Build up to the Civil War American History Ch 1
up to the Civil War
American History Ch 6.1
Issues leading to the Civil War
Compromise of 1850
Kansas/Nebraska Act 1854
Dred Scott Decision
Majority of Southerners did not own slaves…couldn’t afford them.
However, that doesn’t mean they were against slavery.
Also, not all slave owners were bad.
But there were the exceptions also.
When Missouri was added it would tip the balance of power in the Senate.
Compromise add Maine as free state and add Missouri as a slave state.
Any state added north of the 36°30’ would be free, any state added south would be a slave state.
Compromise of 1850
There are two major problems: California’s Gold Rush, and the Underground Railroad.
To get California added a series of compromises are proposed.
Fugitive Slave Act
To make a long story short… nothing new was decided that would make a change.
Stephen Douglas proposes this act to add Kansas and Nebraska with the territories themselves deciding the issue on slavery.
Douglas proposed this to get the trans-continental railroad to go through Chicago and Omaha.
Mass exodus of people leads to “Bleeding Kansas”
The Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott, a “slave” was taken from Missouri (slave territory) to a free territory and then back a few years later.
Sued the courts for his freedom because he lived in a free territory for a while.
Supreme Court decides that Scott is property…therefore he can not sue…also that the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858
Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858
Lincoln uses the issue of slavery to trap Douglas…who is a much better politician.
He does this by trapping him on the issue of popular sovereignty. He made Douglas choose between supporting a territory’s right to choose and the Dred Scott Decision.
Douglas wins the election,
for the Senate
, but loses support from the South.
Thus paving the way for Lincoln to become President.
Once Lincoln is elected South Carolina secedes.
Resources of the North and South
Military Strengths and Weaknesses
The entire navy
War of attrition
Controlled Mississippi River
Potential allies in Europe
Home field advantage
Just the start of Ch 6.2
With a lot more to cover.
Build up to war
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Growing economic and sociological differences.
Why did South Carolina secede?
The growing differences were just too much. Plus Lincoln was very pro-North and anti-slavery.
Lincoln won less than 40% of the popular vote and won. Breckinridge and Douglas shared the South’s electoral votes.
States Rights – South feared Lincoln would outlaw slavery…or impose taxes, and other economic policies that didn’t favor the South.
South Carolina Secedes
Restore Missouri Compromise and rejoin.
Lincoln says no
, he doesn’t want war, but will not allow slavery to expand. (but not make it illegal)
This moves other states in the South to join South Carolina and solidifies the North.
Attack on Fort Sumter
Firing began on April 12, 1861
Lincoln orders the Union troops not to fire back. The South lays siege to the fort.
On April 14
Major Anderson, running out of supplies, surrenders. There was one causality…a horse.
Lincoln says, “this rebellion is too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings” and asks for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebellion
Conscription – the first draft for the U.S.
Can the North win?
With Maryland staying with the Union the Naval Academy stays with the Union
War of Attrition
Greater population can be used to a bloody and ruthless advantage
Everyone fights the war somehow. Factories and economy are all geared towards stopping a determined enemy. This boosts the economy and the speed of inventions.
Can the South win?
Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson etc…the North kept West Point but lost all it’s teachers.
Robert E. Lee’s decision…originally asked to fight for the North (whom he actually supported)…couldn’t…believed in sectionalism over nationalism. “The USA” vs. “We the U.S.A.” Cause
Didn’t have to win…just prevent losing
Cotton is money…especially from Europe.
Worked well in the American Revolution
What is this war being fought for?
Is slavery truly the cause?
Your assignment…what issues caused the Civil War?
Things to think about
Was Lincoln going to outlaw slavery?
Why did the South Carolina secede?
Could war be avoided?
Civil War Information
More stuff not found in the textbook.
Totals – approximately 2 million men fought for the North. About 1 million for the South
40% of the soldiers were under the age of 21
50 days in camp for every day fighting. (Baseball)
Very unhealthy – poor sanitation, food, etc…
Medical Care…terrible…a trip to the hospital means no trip back. Especially in the South i.e. Anaconda Plan
Morals – Swings of emotions, all-male society…gambling, drinking, swearing etc…
This is the first war that regularly had 100,000 troops fighting at a time…so how do you supply them?
Factory produced goods
Ship quickly –railroad
Utilizes the efforts of the entire society
Grain, uniforms, supplies…all people not fighting are helping to support the war somehow.
Effects morale, political leadership, industry, and economy.
Revolutionary War tactics still used at the beginning of the war.
Barrel of the gun is smooth = inaccurate shot
Spiral down the barrel spins bullet = accurate
New weapons were accurate to 400 yards (5x greater distance than smooth bore)
Percussion Cap = can fire in rain
South never really received new weapons = huge disadvantage by the end of the war.
Both sides learned how to fight differently…they did this by trial and error = bloody
More than 100 regiments experienced over a 50% casualty rate.
Cannons didn’t really get more accurate in this war…problem is the kick back…to hard to aim. (This problem is fixed until WWI)
But you can make cannons more destructive on a wider scale…grape shot.
Nails, glass, rocks, anything that would impale.
Also shoot at trees…
Antietam a Union Solider wrote
, “no tongue can tell, no mind can conceive, no pen portray the horrible sights I witnessed this morning.”
Read more from page 423 in my book.
We need to cover the rest of these ideas.
Costs of War
Gettysburg Address and Emancipation
More of Ch 6.2
With more to follow.
Leaders and other important people.
Costs of War
The final pieces of Ch 6.2.3
Or the last of the notes over the Civil War
Confederate Prisoner of War Camp (for Northern Troops)
Prisoner exchange stopped by Grant – (uncon. surrender)
No supplies – Anaconda Plan
corn meal problems
, Holocaust, H20
Built for 10,000
Housed 45,000, 13,000 died, 5
largest city in the South.
Hung for war crimes…only southern to be hung.
Costs of War
3.5 million fought
620,000 died – more than all other wars, Revolutionary to Vietnam combined
Cost $20 billion – more money than the federal government spent in it’s entire history
National industry formed
Nationalism over sectionalism
South is destroyed
Battle Hymn of the Republic
Julia Ward Howe
Johnny Comes Marching Home
Are we still dealing with the civil war today?
2 minutes vs. 2 hours
Speechless crowd…Lincoln thought he was a failure
inaugural address was just as good.
Given to dedicate the cemetery for the battle.
Led to an amendment freeing the slaves
We’ll talk more about this next chapter.
“My American Cousin” @ Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865.
John Wilkes Booth
Lincoln was the South’s best hope for a generous peace…a peace that dies with him.
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