The text below is part of the (2010) book: Of The Students, By The Students and For The Students, Chapter 1, Cambridge Scholars Publishing
China EFL: The Four Great Lies Martin Wolff, China Martin Wolff, J.D. is currently a "Foreign Expert" in China teaching International Business Law, Marketing, International Negotiations, Introduction to the WTO, and Holistic English as a Foreign Language. He graduated from Loyola University, Los Angeles, with a Juris Doctor degree He was appointed a "Foreign Expert" in China in 2002 and has taught at many prestigious universities throughout China. He is the co-author, of the Holistic English Workbook series that includes: Holistic Business English; Holistic Freshman English; Holistic Marketing English; Holistic Tourism English; and eleven other specialized Holistic workbooks. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
First lie: You must master English
Second lie: You can only make your English better by speaking with a native speaker
Third lie: Chinglish is no good
Fourth lie: Everyone in China needs to learn English
Effects of debunking the four great lies
What students are saying
Introduction At any given moment there are twice as many Chinese learning English as there are citizens of the U.S.A. English instruction begins in kindergarten and continues into postgraduate study, for both English majors and non-English majors. Everyone in China must study English. Local variants of English such as Chinglish and Chinese English are discouraged as inappropriate. Students are placed under extreme pressure to “master” English. National English competency exams are a predicate to further study or employment. China employs more than 150,000 native English speakers to teach English in its schools. Some programs encourage Chinese learners of English to locate foreigners on the street and run up to them and yell “Hello” in the foreigner’s face. This crazy approach is predicated upon the belief that the only way to improve your English is to engage with a native English speaker. Teaching English as a Foreign Language in China is predicated upon 4 GREAT LIES.
First lie: You must master English Every Chinese learner of English is instructed that they must “master” English.
Due to the inordinate influence of the British Council on English learning in China, most Chinese students of English own the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary or Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. These are also the most available dictionaries in school libraries and book stores throughout China.
“Master” is defined in the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary as:
master (SKILLED PERSON
1 a person who is very skilled in a particular job or activity:
He was a master of disguise.
2 a famous and very skilled painter:
This painting is clearly the work of a master.
adjective [before noun]
a master craftsman
a master chef
to learn how to do something well:
to master a technique
She lived in Italy for several years but never quite mastered the language.
He quickly mastered the art of interviewing people.
If an action is masterful, it is very skilful:
a masterful performance
done extremely well:
She gave a masterly performance as Kate in 'The Taming of the Shrew'.
If someone has a mastery of something, they are extremely skilled at it:
her mastery of the violin
Dr. Niu Qiang, one of China’s eminent scholars in English Linguistics explains that to “master” English one must speak like a native speaker.
But, assuming the student is motivated to “master” English, which English should they choose to “master”?
British English (BrE, BrEng)
Black British English (BBE); England (English language in England (EngEng)
Cheshire; Cumbrian (Cumbria excluding Barrow-in-Furness); Geordie (Newcastle upon Tyne); Lancastrian (Lancashire); Scouse (Merseyside); Mancunian (Manchester); Mackem (Sunderland); Northumbrian (rural Northumberland); Pitmatic (Durham and Northumberland); Yorkshire (also known as Tyke) In the far north, local speech is noticeably Scots in nature.
