Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Which geographic feature was most important in encouraging some Eastern European peoples to migrate into the Roman Empire and settle there?
The Mediterranean climate
The North European Plain
The Black Sea
The Danube River
____ 2. Who was the first ruler to unite many of the Germanic kingdoms in the early Middle Ages?
____ 3. The Frankish empire Charlemagne created in Western Europe included
England and Germany.
Spain, England, and France.
Spain and Italy.
France, Germany, and Italy
____ 4. Most early European cities formed
along the Black Sea.
along the North Sea.
on highland plains.
near major rivers.
____ 5. Which people became the most powerful force in Western Europe in the early Middle Ages?
____ 6. Charlemagne’s empire was ended by
an invading Muslim army.
a split in the Catholic Church.
the Treaty of Verdun.
his death in A.D. 814.
____ 7. Which Christian monk established the set of rules that governed life in many monasteries and convents throughout medieval Europe?
____ 8. Which of the following was NOT a reason for the Catholic Church’s great power in medieval Europe?
____ 15. Which was the Catholic Church’s most powerful tool in maintaining its authority in medieval Europe?
Its missionary work
Its control over the sacraments
Its monasteries and convents
Its hospitals and schools
____ 16. Which modern-day country was the home of the Magyars, who raided Western Europe following the collapse of Charlemagne’s empire?
____ 17. Which group’s main role in feudal society was to protect the lord?
____ 18. Which person on a manor collected taxes from the peasants and served as judge when the lord was away?
____ 19. How did the manor system help bring order to Europe?
Manors were nearly self-sufficient units.
Manors were home to medieval knights.
Manors were able to resist Viking invasions.
Manors were worked by serfs bound to the land.
Complete each statement. 1. One important early missionary named __________ converted Irish pagans to Christianity.
2. A British monk named __________ helped to establish the Catholic Church in Germany and the Netherlands.
3. A person who pledged his loyalty and support to a lord in return for land and protection was called a(n) _____________.
4. On a manor, the ___________ collected taxes from the peasants and served as judge when the lord was away.
5. The Catholic Church’s control over the _____________ was a powerful tool in keeping its authority in medieval Europe.
6. The first Christian _____________, secluded communities where monks focused on prayer and scripture, developed in Egypt.
Short Answer 1. What features of Central and Western Europe’s topography would have attracted people to migrate and settle there?
2. Why was the battle of Tours an important event in the early history of Europe?
3. What long-term effects did Charlemagne’s reign have on Europe?
4. What role did religion and education play in Charlemagne’s efforts to unite Western Europe?
5. Contrast the climate of Europe’s Mediterranean countries and the climate of Western Europe. What is the reason for the difference in climates?
6. Describe Charlemagne’s approach to ruling his empire.
7. Besides being places of religious devotion, how did monasteries and convents benefit early medieval European society?
8. Compare the lives and work of missionaries to that of monks and nuns.
9. How did teaching about heaven and hell help to increase the Catholic Church’s influence and control over people in medieval Europe?
10. Describe the ways that monasteries helped Christian communities in medieval Europe.
11. What are the sacraments and how did they help make the Catholic Church powerful and influential in early medieval Europe?
12. Explain how daily life in medieval Europe centered around the Catholic Church.
13. How did the Vikings, Magyars, and similar groups contribute to the development of feudalism in Europe?
14. Explain how feudalism brought order to Europe.
15. Describe the effect the Vikings had on Western Europe.
16. Describe the system of land, loyalty, and protection on which feudalism was based.
17. What was the difference between medieval peasants and serfs? How were their roles in society similar?
Essay 1. How did Charlemagne’s 46-year reign as king of the Franks and Roman emperor affect Christianity and the Catholic Church in Europe?
2. Summarize how the Catholic Church gradually became a very powerful force in medieval Europe.
3. Describe a medieval manor and its residents and explain why it was largely self-sufficient.
4. Discuss the factors that brought disorder to Western Europe in the early Middle Ages and how Charlemagne, the Catholic Church, and feudalism restored order to the region.
