1. What were the precedents that Washington established as the first president of the U.S.? 2. In what ways did Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans limit the powers of the government? 3. What effects did the Industrial Revolution have on the U.S. economy? 4. How did land and water transportation affect Western expansion? 5. How did political beliefs, Native Americans, and economic issues affect the presidency of Andrew Jackson? 6. How did the belief in Manifest Destiny influence Western settlement? 7. How did the U.S. acquire Texas and the Mexican session, and what factors affected the settlement of those lands? 8. How were the people and economy of the North and South different? 9. How did social reform, abolition, and women’s movement affect the development of the U.S. for 1820-1860?
Unit 3 Launching the Republic
Chapter 8 The Federalist Era
The First Political Parties
Comprehensive tests including vocabulary, maps, and timeline
Above stated texts
Use Internet sources to show people and events of time period
SS.8.1 2007 - History
Students will examine the relationship and significance of themes, concepts, and movements in the development of United States history, including review of key ideas related to the colonization of America and the revolution and Founding Era. This will be followed by emphasis on social reform, national development and westward expansion, and the Civil War and Reconstruction period.
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Identify major Native American Indian groups of eastern North America and describe early conflict and cooperation with European settlers and the influence the two cultures had on each other.
Example: Mohawk, Iroquois, Huron and Ottawa; French and Native American Indian alliances; French and Indian War; British alliances with Native American Indians; settler encroachment on Native American Indian lands; and Native American Indian participation in the Revolutionary War
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Explain the struggle of the British, French, Spanish and Dutch to gain control of North America during settlement and colonization.
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Identify and explain the conditions, causes, consequences and significance of the French and Indian War (1754-1763), and the resistance and rebellion against British imperial rule by the thirteen colonies in North America (1761-1775).
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Identify fundamental ideas in the Declaration of Independence (1776) and analyze the causes and effects of the Revolutionary War (1775-1783), including enactment of the Articles of Confederation and the Treaty of Paris.
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Identify and explain key events leading to the creation of a strong union among the 13 original states and in the establishment of the United States as a federal republic.
Example: The enactment of state constitutions, the Constitutional Conventions, ratifying conventions of the American states, and debate by Federalists versus Anti-Federalists regarding approval or disapproval of the 1787 Constitution (1787-1788)
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Identify the steps in the implementation of the federal government under the United States Constitution, including the First and Second Congresses of the United States (1789-1792).
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Describe the origin and development of political parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans (1793-1801), and examine points of agreement and disagreement between these parties.
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Evaluate the significance of the presidential and congressional election of 1800 and the transfer of political authority and power to the Democratic-Republican Party led by the new president, Thomas Jefferson (1801).
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Describe the influence of important individuals on social and political developments of the time such as the Independence movement and the framing of the Constitution.
Example: James Otis, Mercy Otis Warren, Samuel Adams, Thomas Paine, George Washington, John Adams, Abigail Adams, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and Benjamin Banneker
The American Revolution and Founding of the United States of America: 1754 to 1801. Compare differences in ways of life in the northern and southern states, including the growth of towns and cities in the North and the growing dependence on slavery in the South.
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Explain the events leading up to and the significance of the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the expedition of Lewis and Clark (1803-1806).
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Explain the main issues, decisions and consequences of landmark Supreme Court cases.
Example: Marbury v. Madison (1803), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Explain the causes and consequences of the War of 1812, including the Rush-Bagot Agreement (1818).
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Examine the international problem that led to the Monroe Doctrine (1823) and assess its consequences.
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Explain the concept of Manifest Destiny and describe its impact on westward expansion of the United States.
Example: Louisiana Purchase (1803), purchase of Florida (1819), Mexican War and the annexation of Texas (1845), acquisition of Oregon Territory (1846), Native American Indian conflicts and removal, and the California gold rush
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Describe the abolition of slavery in the northern states, including the conflicts and compromises associated with westward expansion of slavery.
Example: Missouri Compromise (1820), The Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Identify the key ideas of Jacksonian democracy and explain their influence on political participation, political parties and constitutional government.
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Analyze different interests and points of view of individuals and groups involved in the abolitionist, feminist and social reform movements, and in sectional conflicts.
Example: Jacksonian Democrats, John Brown, Nat Turner, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Sojourner Truth and the Seneca Falls Convention
National Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861. Explain the influence of early individual social reformers and movements.
Example: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Horace Mann, Dorothea Dix, Lucretia Mott, Robert Owen, abolition movement, temperance movement and utopian movements
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Analyze the causes and effects of events leading to the Civil War, including development of sectional conflict over slavery.
Example: The Compromise of 1850, furor over publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott Case (1857), the Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) and the presidential election of 1860
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Describe the importance of key events and individuals in the Civil War.
