Section IV Outline
Critical Years of Transition: 1824-1828 The election of 1824 marks the death of the Democrat-Republicans and the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Candidates: John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, Henry Clay
John Quincy Adams: Had been Monroe’s Secretary of State, great diplomat, part of the Adams political dynasty. Supported in Northeast but not otherwise popular.
William Crawford: Secretary of Treasury under Monroe, from Georgia. Nominated by Republican caucus. Supported by Martin Van Buren and his friends the “Bucktails” (believers in strong party loyalty) Became seriously ill during the election.
Henry Clay: Speaker of the House of Representatives, Author of the “American System” of internal improvements under Monroe & the Missouri Compromise.
Andrew Jackson: Popular War Hero of Tennessee, and an amazing campaigner. Originally nominated for political reasons in TN but became serious candidate
1. All four candidates were from the same party, Democrat-Republican.
2. The split in candidates was based on ideology based out of the changes in the Republican party under Monroe. Part of them are Nationalistic (Adams and Clay) while others were Old-Guard Jeffersonians (Crawford and Jackson).
3. The separate nominations from different state legislatures ended the power of the congressional caucus.
Election Results: No one got a plurality of electoral college votes.
Jackson -- 99 & a plurality of the popular vote
Crawford -- 41
Adams -- 84
Clay -- 37
Because no one got a plurality of Electoral college votes, the election is thrown into the House of Representatives. The 12th Amendment (which fixed many of the voting problems from the Aaron Burr incident) said only the top THREE candidates could be considered, which ruled out Henry Clay, who otherwise probably would have been elected. Instead, Clay became kingmaker, being able to choose who was next in line. Although both Adams and Jackson lobbied him (Crawford was too ill and also effectively out of the running) Clay was Jackson as a possible political opponent in the west for his next election and chooses Adams. Adams then appointed Clay the Secretary of State, which outraged Jackson’s followers and who referred to it as “the Corrupt Bargain”
Adams’ Presidency is marked by failures, primarily due to interference by the Jacksonian-controlled Congress.
1. Diplomatic Failure -- Simon Bolivar, liberator of Venezuela, and the Panama Convention of 1826
2. National Programs failed
3. Failed Indian Program (the Conflict between Georgia dn the Creek * Cherokee Indians)
4. THE TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS OF 1828
Tariff was a protective import tariff
Supported at first in North and hated in South
Pushed by Jacksonians to get Adams to veto and lose northern support
Raises costs of raw materials west and south, nullifying advantage of the
tariff and making everyone unhappy with it.
The Election of 1828 and the Rise of Jacksonian Democracy Jackson ran as a Democrat -- Adams as a National Republican
Lowering of property requirements on the vote encourages “Common Man Politics” espoused by Jackson. First modern campaign, run on personalities and smear campaigns rather than issues.
Jackson wins overwhelmingly, and the celebration at the White House is boisterous. Not the beginning of the “Spoils System” but the most flagrant user of it. Jackson takes liberties with Presidential Power. Avoids formal advisors and utilizes his “kitchen Cabinet.”
TWO SCANDALS Fundamentally affected Jackson’s psyche:
The attacks on Rachel Jackson (his wife) before his election;
The Eaton Affair -- “Eaton Malaria” and the Nullifaction Crisis causes the overhaul of Jackson’s Cabinet
****** Jackson’s 2 Great Challenges: Sectonalism & National Bank Sectionalism and the Nullification Crisis: Tariffs unpopular in South
Cotton: $.31/lb in 1818; $.18/lb in 1831
Tariff of Abominations (1828) seen as root of problem.
Concept of STATE NULLIFICATION:
Enunciated (at first anonymously) by John C. Calhoun, Jackson’s VP
• States, not the people, created the Constitution
•Belief in State Sovereignty
In responding to Senator Hayne (SC) on the Congress floor, Senator and lawyer Daniel Webster (Massachusetts) gave one of his greatest speeches: an oration and defense of nationalism and federalism.
Jackson expresses his views at the April 13, 1830 Jefferson Day Banquet
Jackson’s Toast: “Our Federal Union, it must be preserved.”
Calhoun’s Reply: “To Union -- Next to our liberty, most dear.”
When the Tariff of 1832 is passed, South Carolina is Outraged.
