Comparative Practice 2009 Racial Ideologies in the Americas whap/Napp Name: The Question

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Comparative Practice 2009 Racial Ideologies in the Americas

WHAP/Napp Name: _________________
The Question:

2009 Comparative Essay from the World History AP

For the period from 1500 to 1830, compare North American racial ideologies and their effects on society with Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies and their effects on society.

Do Now:

With the exception of some early viceroys, few members of Spain’s nobility came to the New World. Hidalgos – lesser nobles – were well represented, as were Spanish merchants, artisans, miners, priests, and lawyers. Small numbers of criminals, beggars, and prostitutes also found their way to the colonies. This flow of immigrants from Spain was never large, and Spanish settlers were always a tiny minority in a colonial society numerically dominated by Amerindians and rapidly growing populations of Africans, creoles (whites born in America to European parents), and people of mixed ancestry.

The most powerful conquistadors and early settlers sought to create a hereditary social and political class comparable to the European nobility. But their systematic abuse of Amerindian communities and the catastrophic effects of the epidemics of the sixteenth century undermined their control of colonial society. With the passage of time colonial officials, the clergy, and the richest merchants came to dominate the social hierarchy. Europeans controlled the highest levels of the church and government as well as commerce, while wealthy American-born creoles exercised a similar role in colonial agriculture and mining. Although tensions between Spaniards and creoles were inevitable, most elite families included both groups.
Before the Europeans arrived in the Americas, the native peoples were members of a large number of distinct cultural and linguistic groups. The effects of conquest and epidemics undermined this rich social and cultural complexity, and the relocation of Amerindian peoples to promote conversion or provide labor further eroded ethnic boundaries among native peoples. Application of the racial label Indian by colonial administrators and settlers helped organize the tribute and labor demands imposed on native peoples, but it also registered the cultural costs of colonial rule…
With the opening of a direct slave trade with Africa, the cultural character of the black population of colonial Latin America was altered dramatically. While Afro-Iberians spoke Spanish or Portuguese and were Catholic, African slaves arrived in the colonies with different languages, religious beliefs, and cultural practices. European settlers viewed these differences as signs of inferiority that served as justification for prejudice and discrimination.” ~ The Earth and Its Peoples

  1. How did race affect class hierarchy in colonial Latin America? ________________________________________________________________________

  2. How were Amerindians and Africans treated in colonial Latin America? Why? ________________________________________________________________________

The Basic Core Rubric:

  1. Has an Acceptable Thesis. [1 Point]

  1. Addresses all parts of the question, though not necessarily evenly or thoroughly. [2 Points but Partial Credit May Be Given]

  1. Substantiates thesis with appropriate historical evidence. [2 Points but Partial Credit May Be Given]

  1. Makes at least one relevant, direct comparison between/among societies. [1 Point]

  1. Analyzes at least one reason for a similarity or difference identified in a direct comparison. [1 Point]

Remember the Expanded Core Points:

  • Expands beyond the basic core of 1 – 7 points


  1. What must an acceptable thesis for a Comparative essay contain? ________________________________________________________________________

  2. What does it mean that all parts of the question must be addressed although not necessarily evenly or thoroughly? ________________________________________________________________________

  3. What is historical evidence? ________________________________________________________________________

  4. How many direct comparisons must the student make? ________________________________________________________________________

  5. What must the student analyze? ________________________________________________________________________

  6. How might a student “expand” beyond the basic core? ________________________________________________________________________

  7. Identify facts about Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies and their effects on society for the period from 1500 to 1830. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  8. Identify facts about North American racial ideologies and their effects on society for the period from 1500 to 1830. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  9. Identify one similarity and one difference regarding racial ideologies and their effects on society in North America and Latin America/Caribbean. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Now, sort your facts in the chart below:

North America

Latin America/Caribbean

Racial Ideologies:

Racial Ideologies:

Effects on Society:

Effects on Society:

The Essay’s Prompt:

For the period from 1500 to 1830, compare North American racial ideologies and their effects on society with Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies and their effects on society.

The Thesis Statement:


My specific similarity was: ______________________________________________________

My specific difference was: ______________________________________________________

Write one body paragraph of the essay [Now, it is time to analyze the similarity or the difference – to explain how and why this similarity or difference occurred and how and why it impacted people in the empires]:


Rate the Thesis Statements:

Racial ideologies have immense effects and huge impact on societies, especially those with varying races. These phenomena of racial prejudices and stereotypes changing social systems and structures can be seen in the period from 1500 to 1830 in the regions of North America and Latin America and the Caribbean. In both regions, the social effects of racial ideologies can best be seen in the treatment of native people of the regions and slaves. But, because of the strong influence of differing European nations, and their standards, contrasting societal effects can be seen in the interactions between those who implemented the colonization of the regions.”