Example: Events: The battles of Manassas, Antietam, Vicksburg and Gettysburg; and the Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Address (1861-1865); People: Jefferson Davis, Stephen A. Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman and Thaddeus Stevens
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Explain and evaluate the policies, practices and consequences of Reconstruction, including the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution.
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Describe the conflicts between Native American Indians and settlers of the Great Plains.
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Identify the influence of individuals on political and social events and movements such as the abolition movement, the Dred Scott case, women rights and Native American Indian removal.
Example: Henry Clay, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Roger Taney, Frederick Douglass, John Brown, Clara Barton, Andrew Johnson, Susan B. Anthony, Sitting Bull, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Give examples of how immigration affected American culture in the decades before and after the Civil War, including growth of industrial sites in the North; religious differences; tensions between middle-class and working-class people, particularly in the Northeast; and intensification of cultural differences between the North and the South.
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Give examples of the changing role of women and minorities in the northern, southern and western parts of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, and examine possible causes for these changes.
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: 1850 to 1877. Give examples of scientific and technological developments that changed cultural life in the nineteenth-century United States, such as the use of photography, growth in the use of the telegraph, the completion of the transcontinental railroad and the invention of the telephone.
Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, and Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making: Recognize historical perspective and evaluate alternative courses of action by describing the historical context in which events unfolded and by avoiding evaluation of the past solely in terms of present-day norms.
Example: Use Internet-based documents and digital archival collections from museums and libraries to compare views of slavery in slave narratives, northern and southern newspapers, and present-day accounts of the era.
Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, and Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making: Differentiate between facts and historical interpretations, recognizing that the historian's narrative reflects his or her judgment about the significance of particular facts.
Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, and Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making: Formulate historical questions by analyzing primary and secondary sources about an issue confronting the United States during the period from 1754-1877.
Example: The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786), President George Washington's Farewell Address (1796), the First Inaugural Address by Thomas Jefferson (1801), the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) and the Second Inaugural Address by Abraham Lincoln (1865)
Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research, and Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making: Obtain historical data from a variety of sources to compare and contrast examples of art, music and literature during the nineteenth century and explain how these reflect American culture during this time period.
Example: Art: John James Audubon, Winslow Homer, Hudson River School, Edward Bannister, Edmonia Lewis and Henry Ossawa Tanner; Music: Daniel Decatur Emmett and Stephen Foster; Writers: Louisa May Alcott, Washington Irving, James Fennimore Cooper, Walt Whitman, Frederick Douglass, Paul Dunbar and George Caleb Bingham
SS.8.2 2007 - Civics and Government
Students will explain the major principles, values and institutions of constitutional government and citizenship, which are based on the founding documents of the United States and how three branches of government share and check power within our federal system of government.
Foundations of Government: Identify and explain essential ideas of constitutional government, which are expressed in the founding documents of the United States, including the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, the Northwest Ordinance, the 1787 U.S. Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the Federalist and Anti-Federalist Papers, Common Sense, Washington's Farewell Address (1796) and Jefferson's First Inaugural Address (1801).
Example: The essential ideas include limited government; rule of law; due process of law; separated and shared powers; checks and balances; federalism; popular sovereignty; republicanism; representative government; and individual rights to life, liberty and property; and freedom of conscience
Foundations of Government: Identify and explain the relationship between rights and responsibilities of citizenship in the United States.
Example: The right to vote and the responsibility to use this right carefully and effectively, and the right to free speech and the responsibility not to say or write false statements
Foundations of Government: Explain how and why legislative, executive and judicial powers are distributed, shared and limited in the constitutional government of the United States.
Example: Examine key Supreme Court cases and describe the role each branch of the government played in each of these cases.
Foundations of Government: Examine functions of the national government in the lives of people.
Example: Purchasing and distributing public goods and services, coining money, financing government through taxation, conducting foreign policy, providing a common defense, and regulating commerce
Functions of Government : Compare and contrast the powers reserved to the federal and state government under the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.
Functions of Government : Distinguish among the different functions of national and state government within the federal system by analyzing the United States Constitution and the Indiana Constitution.
Example: Identify important services provided by state government, such as maintaining state roads and highways, enforcing health and safety laws, and supporting educational institutions. Compare these services to functions of the federal government, such as defense and foreign policy.
Roles of Citizens: Explain the importance in a democratic republic of responsible participation by citizens in voluntary civil associations/non-governmental organizations that comprise civil society.
Example: Reform movements such as the abolitionist movement, women's suffrage and the Freedman's Bureau
Roles of Citizens: Explain ways that citizens can participate in political parties, campaigns and elections.
Example: Local, state and national elections; referendums; poll work; campaign committees; and voting
Roles of Citizens: Explain how citizens can monitor and influence the development and implementation of public policies at local, state and national levels of government.