Black Country English; Brummie (Birmingham); Potteries (north Staffordshire)
Cockney (East London); East Anglian (Norfolk and Suffolk); Estuary (Thames Estuary); Kentish (Kent); Jafaican (Inner London); West Country
Scottish English; Highland English
Hiberno-English; Mid Ulster English
Isle of Man
Guernsey English; Jersey English
Maltenglish American English (AmE, AmEng, USEng)
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE); Chicano English; General American; New York Latino English; Pennsylvania Dutchified English; Yeshivish; Yinglish
Boston English; Hudson Valley English (Albany); Maine-New Hampshire English; New York City Dialect, Northern New Jersey Dialect (New York metropolitan area); Providence-area English; Vermont English; Philadelphia-area English; Pittsburgh English; Inland Northern American English (includes western and central upstate New York); Wawarsing English; Northeast Pennsylvania English (Scranton, Pennsylvania-area)
Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area Accent (D.C. Slang); Baltimorese; Tidewater accent; Virginia Piedmont; Virginia Tidewater; Inland North American (Lower peninsula of Michigan, northern Ohio and Indiana, the suburbs of Chicago, part of eastern Wisconsin and upstate New York); The Chicago accent; Buffalo English
North Central American English (primarily Minnesota, but also most of Wisconsin, the Upper peninsula of Michigan, and parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Iowa; Yooper dialect (the variety of North Central American English spoken in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and in some neighboring areas)
Midland American English
North Midlands English (thin swath from Nebraska to Ohio); St. Louis dialect; South Midland (thin swath from Oklahoma to Pennsylvania)
Cajun English; Harkers Island English (North Carolina); Ozark English; Piedmont Dialect; Southern Highland English; Florida Cracker Dialect; Gullah or Geechee; Tampanian English; Texan; Yat (New Orleans); Western English; California English; Utah English; Boontling; Hawaiian English; Pacific Northwest English Canadian English (CanE, CanEng)
Malaysian English (MyE); Manglish; Philippine English (PhE); Singapore English; Sri Lankan English (SLE)
Cameroon English; Liberian English; Nigerian English; Malawian English; South African English; East African English; Ugandan English Oceania
Australian English (AusE, AusEng)
Australian Aboriginal English; Torres Strait English
South Australian English; Western Australian English; Fijian English; New Zealand English (NZE, NZEng)
The above list may not be exhaustive.
Most Chinese students of English settle for “mastering” a dictionary definition of English. They memorize long lists of English words and their definitions, or set phrases, to pass the National English proficiency examinations (Qiufang and Johnson 1997) and then wonder why they can’t speak or write comprehensible English.
Who has ever “mastered” the English language?
English is not static, new words are added to dictionaries every year. As Noah Webster stated “the English language is an ever-changing tapestry”. Large teams of lexicographers, associate editors and editors are required to publish a dictionary. If anyone has “mastered” English, why are so many people required to publish a dictionary?
This extreme mandate to “master” English is the exact academic pressure that Krashen identifies as inhibiting 2nd language acquisition. (Krashen, Stephen (1981) When this academic pressure is removed, Chinese learners of English build self-confidence, intrinsic motivation, self-discipline and develop autonomous learning skills,(Qiang, Wolff, Teng 2009) and then go on to produce comprehensible English, but not perfect English.
CCTV-9 (International English) employs Chinese presenters who have been abroad for many years, some as long as 20, living in an English speaking environment. Their English is not native like. A rather common instance of Chinglish is when the Chinese interviewer asks a guest “How do you think about ….?” instead of “What do you think about ….?” It is impossible for a native Putonghua speaker to “master” English and speak like a native English speaker due to the influence of the mother tongue, Putonghua.
This mandate to “master” English establishes a very high bar that tends to discourage rather than motivate.
Second lie: You can only make your English better by speaking with a native speaker What probably began as propaganda, supporting the creation of job opportunities for British citizens to teach English in China, has become engrained in the fabric of the English learning mentality of China. Chinese people believe that the only way to make their English better is to communicate with native English speakers.
Through the legal employment process, China employs in excess of 150,000 native English speakers to teach English beginning in kindergarten and continuing through post grad study. It is rumored that another 100,000 native English speakers teach without the legally required permits.
Consider a representative university oral English class taught by a native speaker: (Qiang, Wolff, Teng 2009) on average, a class of 40 students for 90 minutes every two weeks. If every student speaks, they will have a maximum of 2 minutes each to speak at the foreign teacher. There is no time for any dialogue. Many foreign teachers resort to pair or small group work to facilitate more oral communication. But this is L2 sharpening L2, just like steel sharpening steel. So long as the class is taught by a foreign native speaker, the Chinese simply do not see the paradox.
After viewing the Hollywood blockbuster “The Terminal,” Chinese learners of English have a solid understanding of the basic principles of 2nd language acquisition and soundly reject the notion that they can only make their English better by speaking with a native English speaker. (Wong, Wolff, Qiang 2009)
Third lie: Chinglish is no good Chinglish and Chinese English are distinguishable (Jiang Yajun, 1995)but both are discouraged as inappropriate.
