Compare the motives and

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FRQ #2 Outline

PROMPT: Although the power of the national government increased during the early republic, this development often faced serious opposition. Compare the motives and effectiveness of those opposed to the growing power of the national government in TWO of the following.

Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions, 1798-1799

Hartford Convention, 1814-1815 Nullification Crisis, 1832-1833

I. Introduction (What was the effectiveness of two of the stated events?)

II. Whiskey Rebellion

Facts about the Whiskey Rebellion

How effective was the Whiskey Rebellion in going against the national government?

III. Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions 1798-1799

Facts about the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

How effective were the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions when going against the national government?

IV. Hartford Convention 1814-1815

Facts about the Hartford Convention

How effective was the Hartford Convention in going against the national government?

V. Conclusion

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions,  (1798 and 1799), in U.S. history, measures passed by the legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky as a protest against the Federalist Alien and Sedition Acts. The resolutions were written by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson (then vice president in the administration of John Adams), but the role of those statesmen remained unknown to the public for almost 25 years. Generally, the resolutions argued that because the federal government was the outcome of a compact between the states, all powers not specifically granted to the central authority were retained by the individual states or by the people. For this reason, they maintained that the states had the power to pass upon the constitutionality of federal legislation.

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were primarily protests against the limitations on civil liberties contained in the Alien and Sedition Acts rather than expressions of full-blown constitutional theory. Later references to the resolutions as authority for the theories of nullification and secession were inconsistent with the limited goals sought by Jefferson and Madison in drafting their protests.

Whiskey Rebellion,  (1794), in American history, uprising that afforded the new U.S. government its first opportunity to establish federal authority by military means within state boundaries, as officials moved into western Pennsylvania to quell an uprising of settlers rebelling against the liquor tax. Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the Treasury, had proposed the excise (enacted by Congress in 1791) to raise money for the national debt and to assert the power of the national government. Small farmers of the back country distilled (and consumed) whiskey, which was easier to transport and sell than the grain that was its source. It was an informal currency, a means of livelihood, and an enlivener of a harsh existence. The distillers resisted the tax by attacking federal revenue officers who attempted to collect it.

Enforcement legislation touched off what appeared to be an organized rebellion, and in July of 1794 about 500 armed men attacked and burned the home of the regional tax inspector. The following month President George Washington issued a congressionally authorized proclamation ordering the rebels to return home and calling for militia from four neighbouring states. After fruitless negotiations, Washington ordered some 13,000 troops into the area, but opposition melted away and no battle ensued. Troops occupied the region and some of the rebels were tried, but the two convicted of treason were later pardoned by the president.

Many Americans, particularly members of the opposition Jeffersonian Republican Party, were appalled by the overwhelming use of governmental force, which they feared might be a first step to absolute power. To Federalists, however, the most important result was that the national authority had triumphed over its first rebellious adversary and had won the support of the state governments in enforcing federal law within the states.

Hartford Convention,  (Dec. 15, 1814–Jan. 5, 1815), in U.S. history, a secret meeting of Federalist delegates from Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont, at Hartford, Conn., inspired by Federalist opposition to President James Madison’s mercantile policies and the War of 1812. The convention adopted a strong states’ rights position and expressed its grievances in a series of resolutions against military conscription and commercial regulations. News of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812, along with the secrecy of the Hartford proceedings, discredited the convention and its work. Its unpopularity was a factor in the demise of the Federalist Party.
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