PHOENIX COLLEGE, 1101 W Thomas Rd, Fine Arts Bldg. Rm 104, Tues 6 to 10 pm Art 275 Sec. 22131 LOST WAX CASTING I
Art 276 Sec. 22132 LOST WAX CASTING II
Art 290 Sec. 22138 ADVANCED LOST WAX CASTING
THE HISTORY OF LOST WAX CASTING
The history of lost-wax casting dates back thousands of years. Its earliest use was for idols, ornaments and jewelry, using natural beeswax for patterns, clay for the moulds and manually operated bellows for stoking furnaces. Examples have been found across the world in India's Harappan Civilisation (2500–2000 BC) idols, Egypt's tombs of Tutankhamun (1333–1324 BC), Mesopotamia, Aztec and Mayan Mexico, and the Benin civilization in Africa where the process produced detailed artwork of copper, bronze and gold.
The earliest known text that describes the investment casting process (Schedula Diversarum Artium) was written around 1100 A.D. by Theophilus Presbyter, a monk who described various manufacturing processes, including the recipe for parchment. This book was used by sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571), who detailed in his autobiography the investment casting process he used for the Perseus with the Head of Medusa sculpture that stands in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, Italy.
Investment casting came into use as a modern industrial process in the late 19th century, when dentists began using it to make crowns and inlays, as described by Dr. D. Philbrook of Council Bluffs, Iowa in 1897. Its use was accelerated by Dr. William H. Taggart of Chicago, whose 1907 paper described his development of a technique. He also formulated a wax pattern compound of excellent properties, developed an investment material, and invented an air-pressure casting machine.
In the 1940s, World War II increased the demand for precision net shape manufacturing and specialized alloys that could not be shaped by traditional methods, or that required too much machining. Industry turned to investment casting. After the war, its use spread to many commercial and industrial applications that used complex metal parts.
Investment casting is used in the aerospace and power generation industries to produce turbine blades with complex shapes or cooling systems. Blades produced by investment casting can include single-crystal (SX), directionally solidified (DS), or conventional equiaxed blades. Investment casting is also widely used by firearms manufacturers to fabricate firearm receivers, triggers, hammers, and other precision parts at low cost. Other industries that use standard investment-cast parts include military, medical, commercial and automotive.
INSTRUCTOR: Bill Jamieson, E Mail: email@example.com
TEXTBOOKS: Tim McCreight, The Complete Metalsmith, and/or
Tim McCreight, Practical Casting.
This course teaches students the process of LOST WAX CASTING. Each student will be able to create pieces of jewelry or very small sculptures using this method. Class meets at PHOENIX COLLEGE, 1101 W Thomas Rd, Fine Arts Bldg. Rm 104, Tues 6 to 10 PM
Instructor will be in classroom from 5:00 t0 6 pm for any student who needs extra work time
SPRING 2014 SCHEDULE
Week Date Activity
1 01-14 Continuing Students: Continue to work on wax models.
and New Students Only: Discussion of tools, materials, outline of course,
and design sources. 20 min Break. (A jewelry slide presentation)
Sprue or Wire wax Toothbrush Leather or fabric gloves (optional)
Kerr hard inlay-bar or stick Sandpaper (assorted) * MIZZY grinding wheels
Sierra Red Ring stick (optional) * Mandrels for grinding wheels
Pliers (optional) Dremel or Foredom Bits Small knife or X-acto knife
* May be purchased in class Band aids * Methanol ( alcohol for lamp)
The following items for this class will be supplied: Acetylene-Oxygen, buffing wheels, filters, tripoly, rouge, oxidizers, Sparex #2, vacufilm, charcoal blocks, silver solder, soldering flux, and casting flux.
SHEET WAX is used as a base for pins, earrings, belt buckles, pendants, bolo ties, bracelets, buttons, etc., or in large areas where shaping is needed.
WIRE WAX is used for basic construction and sprues. It's color has no significance.
KERR HARD BLUE INLAY WAX can be used for building all the sculpture forms, rings, texturing, edging, settings for stones, and main sprues. It is also used for strengthening other waxes.
SIERRA RED WAX is used for all aspects of wax forming. It is especially useful in making prongs for stones.
WAX DESIGNS SHOULD BE AS NEAR THE SAME THICKNESS THROUGHOUT AS POSSIBLE. LAMP AND ALCOHOL
Alcohol lamps with methanol alcohol produce very little carbon. Other alcohol (denatured) burns with a yellow flame and produces a great deal of carbon. Carbon in wax is a source of porosity and is more difficult to eliminate in the burnout. It can also cause roughness on the surface of the cast piece.
LOST WAX SUPPLIERS
COMPANY PHONE # SUPPLIES
S J JEWELRY SUPPLY 602-956-0189 Metals, Tools, waxes, findings. Etc.
2725 N 24th St Suite 4
CC Silver 602-242-6310 Silver and gold, Collector Coins
2028 W. Camelback
C & D Silver Mfg. Co. 602-992-5440 Silver, tools, lapidary supplies, etc.