politics, 1789 – 1815
-What were the immediate and underlying causes of the French Revolution?
-What were the new goals and ideologies of the different political groups during the French revolutionary era?
-To what degree should Napoleon be considered a benevolent despot? -Causes of Revolution: Social Structure, American Revolution, Financial Crisis, Actions of Monarchy, and New Ideas
- First Phase of French Revolution: 1789 – 1791: Causes, Major Actions, and Conclusion
- Second Phase of French Revolution 1791 – 1799: Foreign Response, Outbreak of War, Reign of Terror, Thermidorian Reaction, Formation of Directory
- Third Phase: Napoleonic Era 1799 – 1815: Rise to Power, Impact on France, Impact on Europe, End of Napoleon’s Reign
- Romanticism: Literature, Art, and Music
Unit 3: (9 weeks) 1815 – 1914
Sub-Unit A: Industrialization and its Impact, 1780 – 1850
- Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain, and how was it different from industrialization on the continent?
-How did both the Industrial and French Revolutions lead to changes in the social structure of Europe?
-To what degree should the Congress System be considered a success?
-What were the characteristics of the Romantic period, and how did they relate to the changes during this time? I. Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron and steel production, and new transportation systems.
A. Britain’s ready supplies of coal, iron ore, and other essential raw materials promoted industrial growth.
B. Economic institutions and human capital such as engineers, inventors, and capitalists helped Britain lead the process of industrialization, largely through private initiative.
C. Britain’s parliamentary government promoted commercial and industrial interests because those interests were represented in Parliament.
A. France moved toward industrialization at a more gradual pace than Great Britain, with government support and with less dislocation of traditional methods of production.
B. Industrialization in Prussia allowed that state to become the leader of a unified Germany, which subsequently underwent rapid industrialization under government sponsorship.
C. A combination of factors including geography, lack of resources, the dominance of traditional landed elites, the persistence of serfdom in some areas, and inadequate government sponsorship accounted for eastern and southern Europe’s lag in industrial development.
III. During the second industrial revolution (c. 1870–1914), more areas of Europe experienced industrial activity, and industrial processes increased in scale and complexity.
A. Mechanization and the factory system became the predominant modes of production by 1914.
B. New technologies and means of communication and transportation — including railroads — resulted in more fully integrated national economies, a higher level of urbanization, and a truly global economic network.
C. Volatile business cycles in the last quarter of the 19th century led corporations and governments to try to manage the market through monopolies, banking practices, and tariffs.
I. Industrialization promoted the development of new classes in the industrial regions of Europe.
A. In industrialized areas of Europe (i.e., western and northern Europe), socioeconomic changes created divisions of labor that led to the development of self-conscious classes, such as the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
B. In some of the less industrialized areas of Europe, the dominance of agricultural elites persisted into the 20th century.
C. Class identity developed and was reinforced through participation in philanthropic, political, and social associations among the middle classes, and in mutual aid societies and trade unions among the working classes.
II. Europe experienced rapid population growth and urbanization, leading to social dislocations.
A. Along with better harvests caused in part by the commercialization of agriculture, industrialization promoted population growth, longer life expectancy, and lowered infant mortality.
B. With migration from rural to urban areas in industrialized regions, cities experienced overcrowding, while affected rural areas suffered declines in available labor as well as weakened communities.
III. Over time, the Industrial Revolution altered the family structure and relations for bourgeois and working-class families.
A. Bourgeois families became focused on the nuclear family and the cult of domesticity, with distinct gender roles for men and women.
B. By the end of the century, wages and the quality of life for the working class improved because of laws restricting the labor of children and women, social welfare programs, improved diet, and the use of birth control.
C. Economic motivations for marriage, while still important for all classes, diminished as the middle-class notion of companionate marriage began to be adopted by the working classes.
D. Leisure time centered increasingly on the family or small groups, concurrent with the development of activities and spaces to use that time.
IV. A heightened consumerism developed as a result of the second industrial revolution.
A. Industrialization and mass marketing increased both the production and demand for a new range of consumer goods — including clothing, processed foods, and labor-saving devices — and created more leisure opportunities.