Example: Joining action groups, holding leaders accountable through the electoral process, attending town meetings, staying informed by reading newspapers and Web sites, and watching television news broadcasts
Roles of Citizens: Research and defend positions on issues in which fundamental values and principles related to the United States Constitution are in conflict, using a variety of information resources.
Example: Powers of federal government vs. powers of state government
SS.8.3 2007 - Geography
Students will identify the major geographic characteristics of the United States and its regions. They will name and locate the major physical features of the United States, as well as each of the states, capitals and major cities, and will use geographic skills and technology to examine the influence of geographic factors on national development.
The World in Spatial Terms: Read maps to interpret symbols and determine the land forms and human features that represent physical and cultural characteristics of areas in the United States.
Places and Regions: Identify and create maps showing the physical growth and development of the United States from settlement of the original 13 colonies through Reconstruction (1877), including transportation routes used during the period.
Physical Systems: Identify and locate the major climate regions in the United States and describe the characteristics of these regions.
Physical Systems: Name and describe processes that build up the land and processes that erode it and identify places these occur.
Example: The Appalachian Mountains are a formation that has undergone erosion. The Mississippi Delta is made up almost entirely of eroded material.
Physical Systems: Describe the importance of the major mountain ranges and the major river systems in the development of the United States.
Example: Locate major U.S. cities during this time period, such as Washington, D.C.; New York; Boston; Atlanta; Nashville; Charleston; New Orleans; Philadelphia; and Saint Louis, and suggest reasons for their location and development.
Human Systems: Identify the agricultural regions of the United States and be able to give reasons for the type of land use and subsequent land development during different historical periods.
Example: Cattle industry in the West and cotton industry in the South
Human Systems: Using maps identify changes influenced by growth, economic development and human migration in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Example: Westward expansion, impact of slavery, Lewis and Clark exploration, new states added to the union, and Spanish settlement in California and Texas
Human Systems: Gather information on the ways people changed the physical environment of the United States in the nineteenth century, using primary and secondary sources including digitized photo collections and historic maps.
Human Systems: Analyze human and physical factors that have influenced migration and settlement patterns and relate them to the economic development of the United States.
Example: Growth of communities due to the development of the railroad, development of the west coast due to ocean ports and discovery of important mineral resources; the presence of a major waterway influences economic development and the workers who are attracted to that development
Environment and Society: Create maps, graphs and charts showing the distribution of natural resources - such as forests, water sources and wildlife - in the United States at the beginning of the nineteenth century and give examples of how people exploited these resources as the country became more industrialized and people moved westward.
Environment and Society: Identify ways people modified the physical environment as the United States developed and describe the impacts that resulted.
Example: Identify urbanization, deforestation and extinction or near extinction of wildlife species; and development of roads and canals
SS.8.4 2007 - Economics
Students will identify, describe and evaluate the influence of economic factors on national development from the founding of the nation to the end of Reconstruction.
Identify economic factors contributing to European exploration and colonization in North America, the American Revolution and the drafting of the Constitution of the United States.
Example: The search for gold by the Spanish, French fur trade and taxation without representation
Illustrate elements of the three types of economic systems, using cases from United States history.
Example: Traditional economy, command economy and market economy
Evaluate how the characteristics of a market economy have affected the economic and labor development of the United States.
Example: Characteristics include the role of entrepreneurs, private property, markets, competition and self-interest
Explain the basic economic functions of the government in the economy of the United States.
Example: The government provides a legal framework, promotes competition, provides public goods and services, protects private property, controls the effects of helpful and harmful spillovers, and regulates interstate commerce.
Analyze contributions of entrepreneurs and inventors in the development of the United States economy.
Example: Benjamin Banneker, George Washington Carver, Eli Whitney, Samuel Gompers, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and Madam C.J. Walker
Relate technological change and inventions to changes in labor productivity in the United States in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Example: The cotton gin increased labor productivity in the early nineteenth century.
Trace the development of different kinds of money used in the United States and explain how money helps make saving easier.
Example: Types of money included wampum, tobacco, gold and silver, state bank notes, greenbacks and Federal Reserve Notes
Examine the development of the banking system in the United States.
Example: The central bank controversy, the state banking era and the development of a gold standard
Explain and evaluate examples of domestic and international interdependence throughout United States history.
Example: Triangular trade routes and regional exchange of resources
Examine the importance of borrowing and lending (the use of credit) in the United States economy and list the advantages and disadvantages of using credit.
Use a variety of information resources to compare and contrast job skills needed in different time periods in United States history.
Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-8RH The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 reading in history/social studies are integrated into the K-5 Reading standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations – the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
Key Ideas and Details
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes a law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
Craft and Structure
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g. loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Integrate visual information (e.g., charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-8WH The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 writing in history/social studies are integrated into the K-5 Writing standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations – the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
Text Types and Purposes
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or
Note:Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import.
Production and Distribution of Writing
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Range of Writing
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.