Chapter 23 without answers Multiple Choice

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Chapter 23 without answers

Multiple Choice:
1. In late nineteenth-century Europe, human progress was increasingly identified with

a. war.

b. economic inequality.

c. material progress or greater consumption of material goods.

d. sport.

e. spiritual beliefs and practices.

(page 651)
2. By 1871, the focus of Europeans’ lives had become

a. their weekends.

b. their schools.

c. their favorite sports teams.

d. the national state.

e. their church.

(p. 652)
3. The “Second Industrial Revolution” saw the advent of what new product?

a. textiles

b. steel

c. coal

d. railroads

e. factories

(p. 652)
4. What type of new energy source powered the second industrial revolution?

a. coal

b. hydro-electric

c. natural gas

d. electricity

e. fuel-cells

(p. 653)
5. Between 1860 and 1913, western European steel production went from

a. 5000 tons to 1 million tons.

b. 35,000 tons to 2 million tons.

c. 50,000 tons to 15 million tons.

d. 125,000 tons to 32 million tons.

e. 10 million tons to 100 million tons.

(p. 652)
6. The first internal combustion engine burning a mixture of gas and air was produced in

a. 1798.

b. 1838.

c. 1858.

d. 1878.

e. 1898.

(p. 653)
7. The development of markets after 1870 was best characterized by

a. decreased competition through free trade agreements.

b. the dismantling of the cartels that hindered free trade.

c. urban consumers in Europe who desired a growing number of consumer products.

d. an abandonment of overseas markets, especially by Britain, due to their small profit potential.

e. a significantly higher rate of growth among developing nations because the raw materials they provided were in greater and greater demand.

(p. 653)
8. Industrialization in Japan was the result of

a. private investment and initiative.

b. European colonization.

c. socialist planning on the Marxist model.

d. government planning and initiative.

e. ambitious former samurai.

(p. 655)
9. Germany began to replace Britain as Europe's industrial leader by the early twentieth century largely

due to

a. Britain’s careless and radical changes made to its industries.

b. Germany’s cautious approach and doctrine of “sticking to what works” in industry.

c. Britain’s reliance on cartels to invest large sums of money in new industries.

d. Germany’s development of new areas of manufacturing including chemicals and heavy electric machinery.

e. Britain’s loss of empire during and after the Boer War.

(p. 655)
10. By 1900, which of the following nations was the least advanced industrially

a. Britain.

b. Germany.

c. France.

d. Belgium.

e. Spain.

(p. 656)
11. In late nineteenth-century Europe, increased competition for foreign markets and the growing importance of domestic demand for economic development led to

a. the elimination of trade restrictions like tariffs.

b. a strong reaction against free trade and imposition of steep protective tariffs by most nations.

c. greater economic instability and a sequence of ever deeper economic depressions.

d. closer economic cooperation among the great powers.

e. greater investment by the United States in the European economy.

(p. 653)
12. The Second Industrial Revolution experienced

a. a drop in agricultural prices.

b. the shift from a three-field to a two-field crop rotation system due to better chemical fertilizers.

c. the emergence of a new class of agricultural production leaders called coloni.

d. a sharp increase in agricultural prices.

e. to stabilize agricultural prices at the level attained in 1850.

(p. 654)
13. Employment opportunities for women during the Second Industrial Revolution

a. changed in quality and quantity with the expansion of the service sector.

b. declined dramatically as prostitution became illegal.

c. increased greatly with working-class men pushing their wives to work outside the home.

d. declined when piece-work was abandoned as inefficient and "sweatshops" were outlawed.

e. declined because labor unions forced governments to restrict most employment opportunities to men only.

(p. 657)
14. When not able to find work in the factories, many lower class European women

a. became housewives.

b. turned to prostitution.

c. joined socialist movements.

d. took jobs as clerks, shop assistants, and nurses.

e. emigrated to Asia and Africa.

(p, 657)

15. A rise in female prostitution in European cities during the later nineteenth century can best be

attributed to

a. heavy migration to cities by country women and their increasingly desperate struggle for urban economic survival.

b. greater public toleration of sex workers and abandonment of all municipal efforts to police the


c. the acceptance by clergymen of the sex trade as an economic necessity for poorer women.

d. the declining interest of men and women to form families.

e. the decline in available husbands due to various STDs.

(p. 657-658)
16. A key reason for Germany supplanting England as the industrial leader of Europe was

a. British unwillingness to support and encourage formal technical and scientific education.

b. British decentralization of factory production.

c. German use of gas-powered internal combustion engines to drive all factory production.

d. massive German importation of skilled British workers.

e. a German embargo of all scientific information from Germany.

(p. 655)

17. An issue that brought socialists together in the nineteenth century was

a. nationalism.

b. revisionism.

c. the need for military action.

d. the desire to improve working and living conditions for most workers.

e. a fear that Marxism would submerge the socialist alternatives.

