Chapter 9 Guided Reading Christian Europe Emerges, 300-1200



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AP World History

The Earth and Its People


Chapter 9 Guided Reading
Christian Europe Emerges, 300-1200
Introduction


  1. Who was the king of the Franks?

  2. What does the title Charlemagne mean?

  3. Who crowned Charles the emperor of Europe?

  4. After the fall of Rome, to where did the power in Europe shift?

  5. Why is this era known as medieval?

  6. Who carried on the Roman tradition?

  7. What was the only unifying force in the west?


Early Medieval Europe, 300-1000
1. Who reunited the Roman Empire temporarily?

2. How did law and order change in the West after Rome’s fall?

3. What became a hallmark of post-Roman Europe?
From Roman Empire to Germanic Kingdoms


  1. Why had Diocletian and Constantine concerned themselves most with the East?

  2. How did Rome retain some semblance of power?

  3. What languages did Latin evolve into?

  4. Who finally stopped the Islamic push into western Europe?

  5. Where was the Carolingian Empire located?

  6. Who posed a new threat to Europe in 793 CE?

  7. Where did the Vikings attempt to found settlements?

  8. Map 10.1: Why did invasions favor the north in later years?

  9. Who was William the Conqueror and the Normans?


A Self-Sufficient Economy


  1. How did the fall of Roman rule affect the European economic landscape?

  2. What replaced the loss of literacy and other aspects of Roman civilized life?

  3. Whose diet was better: 9th century or 12th century Europeans? Why?

  4. Describe a manor.

  5. What were some of the fortifications required by these manors?

  6. Who were the serfs?

  7. What was the relationship between Roman slaves and European serfs?


Early Medieval Society
1. Which emerging class of people reaped the great personal benefits of

Medieval Europe?

2. What became the mainstay of the Carolingian army?

3. What transformation occurred as a result of nearly constant warfare?

4. What is meant by a feudal society?

5. Were all European feudal societies exactly the same?

6. What technology led to the rise of the mounted warrior as the paramount

force on the battlefield?

7. Why were European horses better for this type of battle?

8. What is the relationship between knights and land-ownership?

9. What is a fief?

10. Who were the vassals?

11. Who usually controlled the greater portion of land?

12. What were the three factors that influenced marriage?

13. What did the Bayeux Tapestry depict?
The Western Church


  1. Which two leaders commanded authority over church affairs?

  2. What were some of the issues that negatively impacted the church?

  3. What is the papacy?

  4. Map 10.2 – What was happening by 800 CE that impacted Christianity?


The Structure of Christian Faith


  1. Society & Culture: What are the purposes of the penitentials?

  2. Who were the patriarchs?

  3. Where were they located?

  4. What were the central priestly duties?

  5. How did some Christians differ on church philosophy?

  6. What is heresy?

  7. What is a schism?

  8. What is the Monophysite doctrine?

  9. What is cannon law?

  10. What did the Council of Nicaea declare?

  11. What is the difference between ‘orthopraxy’ and ‘orthodoxy’?


Politics and the Church
1. What was the Holy Roman Empire?

  1. What conflict of interest existed with many vassals?

  2. What is the investiture controversy?

  3. What ‘weapons’ did the kings and popes use against each other?

  4. How did the Concordat of Worms help solve this dilemma? Who won?

  5. How did Henry II of England strengthen the crown?

  6. Why is Thomas Becket important?

  7. What three laws came into conflict in Europe?


Monasticism


  1. Describe monasticism.

  2. Monks lived by which code – regular or secular?

  3. What were the primary centers of literacy and learning in Europe?

  4. What other services did monks provide?

  5. Which monastery led the reform movement and became the largest in the world?


Shaping European Society
1. How did Christian Rome differ from old Rome?

2. Why did many Jews get into money changing and goldsmithing?


The Byzantine Empire, 300-1200
1. Define caesaropapism.
Church and State
1. What city did Constantinople replace as the capital of the Byzantine?

2. Which key religious leader was appointed by the Byzantine emperor?

3. In which half of the Roman Empire did paganism die out fastest?

4. Which emperor banned all pagan ceremonies, including the Olympics?

5. Who became the primary enemy of the Byzantines for 300 years?

6. Who replaced the Sasanids between 634 and 650 CE?

7. How did the rise of Islam affect the Byzantine by 1200?

Society and Urban Life
1. The loss of which two territories contributed to the slow decline of the

Byzantine Empire?

2. Which class of people practically disappeared from the Byzantine

landscape?

3. How did the position of women change?

4. Were Byzantine farmers using the latest technology?

5. How is Constantinople described by the French traveler?

Cultural Achievements
1. What body of law did Justinian commission during his reign?

2. Why was this body of law important?

3. What is the Hagia Sofia?

4. Why is it significant?

5. What is the importance of Methodius and Cyril?
Kievan Russia, 900-1200

1. What did Russia assume after the fall of the Byzantine Empire?

2. Which people made up the western Russian territory?

3. Who were the Varangians?


The Rise of the Kievan State
1. What does Rus refer to?

2. What were the key Russian cities and why?

3. Who was the first grand prince of Kievan Russia?

4. Why did Vladimir chose Orthodox Christianity as the religion of Kievan

Russia?

5. How was trade affected by this decision?



Society and Culture
1. How was political power different here than in Europe?

2. What was the building material of choice?

3. Describe the acceptance of Christianity among the general population.

Western Europe Revives, 1000-1200
1. What is subsistence economy.

2. How did the increase in agricultural production and rising population after

the economy?

3. To what do historians attribute this revival?


The Role of Technology
1. How much did the population rise between 1000 and 1200 CE?

2. What effect did the new plow and harness have on Europe?

3. How is the horse collar different from the traditional harness?

4. What were the advantages of using horses over oxen?


Cities and the Rebirth of Trade
1. What did the cities in N. Italy and Flanders turn to for economic prowess?

2. How did local law and serfs play into this economic equation?

3. Which Italian city became the power in the Adriatic in the 11th century?

4. What were other primary Italian cities?

5. Who did the N. Italian cities trade with?

6. What were the key Flanders cities?

7. Why were these cities important?
The Crusades
1. What are the Crusades?

2. Were they really religiously inspired?

3. What three reasons does the text give for the Crusades?

4. How did the loss at Manzikert in 1071 and pilgrimage fit into the Crusades?

5. What happened as a result of the Council of Clermont in 1095?

6. How does the text describe the Crusades?

7. Did the Crusades really impact the Islamic World much?

8. What did the Christians get out of the Crusades?



9. What was the primary impact of the 3 crusades of the 11th and 12th

centuries?
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