British Colonization in North America: Southern, New England, & Middle Colonies

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CPUSH (Unit 1, #2) Name ______________________________

Date ___________________ Pd ________

British Colonization in North America: Southern, New England, & Middle Colonies
I. Settling the British Colonies

A. Unlike the Spanish & French, the British colonies were not funded or _______________________________________ by the king:

1. ______________________________ companies were formed by entrepreneurs in Britain who hoped to _________________ by establishing a colony

2. Once a _____________________________ was gained from the king, the company could maintain a colony in the New World

II. The Chesapeake Colonies (Virginia & Maryland)

A. Jamestown, Virginia

1. In 1606, the ___________________________________ was formed by investors hoping to find __________ in the New World

2. In 1607, settlers founded _____________________, which became the first ____________________ British colony in America

3. Jamestown was founded along the Chesapeake Bay in present-day _____________________

4. Settlers built a fort, but struggled to survive in their first years in America

a. Settlers arrived looking for gold so they did not prepare to stay long in America; They did not ______________________ & faced _______________________

b. __________________________ took control & forced settlers to farm

c. Jamestown was located on a swamp & led to outbreaks of ___________________ among colonists

d. Jamestown was located in territory controlled by the ___________________________________________ who attacked the settlement

5. After the Jamestown colonists _______________________________________________, the joint-stock investors demanded that colonists find a way to make ________________

a. In 1612, ______________________ introduced _______________ in Jamestown which was popular in Europe & made investors money

b. Tobacco became so ___________________ that colonists planted more, built large ______________________, & expanded to find new land for farming

c. Due to the _____________________ of tobacco, the Jamestown settlement expanded into the _________________ colony

6. Tobacco created a need for ____________________________ to plant & pick the tobacco

a. To meet the demand for workers, landowners in Virginia used _____________________________________ from England

i. Indentured servants were typically _______________________________________________ who agreed to work for a land owner for ______________________ in exchange for their travel to America

ii. In 1618, Virginia introduced the _______________________________________________________________ which gave ___________________ to anyone who brought an indentured servant to America

iii. The large population of _____________________________________ in Britain led thousands of people to immigrating as indentured servants by 1700

iv. Indentured servants were worked hard, treated _______________, & many ____________ before their contracts ended

b. In addition to indentured servants, Virginia landowners also used African ___________________ who were first brought to Jamestown in 1619

i. In the mid-1600s, ______________ indentured servants came to America as the British __________________ improved; As a result, African slavery replaced indentured servitude as the dominant labor system in Virginia

ii. African slaves were transported from Africa to America on slave ships across the “_______________________________”

B. Social Hierarchy in the Chesapeake

1. __________________ of _____________________ plantations were at the top of society

2. Poor, _____________________________________ were the largest class; Most were former indentured servants

3. There were few _________________ in Virginia, which made it difficult for colonists to ________________ or to have families

4. ___________________________________ were often mistreated

5. ___________________________________ were at the bottom of society

C. The Virginia House of Burgesses

1. Virginia colonists needed ______________ to maintain order but the British government was thousands of miles across the Atlantic Ocean

2. In 1619, Virginians formed the ______________________________________________________ which was the first __________________________ assembly in America

3. Virginia was a royal colony so it had a _________________________________ chosen by the king, but the House of Burgesses made the important decisions regarding _______________ & ______________

D. Bacon’s Rebellion

1. Even though the leaders of the House of Burgesses were elected, they were __________________________________ who did not always represent the poor farmers of the colony

2. Former indentured servants in western Virginia suffered from low tobacco prices & frequent ___________________________

3. Poor farmers, led by ___________________________________________, blamed Virginia’s governor for not protecting them & started a rebellion

4. Bacon’s Rebellion proved to rich Virginians that _________________________ were better than indentured servants because slaves would never ask for ______________

III. The New England Colonies (Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Haven, New Hampshire)

A. The colonists who first settled in New England came for _________________________________ reasons

1. Religious disagreements in Britain led to divisions in the Anglican Church

2. _________________________ believed in the Calvinist idea of __________________________________ & tried to live strictly “Christian” lives without sin

3. Puritans believed that the Anglican Church compromise too far by allowing some _________________________________

4. Some ____________________ Puritans were known as ___________________________ because they unwilling to wait for church reforms

B. Pilgrims, the Plymouth Colony, and Mayflower Compact

1. The Separatists became “_______________________________” when they formed a joint-stock company, gained a charter, & created the _______________________ colony in America

