Conflict and Change in the West, 1865-1902

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Conflict and Change in the West, 1865-1902


After you read and analyze this chapter, you should be able to:

10. Discuss the expectations that led to federal policymakers’ choices regarding American Indians after the Civil War and the ways in which western Indians chose to respond.

20. Analyze how Mormons, the range cattle industry, and farmers responded to the constraints they faced in the West and the outcomes of their choices for western development.

30. Explain how choices regarding railroads, mining, agribusiness, finance, capitalism, and water promoted the development of the West.

40. Evaluate the constraints faced by Indians, Mexican Americans, and Chinese immigrants between the mid-nineteenth century and 1900 and the choices that each made.


I0. War for the West

A0. The Plains Indians

10. The acquisition of horses and guns had already transformed their lives, but horses did not reach the northern plains in large numbers until the 1700s.

20. Expanding white settlements along the Atlantic pushed all tribes toward the Great Plains.

30. Two different ways of life were evident among the Plains Indians.

a0) People who spoke Caddoan or Siouan languages lived a settled life in villages; the acquisition of horses changed their culture only slightly.

b0) Horses revolutionized the lives of other Plains Indians because the Indians could kill twice as many buffalo; this substantially increased the people the plains could support.

c0) Horses also increased the Indians’ mobility so they could follow buffalo herds that provided most of the essentials for Indian life.

40. According to Indian tradition, land was to be used but not owned, and high social standing was achieved by sharing possessions, not accumulating them.

B0. The Plains Wars

10. In 1851, Congress approved a new policy that gave tribes definite territories and initially planned for large reservations that would take up much of the Great Plains.

a0) By the end of the Civil War, railroad construction crews prepared to build westward.

b0) The Fort Laramie Treaty was one of several negotiated in 1867 and 1868 in fulfillment of the new policy.

20. Federal officials permitted white hunters to kill buffalo, mostly for profit from hides.

a0) This slaughter of buffalo proceeded rapidly and doomed the Indian way of life.

30. The U.S. Army mounted a major show of force on the southern plains, which led to the Conference at Medicine Lodge Creek in 1867.

a0) Treaties signed at this conference resulted in most of the major southern tribes accepting reservations in Indian Territory, later known as Oklahoma.

b0) Federal officials began increasing military action to control Indians.

C0. The Last Indian Wars

10. After the Great Sioux War, no Indian group could sustain resistance against whites.

a0) Small groups occasionally left reservations but were tracked down.

b0) Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce attempted to flee, but he eventually surrendered on the condition that the Nez Perce be permitted to return home.

c0) The last sizable group to refuse to live on reservations was Geronimo’s Apaches, who finally gave up in 1886.

20. The last major confrontation between the U.S. Army and the Indians took place in late 1890 in South Dakota as the Indians clung to the hope of the ghost dance.

a0) Events at Wounded Knee marked the symbolic end of armed conflict on the plains.

30. Once the federal government chose to encourage rapid western development, the outcome was inevitable for Native Americans.

a0) The Indians were desperate since they were fighting to maintain their way of life.

II0. Mormons, Cowboys, and Sodbusters: The Transformation of the West, Part I

A0. Zion in the Great Basin

10. The Mormons, led by Brigham Young, had already started developing the Great Basin before the end of the Civil War.

a0) When the Mormons chose to settle near the Great Salt Lake, they expected to establish a remote settlement so that no one would interfere with their lives.

b0) The Mormon community was a theocracy, and Young chose a system of creating farms and irrigation projects based on the right to divert water for irrigation.

c0) Congress recognized this new definition in 1866, and it became the basis for laws on water rights in all of the western states.

20. The settlement thrived and established stakes, or satellite communities. By the time of the Civil War, more than 20,000 Mormons lived in Utah territory.

a0) After the Civil War, greater federal assistance for economic development of the West pressured the Mormons to renounce polygamy.

30. The leadership of the Mormon Church cleared the way for statehood in 1890.

a0) They did so by dissolving the church-sponsored political party and encouraging Mormons to divide themselves among national political parties.

b0) After the Mormons disavowed polygamy, Utah became a state in 1896.