B. New efficient methods of transportation and other innovations created new industries, improved the distribution of goods, increased consumerism, and enhanced the quality of life.
V. Because of the persistence of primitive agricultural practices and land-owning patterns, some areas of Europe lagged in industrialization while facing famine, debt, and land shortages.
Sub-Unit B: Ideologies and Upheaval, 1815 – 1850
- How did nationalism impact Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
-What were the various political, economic, intellectual, and social reform movements in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and how did they affect both governments and the masses?
-Why was Europe able to dominate the world during the age of imperialism? How did that impact both Europe and the people who were colonized? I. Ideologies developed and took root throughout society as a response to industrial and political revolutions.
A. Liberals emphasized popular sovereignty, individual rights, and enlightened self-interest but debated the extent to which all groups in society should actively participate in its governance.
B. Radicals in Britain and republicans on the continent demanded universal male suffrage and full citizenship without regard to wealth and property ownership; some argued that such rights should be extended to women.
C. Conservatives developed a new ideology in support of traditional political and religious authorities, which was based on the idea that human nature was not perfectible.
D. Socialists called for a fair distribution of society’s resources and wealth and evolved from a utopian to a Marxist scientific critique of capitalism.
E. Anarchists asserted that all forms of governmental authority were unnecessary and should be overthrown and replaced with a society based on voluntary cooperation.
F. Nationalists encouraged loyalty to the nation in a variety of ways, including romantic idealism, liberal reform, political unification, racialism with a concomitant anti-Semitism, and chauvinism justifying national aggrandizement.
G. A form of Jewish nationalism, Zionism, developed in the late 19th century as a response to growing anti-Semitism in both western and eastern Europe.
II. Governments responded to the problems created or exacerbated by industrialization by expanding their functions and creating modern bureaucratic states.
A. Liberalism shifted from laissez-faire to interventionist economic and social policies on behalf of the less privileged; the policies were based on a rational approach to reform that addressed the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the individual.
B. Government reforms transformed unhealthy and overcrowded cities by modernizing infrastructure, regulating public health, reforming prisons, and establishing modern police forces.
C. Governments promoted compulsory public education to advance the goals of public order, nationalism, and economic growth.
Sub-Unit C: Life in the Urban Society, 1840 – 1900
-City Life: Growth of Cities, Public Health, and City Planning
- Social Changes: Middle Classes, Working Classes, and New Elite
-Changing Families: Marriage, Kinship, Gender Roles, and Child Rearing
-Science and Technology: Science and Industry (R&D), Darwin and Natural Selection, and Social Science
- Realism: Characteristics and Significance
Sub-Unit D: Nationalism 1850 – 1914,
- France: Second Republic and Louis Napoleon
- New Nations: Italy and Germany
- Modernizing Russia: “Great Reforms,” Revolution of 1905, Outcomes
-Modernizing of Ottoman Empire: Decline, Reform, and Results
-Responsive National States: German Empire, French Republic, Great Britain and Ireland, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Jewish Emancipation, and Modern Anti-Semitism
- Marxism and Socialism: Social Internationalism, Unions, and Revisionism
Sub-Unit E: The West and The World, 1815 – 1914
-The Growing World Economy: Global Inequality, Expanding Global Markets
-Changing Migration Patterns: European and Asian
-Western Imperialism 1880 – 1914: “Old” v. “New” Imperialism, Motivation for Imperialism, Scramble for Africa, and Asia
- Impact and Response to Imperialism: Europe, Asia and Africa
Unit 4: (8 weeks) 1914 – Present
Sub-Unit A: War and Revolution, 1914 – 1919
- What were the causes, actions, and results of the First World War?
-What were the factors that enabled both the February/March and October/November revolutions in Russia, and why did a civil war begin?
-How did the fear of another Europe-wide war affect politics, economics, and culture during the interwar years? I. World War I, caused by a complex interaction of long- and short-term factors, resulted in immense losses and disruptions for both victors and vanquished.
A. A variety of factors — including nationalism, military plans, the alliance system, and imperial competition — turned a regional dispute in the Balkans into World War I.