2. Before landing in America, the Pilgrims created the _________________________________________________ agreeing to work together as a “civil body politick”…The Mayflower Compact was the first example of _________________________________________ in America

3. When the Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620, they faced disease & ______________________________

4. Pilgrims received help from local natives like Squanto & Massasoit…& celebrated the first ______________________________ to honor the local Indians

C. Puritans and the Massachusetts Colony

1. When the Separatist _________________________ came to America, the Puritans remained within the Church of England

2. But when the _____________________________________ came to power, Puritans felt the time was right to leave Britain

3. In 1630, the Puritans arrived in ____________________ & created the New England colony of _________________________

a. From 1630 to 1640, Puritan leader ______________________________________ led 16,000 Puritans to the Massachusetts Bay colony as part of the “___________________________________________”

b. John Winthrop wanted to build Boston as a “________________________________________________________” to be a _______________ to other Christians

D. Massachusetts was a different colony from Virginia:

1. Puritans came to America for religious _____________________

2. Puritan settlers usually came as _________________

3. Settlers ___________________________ for the common good, built _________________, & focused on subsistence farming

4. New England was a more ______________________ place to live than Virginia so colonists lived longer

E. Social Hierarchy in New England

1. ___________________________________ served a government leaders & were at the top of New England society

2. The majority of the New England population were ___________________________________________ who were loyal to the local community

3. At the bottom of society was the small population of _____________ landless laborers & servants

F. Government in in the New England colonies centered on the _______________ through ________________________

1. Each New England town was independently governed by local church members

2. All adult male _______________________________ were allowed to _____________ for local laws & taxes

G. As the Massachusetts colony grew, it spawned 4 new colonies: New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New Haven, Connecticut

1. Connecticut was important for creating the first written ______________________________ in U.S. history called The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

2. New England Puritans did not like ideas that ____________________ from their own beliefs

a. _______________________________ was banished from Massachusetts for demanding that Indians be paid for their land; He formed ______________________________ in 1636

b. Anne Hutchinson was _______________________ for challenging Puritan authority

H. As the New England colonies expanded into new lands, conflicts with __________________ arose

1. The ____________________________ in 1637 was the 1st major British-led attack on Indians & led to the death of 600 Indians

2. __________________________________ broke out in 1675 when the Wampanoag Indians raided towns, killing _________ of the colonial New England men

I. The Half-Way Covenant and Salem Witch Trials

1. By the 1660s, many New England towns experienced a _________________ in church _______________________

a. Churches responded with the ____________________________________ which gave full church membership to people who had not had a “________________________ experience”

b. This compromise brought people back to the church, but showed the _______________________ importance of religion in New England

2. Religion played a role in the Salem __________________________ trials in 1692 when several young _____________ accused people of being witches

a. The hysteria was caused by tensions over _______________ ownership, Indian attacks, & religious disagreements

b. As a result of the trials, ________ people were killed & _________ citizens were jailed

IV. Middle (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware) & Southern Colonies (North & South Carolina, Georgia)

A. The Middle Colonies

1. The 1st “middle” colony was ________________________________ created by the Dutch West India Company

a. To attract settlers, the Dutch recruited Swedes, Germans, & Africans; New Netherland became very __________________

b. Britain ________________________ the Dutch a colony between their Chesapeake & New England colonies

c. In 1664, Britain _______________ the Dutch colony from Governor Stuyvesant & renamed it ________________________

2. One of the most important middle colonies was Pennsylvania which was founded by __________________________________ in 1681

a. Penn was a member of a religious sect called ___________________________ who believed in the “Inner Light,” all people are equal, & that people can ___________________________ directly with God

b. Penn founded his colony as a “_______________________________” to promote religious _________________________; He bought land from the ________________, banned _________________, & allowed a diverse population to move there

3. The middle colonies had two of the best ports for _______________ in America: __________________ & New York City

B. Southern Colonies

1. The Lower South colonies were the _____________ British colonies to be formed

2. The Carolinas & Georgia developed like Virginia with a ______________________ economy, slavery, & gaps between rich & poor colonists

3. Georgia was created by James Oglethorpe as a ________________________________________ between Carolina & Spanish ____________________ & was populated by British debtors & prisoners

4. In addition to the 13 colonies in North America, Britain also had colonies in the __________________…Colonies like Barbados & Jamaica were profitable, especially producing __________________ for Britain

Name _________________________________

CP US History Date ________________________ Pd ______

Comparing the English Colonies of the New World

Chesapeake/ Southern

New England


Identify the Colonies

Initial Purpose of the Colonies

Economics & Labor Systems of the Colonies

Government in the Colonies

Society in the Colonies

Relationships with Native Americans in the Colonies

Important People in the Colonies

Which colonial region do you think will be grow to become the “most successful” (interpret this as you will) when compared to the others: Chesapeake/Southern, New England, or Middle region? Why?