Every Country that adopts English as its official or unofficial L2 creates its own variant of spoken English.
China, with its 1.3 billion plus people, has every right to develop a variant of English influenced by its native Putonghua (Holm and Dodd 1986) and manageable by its population. The objective should be effective communication in the international language of commerce, not blind adherence to some ideal of perfection or pure British English, whatever that is.
Granted, some professions demand a higher degree of English such as interpreters, translators, industrial and political spies, international lawyers, international accountants and scientists cooperating on international projects. But the average Chinese business person or common citizen has no demonstrable need for anything more than Chinglish.
Fourth lie: Everyone in China needs to learn English Everyone from kindergarten through postgraduates study English. Most Chinese university (non-English major) graduates know more about the English language than most American university (English major) graduates.
Chinese students study the rules of construction and memorize vast lists of words and set phrases but they do not learn the language or acquire the language. They have enough knowledge about English to pass the Chinese National proficiency examinations but they cannot produce comprehensible oral or written English. (Jun Lu Nov. 2005)
The English curriculum is driven by the composition and nature of the National examinations. (Jun Lu Nov. 2005) The curriculum is designed to teach the students all about the English language but not to learn or acquire it.
It would be far more intellectually honest for China to claim that everyone must study English because the current test oriented curriculum and teaching methodology puts learning and acquisition beyond reach.
China needs to firmly grasp the difference between study, learn and acquire. They require different teaching methodologies and obtain vastly different results.
Effects of debunking the four great lies During the spring 2009 semester at Sun Yat-sen University the 4 Great Lies were explained to 600 post graduate (humanities) studentsi in the new Holistic English course (this replaced the traditional oral English course), but were not explained to 84 post graduate (humanities) students in the traditional oral English course. The following graphs clearly demonstrate that when the burden and pressure induced by the 4 Great Lies is lifted from the students, there is a demonstrable benefit to the students in the areas of self-confidence, intrinsic motivation, self-discipline, creative thinking and autonomous learning skills.
Graph A: Self-evaluation progress of students freed from Graph B Self-evaluation progress of students laboring
the burden of the 4 Great Lies. under the 4 Great Lies
During the fall 2009 semester at Sun Yat-sen University the 4 Great Lies were explained to 700 post graduate (science) studentsii in the new Holistic English course (this replaced the traditional oral English course), but were not explained to 165 post graduate (science) students in the traditional oral English course. The following graphs clearly demonstrate that when the burden and pressure induced by the 4 Great Lies is lifted from the students, there is a demonstrable benefit to the students in the areas of self-confidence, intrinsic motivation, self-discipline, creative thinking and autonomous learning skills.
Graph C: Self-evaluation progress of students freed from the Graph D Self-evaluation progress of students laboring
burden of the 4 Great Lies. under the 4 Great Lies
What students are saying The fall 2009 700 post-graduate students (all of whom have passed CET 6) at one of China’s top ten universities, representing 195 undergraduate colleges and universitiesiii from every Province of China read a draft of this article and made their opinions known at http://chinaholisticenglish.com The following are some representative students comments:
May Class 6
November 2nd, 2009 at 10:23 pm
“Steel sharpens steel.” I like this idiom and I like Chinglish. I have been always told to do as the “four great lies” says since I began to study English. They are the basic rules for studying. But now they turn out to be lies. It is because the standards we neglect the true nature in studying English, that we become shy and afraid of speaking English not build self-confidence, intrinsic motivation and self-discipline. So get rid of these lies and do the right from now, as the going says: better later than never.
Mark Class 16
November 2nd, 2009 at 10:31 pm
I’m terribly grateful to you for telling us the four great lies of English learning in China. In my experience to learn English, there are some mistakes such as grammar study, words study, learning only formal textbook English. I just rely on schools, never be motivated, and think my oral English is so substandard that I don’t want to speak more. After I read the article, I become more positive and optimistic. I will manage my emotions again and remain motivated and energetic. So, thanks a lot for you guidance.