(p. 658)
18. The Marxist revisionist Eduard Bernstein stressed the need for

a. violent overthrow of capitalist governments.

b. the extermination of all individualists.

c. working through democratic politics to create socialism.

d. totally disregarding The Communist Manifesto.

e. a revolutionary seizure of the commanding heights of the economies.

(p. 659)
19. The trade union movement prior to World War I

a. was strongest in France after the dissolution of the Second International in 1890.

b. occurred despite trade unions being banned by most state governments.

c. varied from state to state, but was generally allied with socialist parties.

d. was primarily for unskilled laborers, especially the New Model unions.

e. focused entirely on wages and working conditions negotiated directly with employers without any government involvement in the process.

(p. 660)
20. Initially, trade unions in the first half of the nineteenth century functioned primarily as

a. political parties.

b. militant anarchist societies.

c. supporters of middle-class liberalism.

d. vehicles for leisure activities.

e. mutual aid societies.

(p. 660)

21. Anarchist movements were most successful in

a. industrialized countries like Great Britain and Germany.

b. toppling national governments through assassinations.

c. restoring legitimacy to radical movements through peaceful dialogue with political opponents.

d. less industrialized and less democratic countries where ordinary people could see no hope of

peaceful political change.

e. countries with revolutionary traditions like France.

(p. 660)

22. Some of the most powerful of the nineteenth-century labor unions were to be found in

a. England.

b. Germany.

c. France.

d. Italy.

e. Russia.

(p. 660)
23. Between 1850 and 1910, European population

a. increased from 270 million to 460 million.

b. actually decreased slightly.

c. increased from 45 to 60 million.

d. stagnated, causing severe problems for the development of leisure industries.

e. declined significantly because of the pollution engendered by increasing urbanization.

(p. 661)
24. The chief cause of rising European populations between 1850 and 1880 was

a. a rising birthrate.

b. a declining mortality rate.

c. better childhood immunization programs.

d. better human diet in a consumer economy.

e. dramatic improvements in urban sanitation.

(p. 661)
25. The driving force behind immigration to the cities was

a. job opportunities.

b. a desire for culture.

c. curiosity.

d. masochism.

e. entertainment.

(p. 661)
26. Reforms in urban living included all of the following except

a. the development of pure water and sewerage systems.

b. model homes built for the poor by wealthy philanthropists.

c. the demolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls, replaced by wide avenues.

d. a concerted effort to clean up all polluted rivers and lakes.

e. some increases in governmental regulations.

(p. 662-663)
27. Octavia Hill’s housing venture was designed to

a. give the poor an environment they could use to improve themselves.

b. give the poor charity since they could never help themselves.

c. let the wealthy know what it was like to be poor.

d. break down class barriers in London.

e. make the upper classes feel better and improve their self-esteem by doing something for the downtrodden of society.

(p. 664)
28. The middle classes of nineteenth-century Europe

a. were composed mostly of shopkeepers and manufacturers who barely lived above the poverty line.

b. offered little opportunity for women in improving their lot.

c. were very concerned with propriety and shared values of hard work and Christian morality.

d. viewed progress with distrust as they did not wish to lose their economic gains.

e. were sinking in economic and social security because of the increase of plutocrats.

(p. 666)
29. The largest segment of European society in the nineteenth century was composed of

a. skilled artisans such as cigar makers and cabinet makers.

b. peasant landholders, unskilled day laborers, and domestic servants who worked for very low wages.

c. semi-skilled laborers such as carpenters and bricklayers.

d. urban workers in eastern Europe and peasants in western Europe.

e. middle-class urbanites.

(p. 666)
30. For Elizabeth Poole Sanford, women should

a. avoid being self-sufficient.

b. strive to become equal to men.

c. accept their roles at home until new governmental reforms were instituted.

d. make it known to their husbands that they were dissatisfied.

e. take employment outside the home to become economically self-sufficient.

(p. 668)
31. European middle-class families during the late nineteenth century

a. were more concerned with displaying the work ethic than in displaying wealth and following proper decorum.

b. stressed functional knowledge for their children to prepare them for their future roles.

c. prided themselves on doing the housework and cooking for their families.

d. increasingly became less cohesive as togetherness was no longer an important value.

e. increased in numbers but were weakened structurally as men abandoned their family focus in order to advance their lives professionally.

(p. 668)
32. The domestic ideal of the nineteenth-century middle-class family was

a. everyone working outside the home for the common good.

b. togetherness with leisure time being very important.

c. an almost military environment with the husband as commander.

d. for girls and boys to grow up to be merchants and bankers.

e. to have large and extended families united in the same household.

(p. 668)
33. Daughters in European working-class families

a. were fully expected to work until marriage.

b. by long custom, were kept at home until of age to marry.

c. were barred from working by state law in many countries.

d. had traditionally never shown an interest in working either before or after marriage.

e. enrolled in vocational schools until marriage and then entered the work-place.

(p. 669)
34. By 1900, most European educational systems

a. were free and compulsory at least at the primary level.

b. were expensive to operate, and charged high tuition.

c. were backward and lacked good teachers.

d. still taught a “medieval” variety of subjects.

e. had declined because of lack of governmental interest and support.