B0. Cattle Kingdom on the Plains

10. A more individualistic enterprise, the cattle industry, dominated the western economy.

a0) The expanding cities in the East were hungry for meat, and cattle were wandering the ranges of southern Texas.

b0) To get cattle to the Midwest, Texans revived the cattle drive and herded cattle north through Texas and Indian Territory to the railroads that would take them east.

c0) Between 1866 and 1880, four million cattle walked north from Texas.

20. The first cattle drives in 1866 went to Sedalia, Missouri.

a0) As railroad construction pushed westward, an increasing number of cattle towns sprung up in Kansas, including Abilene, Ellsworth, Newton, and Dodge City.

b0) Many cowboys spent their earnings in saloons, brothels, and gambling houses in these towns.

c0) Eastern journalists and dime-novel authors discovered their culture here and embroidered the exploits of town marshals like Hickock and Earp.

30. Besides taking cattle to railroads, cattlemen also found open ranges in the north and this extended open-range cattle raising from Texas into the northern Great Plains.

40. Beef prices fell as so many cattle ranches began operations in the 1800s.

a0) Cattle raising became more of a business and less of a romantic adventure.

b0) Ranchers fenced their ranges and made certain that their cattle survived the winter.

c0) Texas became known for its huge ranches; the King Ranch eventually reached a million acres, although most ranches were considerably smaller.

d0) As the cattle industry expanded, so did the romanticizing of the cowboy.

C0. Plowing the Plains

10. Farmers entering this region encountered unfamiliar environmental constraints; sparse rainfall was the most serious problem.

a0) When the Kansas-Nebraska Act opened the region, most farmers stayed in the eastern part of the territory where the terrain and climate were similar to those they knew.

b0) After the Civil War, farmers pressed steadily westward to claim free land under the Homestead Act or cheap land from the railroads.

20. Those who expected to take advantage of the opportunities were diverse.

a0) Most homesteaders were families who moved from the East, since farmland there had become too expensive for them to buy.

b0) Single women, including some schoolteachers, could and did claim their own land.

30. The Homestead Act had clear limits, since the 160 acres provided were sufficient to support a family just east of the line of aridity.

a0) Federal officials were often lax in enforcing ownership requirements, which invited fraud.

40. Fewer trees presented another constraint.

a0) Many families carved homes out of the land itself, since lumber was in short supply.

b0) Barbed wire provided a cheap and easy alternative to wooden fences.

50. Windmills helped pump scarce water, but the much-reduced level of rainfall was a serious problem.

a0) Below normal rainfall after the late 1880s drove some settlers off the plains.

III0. Railroads, Mining, Agribusiness, Logging, and Finance: The Transformation of the West, Part II

A0. Western Railroads

10. Most western railroads were built to connect the Pacific Coast to the eastern half of the nation; only slowly did they find business along their routes.

a0) Railroad promoters turned to the federal government for monetary assistance.

b0) The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 provided loans and land to build tracks so that the riches of gold and silver could be brought east.

c0) The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific were the first to benefit from this act.

d0) Chinese immigrants were often used to solve labor shortages.

20. The first transcontinental railroad was finished in 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah.

30. While westerners greeted the arrival of railroads with joyful celebrations, some soon wondered if they had traded isolation for reliance on others’ greed.

B0. Western Mining

10. Between 1859 and 1885, prospectors discovered gold and silver in the West.

a0) Such discoveries brought a rush of fortune seekers, and boomtowns seemed to spring up overnight to meet the miners’ needs.

b0) These discoveries prompted the construction of rail lines to the sites of the discoveries; rail lines, in turn, permitted more rapid exploitation of resources.

C0. The Birth of Western Agribusiness

10. In California and other parts of the West, agriculture involved huge areas of land as well as intensive use of heavy equipment and wage labor.

20. California farmers were quick to take advantage of refrigerator cars and ships to transport their goods.

D0. Logging in the Pacific Northwest

10. Rainfall is so heavy that the region supports a rain forest.

20. Loggers first cut the California redwoods, then they moved north to Oregon and Washington.

E0. Western Metropolis: San Francisco

10. This city was long unchallenged as the West’s commercial, financial, and manufacturing center.

F0. Water Wars

10. Californians worked out a system of water rights similar to that of the Mormons.

a0) Irrigation was vital to a farmer’s success, and western cities saw the lack of water as a major constraint on their ability to grow.

b0) Competition for scarce supplies of water sometimes led to conflict; while some disputes became violent, courtroom battles were more typical.