New England


Identify the Colonies

  • Virginia

  • Maryland

  • North Carolina

  • South Carolina

  • Georgia

  • Massachusetts

  • Connecticut

  • Rhode Island

  • New Hampshire

  • New York

  • New Jersey

  • Pennsylvania

  • Delaware

Initial Purpose of the Colonies

  • Joint-Stock Co (VA Company) to gain wealth for settlers & investors (VA)

  • Buffer between Spain & British colonies (GA)

  • Religious communities for persecuted or idealistic groups (Pilgrims & Puritans)

  • Religious toleration for those that did not fit in (Rhode Island)

  • Religious communities (Holy Experiment, Quakers)

  • Trade (Originally a Dutch colony)

Economics & Labor Systems of the Colonies

  • cash crop plantations

  • Headright system, indentured servants, African slaves

  • Most people were yeoman farmers

  • Fishing, rum, ship building

  • Farming villages with mostly small scale farming

  • Little slavery or indentured servitude

  • Banking; merchant shipping

  • Grain production

  • Diverse farming, ; very few slaves/indentured servants

Government in the Colonies

  • Royal Governor & House of Burgesses

  • Mayflower Compact

  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  • Winthrop’s “city on a hill”

  • Royal Governor &Town meetings

  • Proprietary

  • Royal Governors & colonial assemblies

Society in the Colonies

  • Plantation-centered; forced-labor society

  • Large gap between the rich and the poor

  • Bacon’s Rebellion – former indentured servants upset with gap between rich and poor

  • Puritans & Pilgrims

  • Salem Witch Trials

  • Great Migration brought 16,000 Puritans

  • Families rather than exclusively men

  • Schools

  • Half Way Covenant

  • Quakers (NJ, PA)

  • Very diverse society

  • “Holy Experiment” (PA) failed

  • Philadelphia – “City of Brotherly Love”

Relationships with Native Americans in the Colonies

  • Conflict with Powhatan Indians

  • King Philip’s War

  • Bought land from Native Americans

Important People in the Colonies

  • John Smith, John Rolfe

  • Bacon & Gov. Berkeley

  • James Oglethorpe (GA)

  • John Winthrop

  • Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson

  • King Philip

  • William Penn

  • Peter Stuyvestant

  • James, Duke of York

Round 1






New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina


Rhode Island

South Carolina


Round 2

  1. Buffer between Spain & British colonies

  2. Joint-Stock Co to gain wealth for settlers & investors

  3. Religious communities (Holy Experiment, Quakers)

  4. Religious communities for persecuted or idealistic groups (Puritans)

  5. Religious toleration for those that did not fit in

  6. Trade (Originally a Dutch colony)

Round 3

  1. Headright system, indentured servants, African slaves

  2. Little slavery or indentured servitude

  3. Diverse farming; very few slaves/indentured servants

  4. Cash crop plantations, but most people were yeoman farmers

  5. Banking; merchant shipping

  6. Fishing, rum, ship building

  7. Farming villages with mostly small scale farming

  8. Grain production

Round 4

  1. Royal Governor & House of Burgesses

  2. Royal Governor &Town meetings

  3. Royal Governors & colonial assemblies

  4. Winthrop’s “city on a hill”

  5. Mayflower Compact

  6. Proprietary

  7. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Round 5

  1. Quakers & the “Holy Experiment”

  2. Bacon’s Rebellion

  3. Families, rather than exclusively men

  4. Great Migration brought 16,000 Puritans

  5. Half Way Covenant

  6. Large gap between the rich and the poor

  7. Plantation-centered; forced-labor society

  8. Salem Witch Trials

  9. Schools

  10. Very diverse society

Round 6

  1. Bought land from Native AmericansConflict with Powhatan Indians

  2. King Philip’s War

Round 7

  1. Bacon & Gov. Berkeley

  2. James Oglethorpe (GA)

  3. John Winthrop

  4. James, Duke of York

  5. John Smith, John Rolfe

  6. King Philip

  7. William Penn

  8. Peter Stuyvestant

  9. Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson

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