B. New technologies confounded traditional military strategies and led to massive troop losses.
C. The effects of military stalemate and total war led to protest and insurrection in the belligerent nations and eventually to revolutions that changed the international balance of power.
D. The war in Europe quickly spread to non-European theaters, transforming the war into a global conflict.
E. The relationship of Europe to the world shifted significantly with the globalization of the conflict, the emergence of the United States as a world power, and the overthrow of European empires.
II. The conflicting goals of the peace negotiators in Paris pitted diplomatic idealism against the desire to punish Germany, producing a settlement that satisfied few.
A. Wilsonian idealism clashed with postwar realities in both the victorious and the defeated states. Democratic successor states emerged from former empires and eventually succumbed to significant political, economic, and diplomatic crises.
B. The League of Nations, created to prevent future wars, was weakened from the outset by the nonparticipation of major powers, including the United States, Germany, and the Soviet Union.
C. The Versailles settlement, particularly its provisions on the assignment of guilt and reparations for the war, hindered the German Weimar Republic’s ability to establish a stable and legitimate political and economic system.
Sub-Unit B: Between the Wars, 1918 – 1939
- What were the factors that led to the rise of totalitarian governments, and how were ideologies of communist and fascist regimes similar and different?
-Why did the Nazis try to create a “New Order,” and what were the results?
-Why did the Western powers appease fascist expansionism prior to the Second World War, and what were the results?
-How were the Allies able to win the Second World War? III. In the interwar period, fascism, extreme nationalism, racist ideologies, and the failure of appeasement resulted in the catastrophe of World War II, presenting a grave challenge to European civilization.
A. French and British fears of another war, American isolationism, and deep distrust between Western democratic, capitalist nations, and the communist Soviet Union allowed fascist states to rearm and expand their territory.
B. Germany’s Blitzkrieg warfare in Europe, combined with Japan’s attacks in Asia and the Pacific, brought the Axis powers early victories.
C. American and British industrial, scientific, and technological power and the allout military commitment of the USSR contributed critically to the Allied victories.
D. Fueled by racism and anti-Semitism, Nazi Germany — with the cooperation of some of the other Axis powers and collaborationist governments — sought to establish a “new racial order” in Europe, which culminated with the Holocaust.
Sub-Unit C: The Cold War
IV. As World War II ended, a Cold War between the liberal democratic West and the communist East began, lasting nearly half a century
A. Despite efforts to maintain international cooperation through the newly created United Nations, deep-seated tensions between the USSR and the West led to the division of Europe, which was referred to in the West as the Iron Curtain.
B. The Cold War played out on a global stage and involved propaganda campaigns; covert actions; limited “hot wars” in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean; and an arms race, with the threat of a nuclear war.
C. The United States exerted a strong military, political, and economic influence in Western Europe, leading to the creation of world monetary and trade systems and geopolitical alliances such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
D. Countries east of the Iron Curtain came under the military, political, and economic domination of the Soviet Union within the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) and the Warsaw Pact.
E. The collapse of the USSR in 1991 ended the Cold War and led to the establishment of capitalist economies throughout Eastern Europe. Germany was reunited, the Czechs and the Slovaks parted, Yugoslavia dissolved, and the European Union was enlarged through admission of former Eastern bloc countries.
Sub-Unit D: Post Cold War World
- To what extent did the postwar recovery and the Cold War change Europe politically, socially, and economically?
-How and why did the end of the Second World War lead to the end of European hegemony in the world?
-What were the continuities and changes that occurred in Europe as a result of the end of the Cold War in 1989? V. In response to the destructive impact of two world wars, European nations began to set aside nationalism in favor of economic and political integration, forming a series of transnational unions that grew in size and scope over the second half of the 20th century.
A. As the economic alliance known as the European Coal and Steel Community, envisioned as a means to spur postwar economic recovery, developed into the European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market) and the European Union (EU), Europe experienced increasing economic and political integration and efforts to establish a shared European identity.
B. One of the major continuing challenges to countries in the EU is balancing national sovereignty with the responsibilities of membership in an economic and political union.
VI. Nationalist and separatist movements, along with ethnic conflict and ethnic cleansing, periodically disrupted the post–World War II peace.