20. The Reclamation Act of 1902 promised federal construction of irrigation facilities.

IV0. Ethnicity and Race in the West

A0. Immigrants to the Golden Mountain

10. Three hundred thousand Chinese immigrants came to the United States between 1854 and 1882; most worked in mining.

a0) Almost from the beginning, they encountered discrimination and violence.

b0) The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) prohibited entry to most Chinese.

B0. Forced Assimilation

10. Federal policy toward Indians proceeded from expectations of assimilation but ended up doing more to eradicate Indian culture than integrate Indians.

20. After 1871, federal policy shifted to viewing Indians as wards of the federal government; education was an important element in “civilizing” Indians.

30. The Dawes Severalty Act (1887) committed the U.S. government to “Americanizing” Indians.

a0) Indians were forced onto reservations despite the fact that individual land ownership was contrary to their traditional beliefs and practices.

C0. Mexican Americans in the Southwest

10. Mexicans living on lands acquired by the United States automatically became citizens, but some were still discriminated against.

a0) Others, such as those in New Mexico, stood equal to whites in politics and society.

20. Migration from Mexico increased after their revolution began in 1910.

V0. The West in American Thought

A0. The West as Utopia and Myth

10. Most Americans related to the West as either a Utopia or a myth, since it had given them a context for their hopes and an expression for their fears.

a0) The West appealed to Americans who sought to fulfill the American dream and improve their social and economic standing.

b0) The West achieved mythical status in popular novels, movies, and eventually television.

B0. The Frontier and the West

10. Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” explained the American character in terms of the settlement of the frontier.


Identify the following items and explain the significance of each. While you should include any relevant historical terms, using your own words to write these definitions will help you better remember these items for your next exam.

10. Yick Wo

20. counting coup

30. reservation

40. Little Big Horn

50. Sun Dance

60. Great Plains

70. tipi

80. horse culture

90. Lakota

100. Cheyenne

110. confederacy

120. sedentary

130. Bozeman Trail

140. Red Cloud

150. tannery

160. war of attrition

170. Crazy Horse

180. Great Sioux War

190. Little Big Horn River

200. Chief Joseph

210. Ghost Dance

220. Wounded Knee Creek

230. Mormons

240. polygamy

250. open range

260. roundup

270. branding

280. dime novel

290. James B. “Wild Bill” Hickock

300. Wyatt Earp

310. icon

320. aridity

330. meridian

340. ecosystem

350. Bohemia

360. sod

370. water table

380. Russian-German

390. placer mining

400. hydraulic

410. agribusiness

420. combine

430. logging

440. Pacific Northwest

450. lumber mill

460. metropolis

470. Sierra Club

480. aqueduct

490. Reclamation Act

500. famine

510. Chinatown

520. Chinese Exclusion Act

530. Sitting Bull

540. assimilate

550. Dawes Severalty Act

560. peyote cult

570. mestizo

580. Anglo

590. Californios

600. pueblo

610. barrio

620. Tejanos

630. Hispanos

640. Utopia

650. Willa Cather

660. Frederick Jackson Turner


Select the correct answer.

10. The most important factor in transforming Native American life on the Great Plains was

a0. the introduction of the horse prior to the nineteenth century.

b0. the confederation of tribes established by western Indians to resist white settlement.

c0. the destruction of the great buffalo herds by an epidemic introduced by the animals of settlers from the East.

d0. construction of irrigation systems that disrupted traditional migration routes.

20. Federal government policy toward the Plains Indians during the second half of the nineteenth century included

a0. settling as many as possible east of the Mississippi River.

b0. buying up their lands for very low prices.

c0. moving them to reservations.

d0. breaking up their tribal groups.

30. The chief result of the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1891 was that it

a0. began a new round of violence between the army and the Sioux.

b0. helped restore the Powder River hunting ground to the Sioux.

c0. marked the end of armed Indian resistance on the Great Plains.

d0. ended a tradition of warfare between the Sioux and their Indian neighbors.

40. The Mormon settlers of Utah influenced development in other parts of the West by

a0. undertaking construction of the first transcontinental railroad.

b0. establishing a model for the control of water rights.

c0. developing major new routes for pioneers traveling to California.

d0. inventing new ways to mine large quantities of ore at low cost.

50. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads constructed the nation’s first transcontinental line

a0. to supply the army in its wars against the Plains Indians.

b0. with the help of federal government support.

c0. because the depression of 1873 drove workers’ wages down.

d0. thanks to the entrepreneurial skill of Andrew Carnegie.

60. The most lasting problem faced by white settlers on the Great Plains was

a0. insufficient rainfall.

b0. attacks by Indians.

c0. destruction of crops by annual locust plagues.

d0. overgrazing by cattle driven to market by cowboys.

70. Single women who settled on the Great Plains found that

a0. opportunities for marriage were almost nonexistent because most settlers came in family groups.

b0. they could rely on the Homestead Act to accumulate some wealth.

c0. it was too dangerous to remain for any length of time.

d0. it was preferable to keep moving farther west, eventually settling in new cities like San Francisco.

80. The Reclamation Act of 1902 undertook to

a0. build irrigation systems for small farms.

b0. promote the settlement of northern California.

c0. protect the salmon spawning grounds on the Columbia River.

d0. regulate lumbering in the Pacific Northwest.

90. Chinese inhabitants in the West tended to congregate in their own communities in large cities because

a0. tradition emphasized residence in close proximity to other Chinese people.

b0. discriminatory state laws required it.

c0. the leaders of the Chinese community forced them to do so.

d0. they encountered substantial violence in small towns.

100. The Dawes Severalty Act

a0. was designed to protect the integrity of Indian culture.

b0. aimed to assimilate Indians quickly into white society.

c0. undermined the influence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

d0. was met with overwhelming approval by Indians.

110. Government policies and programs for Native Americans that emphasized assimilation meant that

a0. the Indians were to preserve their distinctive way of life.

b0. all Native Americans were to be required to remain on reservations for at least two generations.

c0. traditional Indian cultures were supposed to disappear.

d0. religious movements like the Ghost Dance were to be encouraged.

120. Unlike Tejanos, Hispanos

a0. sometimes became wealthy.

b0. sought to assimilate completely into American life.

c0. rejected the Spanish language.

d0. exercised no political influence.

130. By stressing the achievements of rugged individualists, the myth of the West

a0. emphasized the importance of urban politicians.

b0. overlooked the importance of cultural heroes like the cowboy.

c0. focused on personal friendships between Indians and white settlers.

d0. omitted the importance of the government in the West’s development.

140. According to Frederick Jackson Turner,

a0. the West was a region that stifled democracy.

b0. people who settled on the frontier were failures and incompetents who could not “make it” back in the East.

c0. to understand the frontier is to understand America.

d0. the West contributed very little to the general development of the United States.

150. Women were able to find opportunity on the frontier

a0. despite the restrictions imposed by the Dawes Severalty Act.

b0. as teachers in Tejano schools.

c0. under the terms of the Homestead Act.

d0. in the construction of the first transcontinental railroad lines.

0Essay Questions

10. Explain how the government of the United States undertook to assist western settlement by bringing all Native Americans under its control and analyze the effects on Indian life and society.

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: The government’s primary policy was settlement of the West’s Indians on reservations, in order to clear them off as much land as possible so that farmers, railroad companies, miners, and others could settle. Your discussion should include the agreements and the wars that ensued as the government sought to achieve that goal.

It is also important to mention that the government encouraged the elimination of the West’s great buffalo herds, the primary natural resource of the Native Americans of the Great Plains.

In conjunction with confinement to reservations, the government also adhered to a policy of encouraging Native Americans to abandon their own cultures and to assimilate with white society. Discuss the Dawes Severalty Act, schools for Indians, and settlement on reservations in order to illustrate how Washington sought to convert Native Americans to a sedentary way of life and to different gender roles.

The question also requires that you discuss the effects of these policies on Native American life and society. You might include references to the peyote cult and to the Ghost Dance religion. The most extreme effect, of course, was loss of life in the wars that arose from Native American resistance to the government’s reservation policy and from the destruction of the buffalo herds.

20. In the traditional picture of the West’s settlement, the lone pioneer, especially the cowboy, has figured as a hero of mythic proportions. The role played by large organizations in the development of the West, on the other hand, has usually escaped attention. Discuss the contributions of such large organizations as corporations, the federal government, and the Mormon Church to the West’s development.