Jane.Y Class 8
November 3rd, 2009 at 12:14 am · Edit
I do agree that the four great lies definitely exist and have been hindering Chinese students’ English learning. Why do students need perfect English? What is that for and how can it be possible? Isn’t it strange that students have to keep all the set meaning of all phrases and words in mind just to pass tests but seldom use it in their life? I believe good English comes from people’s interest, practical needs and practice in daily life, not from compulsory boring tests.
Lively Class 2
November 2nd, 2009 at 8:20 pm · Edit
I have heard the 4 lies first time in the early time of this term. The four ideas were told to us for many years. Not until now they became lies. There are always a simple standard for us to study English. So we learn English to catch the line and we forget that English is a language for communication. That’s why we can remember much vocabulary but can’t talk them easily. English is a language that we need to practice. It’s not a dead, unchangeable standard that everyone should obey to, but a vivid tool makes us understand the hold world easily.
Jane Class 9
November 2nd, 2009 at 8:29 pm
After reading the article, I have a deep impression. When I studied in the senior middle school, I had only one goal about learning English, it was getting high marks. I have only one approach which was looking and memorizing the words through the dictionary and the words book which I bought from the store too. I never want to speak it out, because I faced the bar of college entrance examination. English teachers trained us through asking us doing the English examination against the entrance examination to the university again and again. We become a machine. At that time we just feel English is hard, and it is too hard to achieve high scores. So I agree with most views of this article, I hope that China can put the English reform into practice.
Torres Class 3
November 2nd, 2009 at 8:44 pm · Edit
After reading the article, I have a very fresh and comfortable feeling, just like a breeze blowing over my face. The four great lies are just what are deeply in my mind. The circumstance we live in nearly turn the lies into the truths. I agree with this article in these points as following: 1. Language is just a tool, it should not be mastered, just be used. 2. English is not the language of someone or one country. It is just one of the languages in the world. It originated from England, but it has been popularized with the discovery of America, and so on. And it has evolved into different kinds, such as British English and American English. So we have our own English. 3. We can communicate with Chinese people just in a different language. Communication is the most important thing. 4. English is just a tool. If you think it is necessary, just learn it. If not, just have a rest.
Wesly Class 3
November 2nd, 2009 at 8:47 pm
This article indeed changes my perspective toward English learning. Sometimes I really feel that my oral English is so substandard that I don’t want to speak more. After reading this paper, I decide to speak more English though it may be substandard. Chinglish is also understandable!
Hany Class 1
November 2nd, 2009 at 9:17 pm
Lies or truths? It is a question for us to think! To be frank it is the first time that I hear that “YOU MUST MASTER ENGLISH” is a lie! ”YOU CAN ONLY MAKE YOUR ENGLISH BETTER BY SPEAKING WITH A NATIVE SPEAKER” is a lie! ”CHINGLISH IS NO GOOD” is a lie! ” EVERYONE IN CHINA NEEDS TO LEARN ENGLISH” is also a lie! How shocked I am by the 4 lies! Because I think the 4 lies are truths for so many years and everyone I know just believe them and do following them. Indeed, we need to change our attitude towards learning English. A student that has learned English for more than 10 years can still not to speaking it .What a shame! It is time for us to change!
Jane Class 8
November 2nd, 2009 at 9:10 pm
“SECOND LIE – YOU CAN ONLY MAKE YOUR ENGLISH BETTER BY SPEAKING WITH A NATIVE SPEAKER.“ ”THIRD LIE – CHINGLISH IS NO GOOD”. In the four lies, I have more deep feelings about these two.
I have studied English for 13 years before my postgraduate. But I had never communicated with others in English seriously. Even when I was doing an English presentation I was only echoing what my papers was saying. Real change began from this semester of holistic English. In this class, several Chinese students communicate with Chinglish. No one make fun of someone else, and everyone just try to do their best. I feel that through practice of this period, I am really improving. This morning, I met one tour groups from Japan in the library. An old man asked me in English: “Can you speak English?” Two months ago, I would say: “A little.” But now I said to him straightforward: “Yes, I can! “.Then I answered two questions in English. As I walked out of the library, I felt proud and elated. Who gave me the courage to speak? I think that is the holistic English class and Professor Martin. I think, one more important purpose to learn a language it to communicate other than to pass the CET-4 or 6. And as long as we can be understood by others, Chinglish is also nothing wrong.