Chapter 21 study guide
Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C REF: S. p. 629
2. ANS: B REF: S. p. 630
3. ANS: D REF: S. p. 631
4. ANS: D REF: S. p. 629
5. ANS: A REF: S. pp. 630-631
6. ANS: B REF: S. p. 633
7. ANS: A REF: S. p. 634
8. ANS: D REF: S. p. 639
9. ANS: B REF: S. p. 640
10. ANS: D REF: S. p. 640
11. ANS: C REF: S. p. 642
12. ANS: A REF: S. p. 628 | S. p. 630
13. ANS: A REF: S. p. 634
14. ANS: C REF: S. p. 626
15. ANS: C REF: S. p. 639
16. ANS: C REF: S. p. 640
17. ANS: A REF: S. p. 642
18. ANS: A REF: S. p. 645
19. ANS: A REF: S. p. 643 | S. p. 645
COMPLETION 1. ANS: [Saint] Patrick
REF: S. p. 637
2. ANS: [Saint] Boniface
REF: S. p. 637
3. ANS: vassal
REF: S. p. 641
4. ANS: bailiff
REF: S. p. 645
5. ANS: sacraments
REF: S. p. 639
6. ANS: monasteries
REF: S. p. 634
SHORT ANSWER 1. ANS:
Central Europe and Western Europe are covered by broad, fertile plains. The North European Plain stretches from France through Germany into Eastern Europe. Rivers, such as the Danube and the Rhine, flow from highlands across the plains. These rivers encouraged trade and brought water to farmland.
REF: S. pp. 628-629
In 732, the Frankish army met an invading Muslim army from Spain and defeated it at the battle of Tours. The battle ended one of the last Muslim military invasions of Western Europe.
REF: S. pp. 630-631
Charlemagne left a lasting legacy in Europe. He extended Christianity into northern Europe and contributed to the blending of Germanic, Roman, and Christian traditions. He also set up strong and efficient governments. Later rulers looked to his example when they tried to strengthen their own kingdoms.
REF: S. p. 633
Charlemagne wanted to create a united Christian empire. Many of his advisors were members of the clergy. He worked closely with the Catholic Church to spread Christianity throughout Europe. He thought that education also could help unite his kingdom. Educated officials would be able to keep accurate records and write clear reports.
REF: S. p. 631
Winds blowing inland from the oceans give most of Western Europe a relatively warm and moist climate year-round. However, mountains block these winds from reaching the Mediterranean countries. As a result, they have a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers.
REF: S. p. 628
Charlemagne appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions. He sent out officials to make sure the nobles he appointed were ruling fairly and well.
REF: S. p. 631
There were no hospitals in early Europe so monasteries and convents took care of poor or sick people. Early Europe had no public schools either, so they set up schools for children as well. Their libraries contained the works of Greek and Roman writers. By copying these works, the monks and nuns helped to keep ancient learning alive.
REF: S. p. 635
Missionaries were people who traveled across Europe to convert its people to Christianity. They were often sent by the Church to a specific region, such as Britain or Ireland, to establish churches and convert the people. Monks and nuns lived in monasteries and convents that were permanent settlements. Monks and nuns provided services to the local people and through schools they set up for children.
REF: S. pp. 635-637
Medieval Catholics believed that how they lived would affect whether they went to heaven or hell. They also believed that they had to receive the sacraments to avoid hell. The Catholic Church administered the sacraments, which gave them a great deal of power over the lives of people in medieval Europe.
REF: S. pp. 638-639
Monasteries helped Christian communities in several ways. One was by providing basic health and educational services to the secular community around them. Another was the monks’ missionary work to convert pagans. Still another was the monks’ work in monastery libraries, copying religious manuscripts. REF: S. pp. 636-637
The sacraments are the sacred rites of the Catholic Church, such as baptism and communion. Medieval Catholics believed that people who did not receive the sacraments would be condemned to hell. Since the Church controlled the administration of the sacraments, it could punish people by denying them these rites. This gave church officials great power and influence over people at all levels of society.
REF: S. pp. 638-639
Over time, the Catholic faith became part of everyday life in much of Europe. Life revolved around the Catholic calendar, which included many holidays, such as Easter, as well as local holy days dedicated to the saints. The local church became the center of society as well as a place of worship.
REF: S. p. 637
The Vikings, Magyars, and other invaders launched raids into Western Europe after Charlemagne’s empire collapsed. The existing rulers were too weak to protect their people from these invasions. So powerful local lords took over responsibility for protecting peoples’ homes and lands. A system of protection in return for service, support, and loyalty developed that became known as feudalism.
REF: S. pp. 640-641
After Charlemagne’s empire collapsed, there were no strong governments in Western Europe. Invasions by Vikings, Magyars, and others brought destruction and chaos. Feudalism brought powerful local lords and their vassals together in an arrangement that provided land to the vassals in exchange for support, service, and loyalty to the lord. This system united lords and vassals so that everyone could be protected against the invaders.
REF: S. pp. 640-642
Viking sailors launched raids on England, Scotland, Ireland, and France from their homes in Scandinavia. They looted and burned farms, villages, churches, and monasteries. When rulers in these regions could not protect them from such invasions, local lords developed a system called feudalism to help protect themselves and each other.