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: The federal government’s contributions included its Indian policies (see Essay Question 1), land grants to individual settlers and railroad companies, and the irrigation projects authorized by the Reclamation Act of 1902. Corporations, for their part, developed the logging industry, large-scale mining, the railroads, and great farming operations (agribusiness). To underscore the importance of large business organizations in western agriculture, you might contrast the prevalence of the family farm in the Northeast and South with its relative insignificance in California.

In addition to providing such examples of corporate development, explain why it occurred. The costs incurred because of aridity and vast distances, and because of the scale necessary for successful enterprise in the West, gave the edge to large organizations. The lone cowboy, prospector, or sod farmer did not have enough capital to go it alone on a large scale.

For the Mormon contribution to western development, focus on the importance of the Mormon Church in the development of Utah.

30. The traditional image (or myth) of the West includes the idea that the region offered boundless opportunity for those who bravely chose to settle there. Do you agree or disagree?

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: If you do agree, then evidence in support of your view can include the Homestead Act; the ease with which even more land could sometimes be acquired than the acreage authorized by the act; and new technology to assist farmers, such as barbed wire, windmills, and plows that could handle the sod of the Great Plains.

If you choose to accent the impediments to opportunity, then you ought to discuss the great difficulties that farmers who migrated to the Great Plains faced: aridity; difficult living conditions; the difficulties in working the sod; wind erosion; and droughts like the one of the late 1880s, which ruined many farmers.

Chinese immigrants are another group that chose to settle in the West. The availability of work in railroad construction and agriculture suggests the possibility of opportunity for these newcomers. But the job discrimination, segregation, and violence that the Chinese endured point in quite a different direction.

0Map Exercise

What was the relationship between the placement of many Indian reservations and construction of the railroad lines that linked the region west of the Mississippi River to the eastern part of the nation? Refer to Map 19.1 in your textbook. What implications may there have been for the economies of the reservations? Were there any implications for the federal government’s policy of encouraging Native Americans to abandon their own cultures?

0Individual Choices

0Yick Wo

To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Choices section at the beginning of the chapter.

10. Identify Yick Wo.

20. Define naturalization.

30. What does it mean when the author states that the Chinese were segregated both residentially and by occupation? What implications did it have for potential jobs for Chinese immigrants?

40. Why did so few Chinese women come to the United States? How do you think that would affect the assimilation process for Chinese men?

50. What changed for Yick Wo in 1885? Why? Why did he eventually end up in jail?

60. Identify M. Hall McAllister and explain the significance of his role in this dispute.

70. What did the Supreme Court eventually decide in the case of Yick Wo. Do you agree with their decision? Why or why not?

0Individual Voices

0Examining a Primary Source: Decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Yick Wo v. Hopkins

To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Voices section at the end of the chapter.

10. What are the implications of the Supreme Court decision that the Fourteenth Amendment applies to persons who are not citizens?

20. What are the implications of the Court’s statement about the San Francisco Board of Supervisors’ arbitrary power to grant or withhold laundry licenses?

30. This is the first time that the Court considered that the application of a law, separate from the law itself, might be unconstitutional. Does this represent a significant extension of the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment? Justify your answer.

40. Why is the Yick Wo decision so important in the history of civil rights in the United States?
RUBRIC: As you complete the following rubric, research the various ethnic groups in the western United States and evaluate their clashes and/or cooperation with the white men moving west.





















0Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions

1. a. Hunting on horseback increased the buffalo kill, which in turn led to a population increase and a higher standard of living. See page 570.

b. There is no evidence for this.

c. The demand for hides led to the destruction of most of the herds. See page 573.

d. There is no evidence for this effect.

2. c. The government planned for three large reservations. See pages 573-576.

a. The reservations established for the Plains Indians were all west of the Mississippi. See pages 573-576.

b. The Native American peoples did not hold title to the land, believing, instead, that land was for everybody’s use—not for ownership by individuals. See pages 573-576.

d. The tribal groups were to reside on reservations. See pages 573-576.

3. c. It was the last major armed confrontation between Native Americans and the U.S. Army. See page 576.

a. It marked the end of armed resistance by the Indians. See page 576.

b. The Powder River region was lost forever when the Great Sioux War finally ended in 1881. See page 576.

d. It was the end of warfare between the Indians and the army. See page 576.