In addition, NATIVE SPEAKERS are not the only helpers. As long as we are willing to help each other, we can improve by ourselves.
Conclusion No matter how well intentioned the 4 Great Lies may have originally been as extrinsic motivators, Chinese university students laboring under the heavy burdens imposed by these false premises neither learn nor acquire English and graduate functionally illiterate, in that they are unable to produce comprehensible English. Many students find the bar too high and simply give up. For those that continue on in earnest, they eventually confront the frustration of functional illiteracy and wonder why they wasted 16 years learning (sic) English.
Grace class O2
December 2nd, 2009 at 10:42 am
I found it frustrated to learn English because of the first lie. I thought it useless to speak English with my friends because of the second lie. I barely spoke in front of the public because of the third lie. In this way I realized that my English improved little in return to my effort. But I have to keep on studying English because of the fourth lie. ….
The 4 great lies inhibit 2nd language acquisition and are a poor substitute for a lack of good 2nd language pedagogy and methodology.
References Alison Holm and Barbara Dodd (1996) The effect of first written language on the acquisition of English literacy, Cognition, Volume 59, Issue 2 Jiang Yajun, (1995) Chinglish and China English, English Today, Vol. 11 issue 1
Jun Lu (Nov. 2005) On Improving Student’s Spoken English in Classes, Sino-US English Teaching, Volume 2, No.11 (Serial No.23)
Krashen, Stephen (1981) Second Language Acquisition and 2nd Language Learning, Prentice Hall
Qiang/Wolff/Teng (2009) China EFL: Holistic English, The revolution has begun but the long march lies ahead, Nova Science Publishers
Qiufang Wen and Robert Keith Johnson, (1997) L2 Learner Variables and English Achievement: A Study of Tertiary-level English Majors in China, Applied Linguistics, Vol. 18 No. 1
Wong/Wolff (2009) Holistic English: A Revolution – Not an Evolution, (In Press) Nova Science Publishers http://chinaholisticenglish.com accessed December 1, 2009
i The 600 students represent the following provinces:
Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Yunnan, Zhejiang
The 600 students represent the following 120 undergraduate institutions of higher learning:
Anhui University, Anyang Normal University, Army Institute of Xian, Beijing Institute of Business, Beijing Normal University, Central China Normal University, Central University of Finance and Economics, Central South University, Central University of Nationalities, Chang An University, Changchun University, Changchun Normal University, Changchun Taxation College, China University of Mining and Technology, Chin South Normal University, Chinese University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing University, Chongqing Jaiotong University, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Dalian Nationalities University, DongBei University of Finance and Economics, Finance and Economic University of Tiang Yi, Fudan University, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou University, Gannan Normal University, Guangxi University, Guangdong Academy of Fine Art, Guangdong Business University, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangdong University of Business Study, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies , Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guizhou Institute of Nationalities, Guizhou Normal University, Guizhou University, Hangzhou DianZi University, Hainan University, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Henan Agricultural University, Hebei Normal University, Hebei Economic and Business University, Hebei University, Hefei University of Technology, Henyang Normal University, Hohai University, Hongshan Normal University, Huazhong Agricultural University, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Coal Industrial Teacher’s College, Hubei University of Technology, Hubei University, Hunan University of Arts and Sciences, Hunan University, Hunan Normal University, Jiaying University , Jiangxi Normal University, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Jilin University, Jishou University, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Lanzhou Commercial College, Lanzhou University, Liaoning University, Ludong University, Minzu University, Nanjing Agriculture University , Nanchang University, Nanjing University, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nankai University, Nanyang Institute College, Nanyang Normal University, NorthEast Agricultural University, NorthEast Normal University, North China Electric Power University, Northeastern University, Northwest University of Politics and Law, Northwest University, Northwest Polytechnic University, Peking University, People’s University of China, Qingdao University, Renmin University, Shandong University, Shanxi Normal University, Shanxi University, Shenzhen University, Sichuan Normal University, Sichuan University, South Central University for Nationalities, Sijiazhuang Railway College, South China Agriculture University, South China Normal University, South China University of Technology, South China University, Southwest JiaoTong University, Southwest Finance University, Southwest University, Southwest University of Finance and Economics, Southwest University of Political Science and Law, South China University of Technology, Sun Yat-sen, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin Foreign Studies University, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan University, Xian Economic and Financial College, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian Institute of Technology, Xian University of Finance and Economics, XiangTan University, Xiamen University, XiDian University, YanShan University, Yantai University, Yunnan University, Zhanguan Economy and Law School, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhengzhou University, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University of Technology, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Zhongshan University