SC Legislature Nullifies the tariff in November of 1832; says that after February 1, 1833, the government could not longer collect tariff revenues in South Carolina. SC expects the rest of the South to follow with it but the South does not.
Jackson responds forcefully, gets Force Bill (Force Act of 1833) passed.
Henry Clay, the great compromiser, helps put together the Compromise Tariff of 1833. SC Backs down, but to save face “nullifies” the Force Act.
Could have been Civil War then had Jackson not acted, but this does not solve the problem.
The South, from 1836-1844, passes “Gag Rules” in Congress
The Election of 1832 & the National Bank The hinge issue of the election of 1832 was the National Bank, which Jackson hated, saw as a refuge for privilege and power, and wanted broken up. Jackson’s “War on the Banks”
Democrats: Jackson & Van Buren (Calhoun out since the Eaton Affair & Nullification Crisis)
Whigs: Henry Clay
Anti-Masonic Party (William Wirt of Maryland)
•Story of Morgan the Bricklayer
• Clay and Jackson both Masons
•Fear of Fraternal organizations
•End of all fraternities in United States until after Civil War
except Pi Beta Kappa (renames itself honor society)
The National Bank (The Bank of the United States, or B.U.S.)
•Not have to apply for rechartering until 1836
•Nicholas Biddle, Bank President, pushes for early recharter (thinks Jackson won’t risk it in election year)
•Jackson VETOS the Bank Rechartering Act of 1832 on grounds the bank was “unconstitutional,” defying the Supreme Court ruling of McCulloch v. Maryland.
•Jackson then orders his Secretary of Treasury not to send federal dollars to the B.U.S. during its last four years from 1832-1826. He goes through 2 Secretaries of the Treasury who won’t do it until he appoints Roger B. Taney, who agrees. Federal dollars are now deposited in state “Pet Banks” and western “Wildcat” Banks.
The Bank War is a sectional victory for the South but a nationals disaster.
•Biddle begins to tighten credit
•Jackson tries to curb wild land speculation by issuing a “Hard Currency” policy -- the “Specie Circular” of 1836.
Jackson leaves office after a second term, leaving Van Buren to deal with the aftereffects, the Panic of 1837.
Other Issues of the Jacksonian Presidency Indian Removal Policy:
1828 - The Cherokee Constitution (land held in NW Georgia)
1830 - Indian Removal Bill : Votes in Dollars to buy all of Indian Lands East of the Mississippi River.
1832 - John Marshall’s Court, in Worcester v Georgia rules that states cannot extend laws into Indian territories
1832 - Sac and Fox Indian Wars in Illinois and Wisconson
1835 - Seminole War for Indian Removal in Florida
THE TRAIL OF TEARS TO OKLAHOMA: Removed: Seminole/ FL; Sac/ WI; Cherokee/ GA; Fox IL/Iowa; Chickasaw / Chocktaw / Mississippi; Creek / AL.
Texas and the Slavery Issue:
1836 -- Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna centralizes rule in Mexico City (Mexican 1808-1815; Spain 1815-1820; back to Mexico from 1820-on) In response, Texans Declare the Independence on March 2, 1836. Famous battle (loss) at the Alamo by Texans on March 6, and Sam Houston’s victorious vengeance win at the Battle of San Jacinto April 21 captures Sanata Anna.
The addition of another slave state would have rocked the balance and jeopardized Van Buren’s chance at election, so Jackson suggests to Houston they wait for Annexation. The petition in congress is killed when ex-President then Representative J. Q. Adams Fillibusters the Annexation Treaty in the House.
1836 -- Martin Van Buren Elected President
He Continues Jacksonian Policies, and a new Supreme Court with Roger Taney as Head Justice supports many of his policies.
Many problems: The Panic of 1837 and Depression by 1839 from the problems of Banks, Wildcat speculation, Hard Currency, and low cotton prices
By 1840 a new political group has come into existence, the WHIGS.
Democrats: Appeal to the Common Man, Westerners, Southern planters; against banks and federal improvements; drew intellectuals
Whigs: Part Anti-Jacksonian and a mixture of ideals: Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Henry Clay; the party is somewhat “Conservative,” but also appeals to oppressed minorities -- free blacks and immigrants -- as well as bankers, professional tradesfolk, editors, and teachers. Moral reformists flock to the Whig Party.