(p. 670)
35. Although several motives drove European states to develop systems of mass public education for their citizens, the chief reason for which they did this was

a. economic, to produce a more educated workforce.

b. military, to produce better trained army conscripts capable of learning how to use modern


c. political, to produce more informed voters in expanding electorates and to heighten patriotism

producing more integrated nations.

d. religious, so as to teach the poor obedience to authority.

e. moral, to solidify the family as the basic structural unit of society.

(p. 670)
36. The “father” of tourism in England was

a. David Lloyd-George.

b. Thomas Cook.

c. John Boothe.

d. Frederick Cartwright.

e. W. G. Grace.

(p. 671)
37. Which of the following was a major development in British politics before 1914?

a. the continual growth of political democracy

b. the peaceful and successful settlement of the “Irish question”

c. the transformation of the Fabians into the Conservatives

d. the reduction of the House of Commons' power

e. the strengthening of the monarchy after the death of Queen Victoria

(p. 673-674)
38. Which of the following national groups had realized nationhood by 1871?

a. Irish

b. Slovenes

c. Czechs

d. Germans

e. Croats

(p. 676-678)

39. The Irish parliamentary leader who demand home-rule for Ireland in the 1880s was

a. William Gladstone.

b. William Butler Yeats.

c. Edward Fitzgerald.

d. Wolfe Tone.

e. Charles Parnell.

(p. 674)
40. A new development in the age of mass leisure was

a. the newspaper and novel.

b. the excessive consumption of alcohol.

c. the theater.

d. carnival.

e. professional sports.

(p. 672)
41. The English Reform Bill of 1884

a. enfranchised women.

b. gave English agricultural workers the right to vote.

c. did not dramatically increase the size of the electorate.

d. increased the total number of members in the House of Commons.

e. increased middle-class representative in Parliament.

(p. 673-674)

42. Louis Napoleon’s Second Empire was brought to an end by

a. France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.

b. the emperor’s financial policies.

c. his choice of poor administrators.

d. his defeat by the Austrians.

e. the unpopularity of his marriage to Empress Eugenie.

(p. 674)
43. Splits between the French working and middle class

a. were largely solved by the liberal reforms of the Third Republic.

b. enabled the Third Republic to elect a new monarch in 1875.

c. led to a strong parliamentary system of government.

d. were further widened by the brutal suppression of the Paris Commune in 1871.

e. ended in the light of continued Prussian threats to France’s national survival.

(p. 674)
44. The Boulanger Crisis in France had the end result of

a. strengthening the monarchists.

b. rallying French citizens to the cause of the Republic.

c. splitting the support and allegiance of the army.

d. causing the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871.

e. toppling the Third Republic.

(p. 674)

45. Which of the following statements best applies to Spain and Italy in the late nineteenth century?

a. Spain had returned to the status of a great power.

b. Italy’s unification was vigorously supported by the pope.

c. Both countries were preeminent colonial powers, especially in Africa.

d. Both countries remained second-rate European powers, less transformed by the economic and cultural innovations of the age.

e. Both nations had joined the nations of northern Europe by creating powerful industrial middle-

class societies.

(p. 675)
46. In 1867 Austria-Hungary was theoretically a constitutional government; in reality it was a/an

a. autocracy.

b. democracy.

c. government similar to Great Britain.

d. very corrupt and inefficient.

e. federal republic.

(p. 677)
47. Under the chancellorship of Bismarck, Germany

a. realized the growth of a real democracy through universal male suffrage.

b. passed social welfare legislation to woo workers away from the Social Democrats.

c. engaged in the Kulturkampf or crusade to make Catholicism Germany's national religion.

d. maintained a military second only to that of France on the Continent.

e. continued to threaten to invade its neighbors.

(p. 677)
48. Which statement best applies to the Germany under chancellor Otto von Bismarck?

a. Prussia lost much of its influence on state politics.

b. Coalitions were used by Bismarck to get what he wanted and then he dropped them.

c. Socialism was almost completely stamped out by the Prussian army.

d. Almost all regional differences disappeared under the charismatic leadership of Bismarck.

e. The emperor became merely a figurehead and lacked any political power and influence.

(p. 677)
49. Which of the following statements best applies to Austria-Hungary before World War I?

a. Both Austria and Hungary had working parliamentary systems.

b. The Magyars dominated politics in Austria under Emperor William II.

c. The nationality problem remained unresolved and led to strong German as well as other nationalist movements.

d. Prime minister Count Edward von Taafe was ousted in 1893 by the Slavic minorities for his failure to make concessions to them.

e. By 1900 it had become a federal state, with seven different constitutional regions enjoying domestic self-rule.

(p. 678)
50. The policy pursued by Russia’s Alexander III and Nicholas II after the assassination of Alexander II was a policy of

a. liberalism.

b. nationalism.

c. socialism.

d. militarism.

e. autocracy.

(p. 678)

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