REF: S. pp. 640-641
In the feudal system a lord divided his lands among lesser lords called vassals. In return for the grant of land, each vassal pledged his loyalty and service to the lord. The lord also promised to protect the vassal. In return, the vassal provided military support to protect the lord, as well as money or food. These relationships were repeated as vassals gave protection and part of their land grants to vassals below them in return for military support and money or food.
REF: S. pp. 641-642
Serfs were peasants who were legally bound to the land of the lord. They could not be bought or sold like slaves, but they were not free either. Like other peasants, serfs worked in the fields and at other jobs on the manor. Also like the other peasants they lived on the manor and grew crops and made other things for themselves. However, other peasants could go elsewhere if they wished to. Serfs could not.
REF: S. pp. 644-645
ESSAY 1. ANS:
Possible answer:As king of the Franks Charlemagne reunited much of the original Western Roman Empire under his rule. At the same time, he helped the Catholic Church spread Christianity across Europe. He did so because he was a devout Christian himself and he wanted to rule a unified Christian Europe. The fact that many of his advisers were members of the clergy also probably encouraged his efforts to spread Christianity.
By helping to spread Christianity, Charlemagne would have made the Catholic Church more powerful in Europe. But Charlemagne also strengthened the church by protecting the pope from his enemies in Rome. The pope crowned Charlemagne Roman emperor. This act also made the Church stronger. Earlier Roman emperors had a lot of power over the Church. But by naming Charlemagne emperor, the pope established the idea that he had the power to name the emperor. Although this act increased the Church’s power, it also widened the gap between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, which disagreed with the pope’s right to name the emperor.
REF: S. pp. 631-632
Possible answer:When the Roman empire collapsed, Christianity had not spread much beyond its borders. Many Europeans were pagans. In early medieval times the Catholic Church began to establish monasteries and convents in Europe and sent out missionaries to convert the pagans to Christianity. Over time, the Christian calendar, with its many holidays (holy days), came to govern daily life, and the churches became the center of society as well as places of worship. The monasteries and convents became important places for the basic health and educational services they provided, since medieval Europe had no other hospitals or public schools. In addition, some monasteries, many high-ranking Church officials, and the Church itself came to control large areas of land. This landholding and wealth added to the Church’s power. So did the Church’s teachings and sacraments. Medieval Catholics believed in heaven and hell, and that life on Earth determined where they went after death. They were taught that to avoid hell they had to do good and receive the sacraments. These teachings and tools gave the Church tremendous power and influence of secular leaders and common people alike.
REF: S. pp. 634-639
Possible answer: A manor was the agricultural estate of a wealthy lord. The manor’s center was the lord’s house or castle. Surrounding it were fields for growing crops or grazing livestock, as well as forests and one or more villages where the peasants who worked on the manor lived. The manor’s peasants worked together to farm the lord’s land and harvest his crops. They grew crops for their own families on other land that the lord provided. They raised sheep, pigs, and cattle for meat. Women used sheep’s wool and other farm products to make clothing. Specialists such as carpenters and blacksmiths also lived and worked on the manor. A bailiff ran the manor’s day-to-day affairs. He collected taxes from the peasants, usually in the form of farm products. The bailiff also served as judge when the lord was away.
By producing its own food and clothing, having its own skilled workers like carpenters and blacksmiths, and even having its own tax and legal system, the manor was a largely self-sufficient unit. For the few things the manor did not produce, residents traveled to nearby market towns.
REF: S. pp. 644-645
Possible answer:A number of tribes, such as the Lombards and Franks, migrated into the Western Europe around A.D. 300 and set up small, warring kingdoms. Some Frankish rulers briefly united some of these kingdoms. But widespread unity in the region did not occur until around 800, when the Frankish king, Charlemagne, built an empire that stretched across much of what is now France, Germany, and Italy. Even before Charlemagne came to power, the Church had established monasteries in Western Europe. These monasteries provided basic health and education services to the people. Catholic popes in Rome also had sent out missionaries to convert the Germanic tribes and other pagan peoples to Christianity. Charlemagne became a devout Christian and he helped the Church spread Christianity in his empire. When Charlemagne’s empire collapsed after his death, the Church was left as the only unifying force in Europe. The Church provided more stability in Western Europe and had more control over its people than did the weak secular rulers who followed the collapse of Charlemagne’s empire. These weak kings proved unable to protect monasteries, churches, farms, and villages from raids by Viking, Magyar, and other invaders. With no strong ruler like Charlemagne to protect them, nobles organized a local system of mutual help and protection called feudalism. This system of mutual assistance helped kings and nobles to protect themselves and their vassals, lands, and people from these invaders. In this way, feudalism helped restore order to Europe in the centuries following the collapse of Charlemagne’s empire.