1840: Whigs nominate William Henry Harrison (“Old Tippacanoe”) and John Tyler as VP (Tippacanoe and Tyler too)
Harrison dies almost immediately in office after being elected on April 4, 1841. Was a question as to whether Tyler would remain President or new election would be called, but Tyler acts as if it is permanent and sets the precedent for long-term Presidential succession.
1841 -- Tyler becomes President. Slowly Tyler begins to be seen more as a Democrat than a Whig, and all the Whigs resign from his cabinet.
1844 -- James K. Polk elected as Democratic President. Polk issues in the Era of MANIFEST DESTINY -- seeking the expansion of the United States as a nationalistic force to overwhelm sectional conflict -- focusing on Texas, Oregon, and Maine.
1. The “re”-Annexation of Texas
2. Oregon: Fifty-four Forty or Fight
Mexican War 1845 -- Texas Admitted into the Union
1845 -- John Slidell sent to Mexico (to buy CA, NM, settle on Rio Grande) for up to $25 million
Texas boundary dispute:
1816: Spain’s line -- Nuces River
1836: Santa Anna -- Rio Grande
May 1846 -- 13th Congress declares War; Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott, John C. Fremont
Nicholas Trist & Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
($15 million and $3.25 million forgiven in American debts)
1842 -- Acquisition of Maine’s Boundaries, exchange of some of Maine’s land for land west of Lake Superior: Webster-Ashburn Treaty
1846 -- Oregon or Bust: Joint Occupation with Britain since 1818 (Convention of 1818) Agreement finally at 49th parallel -- Carves out Oregon, Washington, Idaho/Wyoming and Montana.
1848 -- Failure to buy Cuba from Spain for $100 million. Election of Zachary Taylor ends expansion of Polk.
CODA: The Gadsen Purchase of 1853 --$10 mil for Transcontinental Railroad
The Reform Movement of the 19th Century
and the Attitudes near the Civil War
The Reform movement occurred in both Britain and America. In America, the roots could be found in four sources:
While the British tended to be ahead of the Us, particularly on antislavery, some of the most extreme forms of reform movements flourished in the United States.
Seven Example Reform Areas: 1. Alcohol: The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
Originally promoted moderation in drink, eventually radicalized for total abstinence, roots of the Prohibition movement.
By 1856, 13 states had in some way prohibited sales of some liquors.
2. The Mentally Ill: The rise of the asylum in America showed a new understanding that not all who had social problems were criminal -- mental illness began being treated as a disease / a medical problem. Chief amongst those pushing for reform was Dorothea Dix.
3. Criminals: Many capital offenses were reduced; a movement was made from mutilation and humiliation as punishments to incarceration.
Historiography: One major challenger of the model that reformers made changes in prison systems due to humanitarianism was the modern French theorist Michel Foucault. In his most famous work, Discipline and Punish, Foucault suggests economic changes in the value of labor -- that an industrial society valued labor wherein a medieval society peasant labor was not valued -- caused the imposition of discipline upon the body. This was first seen in Armies, but later spread to schools and prison concepts, as people used discipline systems to control and mold criminals, students, and soldiers into usable labour resources.
One major criticism of Foucault’s theories is that he does not account for what humanitarians SAID their work was about. It seems difficult to assume a world conspiracy of silence made reformers all decide they wished to turn criminals into useful labour and left little record of such.
4. The Physically Challenged: Advances in helping the physically challenged integrate into society were a hallmark of the 19th century reform movement. Samuel Grady Hopkins created the Braille system for the blind; Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet used sign language in order to help the deaf communicate.
5. Sexual Roles / Women’s Rights: Many important strides were made in women’s rights though certainly not known as women’s rights at the time. Great access to education was given to women, along with new rights to custody of children and suing in courts, as they were able to have property and sue in court under their own names rather than their father’s or husband’s name. Very importantly, women were able through wills to bequeath property and slaves to their heirs, giving them greater control over their own lives and the destiny of their families. (Compare this to Grevin’s article, and the father’s power of wills and bequeathments.)
The first major convention for actual women’s rights met in 1848, headed by Elizabeth Staunton and Lucretia Mott. In their “Declaration of Sentiments,” the convention stated their desires for improvements in women’s lots in life, including the suggestion that women were capable of having the vote.