My Grade for this Thesis Statement: ___________________

Why? ______________________________________________________________________________
From 1500 to 1830 North American and Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies affected their society because they had racial ladders that only allowed certain races to succeed.”

My Grade for this Thesis Statement: ___________________

Why? ______________________________________________________________________________


The North American empires of England and France had many characteristics in common with the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal. The governments of England and France hoped to find easily extracted forms of wealth like gold and silver or great indigenous empires like those of the Aztecs and Incas. Like the Spanish and Portuguese, English and French settlers responded to native peoples with a mixture of diplomacy and violence. All four colonial empires also imported large numbers of African slaves to spur the economic development of their colonies.

Important differences, however, distinguished North American colonial development from the Latin American model. The English and French colonies were developed nearly a century after Cortés’s conquest of Mexico and the initial Portuguese settlement of Brazil. The intervening period had witnessed significant economic and demographic growth in Europe. By the time England and France secured a foothold in the Americas, increased trade had led to greater integration of world cultural regions. Distracted by ventures elsewhere and by increasing military confrontation in Europe, neither England nor France imitated the large and expensive colonial bureaucracies established by Spain and Portugal. As a result, private companies and individual proprietors played a much larger role in the development of English and French colonies. This period had also witnessed the Protestant Reformation, an event that helped frame the character of English and French settlement in the Americas.” ~ The Earth and Its Peoples

  • How were the North American empires of England and France similar to the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal? ________________________________________________________________________

  • How did these empires differ? ________________________________________________________________________

Checklist for the Essay:

  • An acceptable thesis statements needs to be comparative, stating at least one similarity and at least one difference.

  • Acceptable thesis statements also need to be explicit, not simply restatements of the question or vague statements such as “there were more similarities than differences.” They also need to be relevant to the time period.

  • A good response provides valid similarities and differences, substantiated by specific pieces of evidence from within the time period.

  • Good essays do not include evidence that is outside the time period or any of the stipulated regions.

  • Students should be told to make their connections clear, because readers will not infer that a particular essay demonstrates content knowledge that is not present in the plain language of the student response.

  • Every paragraph must be comparative.

  • A good response provides analysis and uses this analysis as an explanation of a reason for a similarity or difference.

  • A good essay could consistently analyze cause and effect for the noted similarities and differences.

The Essay’s Prompt:

2009 Comparative Essay from the World History AP

For the period from 1500 to 1830, compare North American racial ideologies and their effects on society with Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies and their effects on society.


  1. What must an acceptable thesis statement for a comparative essay have? ________________________________________________________________________

  2. What makes a thesis statement explicit? ________________________________________________________________________

  3. What is not included in a good essay? ________________________________________________________________________

  4. Why must students make their connections clear? ________________________________________________________________________

  5. What must every paragraph be? ________________________________________________________________________

  6. Why must students analyze? ________________________________________________________________________

1. Most plantations in the Americas in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced

  1. Sugar.

  2. Cotton.

  3. Rice.

  4. Indigo.

  5. Tobacco.

2. In the period between 1600 and 1700, the principal product in the Atlantic trade was

  1. Pitch

  2. Sugar

  3. Tobacco

  4. Cotton

  5. Gold

3. Which of the following did NOT contribute to the fall of the Aztec Empire to the Spaniards?

  1. Military assistance of Mesoamerican peoples.

  2. Epidemic disease.

  3. Mesoamerican traditions.

  4. The economic weakness of the Aztecs.

  5. Superior weaponry of the Spaniards.

4. The introduction of the Incan staple crop of potatoes outside South America led to

  1. A decrease in China’s production of rice

  2. The replacement of corn in the North American Indian diet

  3. An increase in Andean potato production as an export cash crop

  4. The migration of Mediterranean peoples to the Andes

  5. An increase in northern Europe’s population

5. Which of the following changes best justifies the claim that the late 1400s mark the beginning of a new period in world history?

(A) The rise of the Aztec and Inca empires

(B) The economic recovery in Afro-Eurasia after the Black Death

(C) The incorporation of the Americas into a broader global network of exchange

(D) The emergence of new religious movements in various parts of the world
6. Which of the following concerns made Creole elites, who yearend for independence from Spain, what we might call “cautious revolutionaries”?

  1. Fear that the Spanish monarchs were more capable rulers

  2. Fear that continued rapid industrialization would create urban instability

  3. A growing communist threat inspired by the example of the Bolshevik Revolution

  4. Fear that slaves and other oppressed groups would target local elites as part of a general social upheaval

7. The largest decline in percentage of global population in history occurred as a result of

(A) Black Death in Europe

(B) Global flu pandemic of 1918 – 1919

(C) Spread of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa in the twentieth century

(D) Spread of syphilis in Renaissance Europe

(E) Epidemics in sixteenth-century Mesoamerica

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