ii The 700 students represent the following provinces:
The 700 students represent the following 195 undergraduate institutions of higher learning:
Agricultural University of Hebei, Anhui Normal University, Anhui University, Anyang Normal University, Anyang Normal Teachers University, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Normal University Zuhai Campus, Binzhou University, Central China Agriculture University, Central China Normal University, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Central South University, Changchun Normal University, Changsha University, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Chengdu University of Technology, China Agriculture University, China Pharmaceutical University, China University of Geosciences, China West Normal University, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing University of Post and Telecommunications, Dalian University of Technology Dalian Jiaotong University, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Dezhou University, East China Institute of Technology, East China Normal University, East China Institute of Technology, Foshan University, Fujian Normal University, Gannan Normal University, Guangdong College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Ocean University, Guangzhou University, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong University of Business Study Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin University of Technology, Guiyang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guizhou University, Guizhou College of Finance and Economics, Hainan Normal University, Hainan University, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin Normal University, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University, Hefei University, Hefei University of Technology, Heilongjiang University, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Henan Normal University, Henan University, Henan College Of Science And Technology, Henan University of Technology, Hengyang Normal University, Hohai University, Huaibei Coal Industry Teachers College, Huanggang Normal University, Huangshan College, Huangshan University, Huazhong Agricultural University, Huazhong Normal University, Huangzhong Agricultural University, Hubei Normal University, Hubei University of Technology, Hunan Agriculture University, Hunan City University, Hunan Normal University, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Hunan University, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan University, Inner Mongolia University, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Jiangxi Normal University, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Jiangsu University, Jiaying University, Jiamusi University, Jiliang University, Jilin University, Jimei University, Jinan University, Jiujiang University, Jishou University, JYU University, Liaoning Normal University, Liaoning University, Lanzhou University, Leshan Normal University, Liaocheng University, Liaoningshihua University, Linyi Normal University, Linyi University, Luoyang Normal University, Nanchang University, Nanchang Hang Kong University, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing University, Neijiang Teachers' College, Nankai University, Northeast Agriculture University, Northeast Forest University, Northeast Normal University, Northeastern University, North University of China, North West Normal University, Northwest University, Northwest University of Politics and Law, Northwest A & F University, Ocean University of China, Peking University, Pingdingshan University, Quanzhou Normal University, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao University, Qingdao Technological University, Qufu Normal University, Qiannan Normal College for Nationalities, Shanxi Agriculture University, Shanxi Datong University, Shaanxi Normal University, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong Normal University, Shandong University of Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Shandong University, Shaoxing University, Shaoyang College, Shangqiu Normal University, Shanxi Datong University, Shanxi Normal University, Shanxi University, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenzhen University, Shijiazhuang University Of Economics, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Normal University, South Central University for Nationalities, South China Agriculture University, South China Normal University, South China University of Technology, Southeast University, Southwest Forestry College, Southwest Jiaotong University, Southwest Normal University, Southwest University for Nationalities, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Taiyuan Normal University, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Three Gorges University, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin Normal University, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, University of Jinan , University of South China, Weifang Medical College, Weinan Normal University, Wenzhou University, Wuhan University, Wuhan University of Technology, Xiangnan University, Xiangtan University, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xidian University, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinjiang University, Xinyang Normal University, Xuchang University, Yangcheng Normal University, Yanshan University, Yantai University, Yantai Normal University, Yangtzeu University, Yunnan University, Yuxi Normal University, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Zhejiang Forestry University, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou University, Zunyi Medical College