6. Education: Horace Mann, a member of the Massachusetts legislature and later the Secretary of the State Board of education which he helped create, led the way toward seeing public free elementary education as something all children were entitled to. During this same time, Oberlin College was founded as the first coeducational college facility, and colleges such as Mount Holyoke became the first colleges for women.
7. ABOLITIONISM: No movement more reflected the ideals of the 19th century and was more profoundly affecting on the mindset of the North during the coming of the Civil War as the Abolition movement. Most people did not believe in emancipation, but in “colonization” of blacks.
William Loyd Garrison, a northern newspaper editor, was a radical and believed in full immediate emancipation. He drafted help from the Grimke sisters, Sarah and Angelina, daughters of a Southern planter who became convinced of the rightness of emancipation and spoke through the country.
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin and eloquent freed slaves such as Frederick Douglass put a human face on slavery.
However, emancipation was not originally started in the 19th century. Some groups, such as Quakers, had advocated the elimination of slavery as early as the 18th century. One of the most remarkable of these Quakers was educator Anthony Benezet of Philadelphia, a friend of Benjamin Franklin’s. He taught the first school in the continent for women and later the first school for black children and uttered the heretical notion blacks could learn as easily and as much as whites under the right circumstances. However, he believed in colonization, not emancipation into white society.
Catalysts and Changes of the Reform Movement: A. Religion, North and South
Northern religion began to place an emphasis on the parts of the Bible that looked to the equality of mankind. The abolitionists’ understanding of the Bible made them see slavery as a moral evil.
Southern Religion saw the Bible differently, and justified slavery as Biblical: the Mark of Cain was blackness, and that slavery existed in Biblical times: “Slaves, obey your masters.”
B. Cults of Self-Improvement
The notion for reform moved people to try and improve themselves -- such unusual cults such as transcendentalism and the “science” of phrenology -- the study of bumps and shape of the head as part of understanding the human mind -- flourished.
C. Utopian societies
Many groups sought inner reform through socialistic or otherwise utopian societies.
1. George Ripley was the head of Brook Farm, which was the center of transcendentalism -- a movement to transcend pure logic and seek understanding.
2. Shakers -- a religious community that believed in sexual abstinence and became famous for their furniture-making.
3. Oneida Community -- community founded on the idea of “complex marriage” -- every woman was the wife of all men, all men were the husbands of each woman, but sexual relations very tightly controlled. The goal was highest commitment to the Community, even over commitment to any one partner or pleasure. The communal living was a failure but their economic output of silver plate and flatware continued.
4. Amana Community -- German community of Christian socialism
5. Owenities -- Robert Owen was a British socialist and philanthropist who began a Utopian community called New Harmony.
6. Mormons -- first truly American religion; Joseph Smith founded it based on the Book of Mormon and founded a religious colony in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Intellectualism: A> Literature
James Fennimore Cooper: Natty Bumpo and the Leatherstocking Tales; Oliver Wendell Holmes -- legal genius; Edgar Allen Poe, Henry Wordsworth Longfellow, Herman Mellville -- Moby Dick, Washington Irving -- The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle; Nathaniel Hawthorne -- The Scarlet Letter.
B> New Newspapers and Magazines
For the educated: New York Times and New York Tribune
Penny Press for the common man: The New York Sun
“Gentleman’s Magazines” -- Atlantic Monthly and Harper’s
C> Recognition of American as separate language, Noah Webster’s Dictionary
Causes of the Civil War: Overview SECTIONALISM: North, South, West
Northeast: Mixed industrial / Agricultural/ Shipping economy
Comprehensive transportation (railroads and canals) and communications -- mostly tied to the West
Better educational opportunities
Free Labour -- “Wage slavery”?