4. b. They established precedents for diverting water for irrigation projects. See page 577.

a. The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific, both of which were private railroad companies, constructed it. See page 582.

c. If anything, they sought isolation from other Americans. See page 576.

d. The Mormons resided in Utah, while the West’s major mining regions were located in other states. See page 577.

5. b. See page 582.

a. The line was built and completed without reference to conflict with the Indians. See page 582.

c. There was no such connection between economic problems and railroad construction. See page 582.

d. Carnegie is not mentioned in this chapter.

6. a. The farmers who settled there discovered that rainfall was uncertain. See page 581.

b. The Indians were forced to relocate to reservations established by the federal government. Those who resisted were conquered by the U.S. Army. See pages 570-575.

c. The settlers who tried to farm the Great Plains had to deal with aridity, insufficient wood supplies, and impenetrable sod, but not with annual attacks by locusts. See pages 579-581.

d. The invention of barbed wire in 1874 ended problems with cattle. See page 584.

7. b. After acquiring title to the land by meeting the terms of the Homestead Act, they would sell it. See pages 579-581.

a. There is no evidence that the opportunities were almost nonexistent. In any case, many single women settled on the Great Plains for reasons related to land speculation. See pages 579-581.

c. There is no evidence that the Great Plains were too dangerous. The challenges that did exist arose from natural causes. See pages 579-581.

d. There is no evidence that they kept moving farther west. See pages 579-581.

8. a. The act was intended, in general, to construct irrigation facilities. However, in the end, large landowners benefited the most. See page 586.

b. Development there, symbolized by the emergence of San Francisco as a metropolis, long predated the Reclamation Act. See page 586.

c. The act’s purpose was irrigation. See page 586.

d. Its purpose was to support agriculture. See page 586.

9. d. See pages 586-588.

a. There is no evidence that such traditions pressured them to reside together, although there were obvious benefits to doing so. Note, also, that they worked on the railroads and in agriculture. They also settled in smaller cities. See pages 586-588.

b. Prejudice and local custom, rather than legislation, led to residence in separate communities. See pages 586-588.

c. Although Chinese community organizations and, by implication, their leaders exercised a great deal of power over their members, there is no evidence that they were required by them to reside together. See pages 586-588.

10. b. It sought to remake them into small-scale independent, landowning farmers. See pages 589-590.

a. This act sought to speed up assimilation by the West’s Native Americans. See pages 589-590.

c. There is no evidence for this. See pages 589-590.

d. The Dawes Act was part of the effort to undermine Native American cultures, and many Indians took to resisting its effects by reasserting their cultural and religious traditions. See pages 589-590.

11. c. Federal policy emphasized ending Native American culture and absorbing them into white society. See pages 588-590.

a. Assimilation means dropping one’s own culture and adopting another’s. See pages 588-590.

b. Required long-term separation from American society would have contributed to the preservation of Indian culture, whereas the policy of assimilation sought an end to traditional cultures. See pages 588-590.

d. Assimilation meant discouraging their cultural and religious traditions. See pages 588-590.

12. a. Unlike the Tejanos, members of the Hispanos group did prosper. See pages 590-593.

b. There is no evidence for this regarding the Hispanos. Moreover, the Tejanos were culturally Mexican. See pages 590-593.

c. There is no evidence for this. See pages 590-593.

d. Hispanos could dominate elections. See pages 590-593.

13. d. The federal government subsidized railroad development, dispossessed the Indians, constructed irrigation works, and gave land grants. See pages 593-594.

a. The importance of the western pioneers is stressed. See pages 593-594.

b. The cowboy is part of the myth. See pages 593-594.

c. In the myth, the Indian disappears. See pages 593-594.

14. c. According to Turner, the frontier defined America. See pages 594-595.

a. Turner depicted it as an environment in which democracy flourished. See pages 594-595.

b. Successful individualists flourished there, according to Turner. See pages 594-595.

d. In Turner’s view, the frontier is where America was formed. See pages 594-595.

15. c. They could acquire land under its terms. See page 579.

a. The Dawes Act regulated Native Americans. See pages 591-592.

b. There is no evidence for this. (Moreover, Tejanos preserved their own culture.) See pages 592-594.

d. Women did not play any distinctive role in this. See page 584.

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