Opposed slavery -- some for moral, some for economic reasons
•Greater population (22 million / 9 million (2.5 mil slaves))
•90% Industrial capacity in North -- South crippled in getting / manufacturing supplies
•Better communication and TRANSPORTATION -- 20,000 miles of railroads, multiple east-west lines (south only 10,000, only 1 e/w line); also, South had no “universal gauge”
•Better Financial (3/4th Banks in North)
•North Already had set up government, diplomatic corps, army, and navy
•Early naval superiority / blockade
•Diplomatic success of King Corn over King Cotton
NORTH: Tariffs, income tax, bonds, paper money not backed by specie, inflation
SOUTH: Borrowing, excise tax, bonds, income tax (and Tax in kind), and ONE BILLION CONFEDERATE DOLLARS ISSUED -- severe inflation
Civil War Problems: THE DRAFT (as an example)
CONFEDERATE Government: States rights versus central authority
(Capitol moved form Montgomery Alabama to Richmond, Virginia)
Union Government” Lincoln took liberties with Presidential power
Thought of War versus Reality: First Bull Run on July 21, 1861
Ironclads -- Merrimac / Virginia & the Monitor
Naval Warfare: Blockade -- exports drop from $200 million
to $4 million 1861-1863
Control of the Mississippi (Farragut/ New Orleans & Grant/ Vicksburg)
Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda” Strategy
Davis -- Seeks Diplomatic Support (Britain, France)
Early Confederate Victories (particularly in Eastern theatre):
Battles of Bull Runs & Peninsular Campaign (East)
September 1862 -- Antietam / Sharpsburg
Emancipation Proclamation -- January 1863
Turning point is in 1863: Gettysburg (July 1863), Vicksburg, Chatanooga
Total War: William Tecumseh Sherman’s “March to the Sea” to Atlanta (July 4)
April 9, 1865 -- Appamatox Court House, Virginia
Aftermath: The Civil War and Reconstruction
Reconstruction During the Civil War: Lincoln
Lincoln Plan announced December 8, 1863. 10% Plan, based on Constitutional Power of President to Pardon (Article II, Section 2) and that the states had not left the Union, though Lincoln less worried about Constitutional abstraction as for how to practically put the union back together again.
By 1864, TN, AR, LA “Reconstructed,” but Congress refuses to seat Representatives
Election of 1864 (in Wartime) Republicans & War Democrats nominate Lincoln
Tide of War, Call of Pacificism, and rejection of the Wade-Davis Act causes “Radical” Republicans to defect: Democrats nominate General George McClellan
Jefferson Davis’ Belligerency & The Capture of Atlanta favors Lincoln
First attempts at “Congressional” Reconstruction:
Congress Assumed states left Union and forfeited all rights
Senator Benjamin Wade (OH) and Representative Henry Davis (MD)
Wade-Davis Act -- July 2, 1864
• Repudiation of Confederate Debt
• Greater Exclusion of Voters & Officeholders (Ironclad Oath)
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan: similar to Lincoln’s with exceptions:
• South had to also agree to revoke all orders of secession
• South agrees to the 13th Amendment
• Wealthy Planters and high-ranking Officers of Confederacy denied general Amnesty
South’s response: re-elect old Confederate leaders, pass “black codes”
Northern / Radical Republican Backlash
•Congress again refuses to seat the South
•Johnson, Jackson Democrat, uses theme of strict Constitutionalism
Alienates both parties: Tries to Build National Union Coalition
Feb. 1866: Johnson vetoes two bills: expansion of the Freedman’s Bureau and
Civil Rights Act. Both Bills passed over his veto.
• Congressional Election of 1866
• Johnson’s Midwest “swing round the circle”
Radical Reconstruction: Congress (Reconstruction Act of 1867)
Scalywags, Carpetbaggers, the Myth of Black Rule (P.B.S.Pinchback, LA)
The Question of Corruption under Reconstruction governments vs.general corruption of era, leading into the Guilded Age, Thomas Nast, Grant’s Cabinet
Impeachment of Johnson: Based on Tenure of Office Act and dismissal of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton (Radical Republican sympathizer)
11 CHARGES DRAWN FOR “HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS”
Acquitted by 1 Senatorial vote, including 7 crossover Republicans
1868 Election of US Grant (serves two terms, through 1876)
“REFORMER” governments: 1869-1875, white Southerners begin to take back control (Red Shirts, White Leagues)
AFTERMATH OF RECONSTRUCTION: 1. Constitutional: 14th and 15th Amendments
2. Political: Destruction of Planter Aristocracy and rise of Northern business leaders as “new aristocrats”
3. Economic: The benighted, destroyed, devastated South
4. Economic: Sharecropping, crop lien system
5. Social: Beginnings of the Myths of the Lost Cause and “Moonlight and Magnolia”
“New South Myth” (Henry Grady)
6. Founding of KKK in 1866 (TN)
7. Leads to Plessy versus Fergusun in 1896, creation and justification of Jim Crow