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Chapter 14.3- Formative Quiz

  1. Who was William the Conqueror? (Time period, location, key achievements)

Duke of Normandy, who conquered England at the Battle of Hastings in October of 1066. William brought feudalism to England and commissioned the Domesday Book…also example of subinfeudation…consolidated power by redistributing land to supporters…immortalized on the Bayeux Tapestry

  1. What was the Magna Carta?

Also known as the “Great Charter”. Document drawn up by English nobles, who forced King John to sign it in 1215…limited the powers of the kings…no imprisonment without jury trial, no taxation without consultation, etc. It was important because it was the first example of limitations on a monarch’s powers…also inspired later documents such as the Mayflower Compact, and the Constitution

  1. What was the Estates- General? Significance?

The Estates-General was a body of representatives in France which was called to approve requests of the king…made up of the First Estate (clergy), the Second Estate (nobles), the Third Estate (commoners)…The Estates- General was not as powerful as Parliament, but much later on, the Estates-General will help usher in the French Revolution (1789)

Chapter 14.3- England and France Develop

  1. England Absorbs Waves of Invaders

  • For centuries, invaders from various regions in Europe landed on English shores

  • Cultural diffusion

  1. Early Invasions

  • 800’s- Britain was raided by Danish Vikings

    • Special prayer- “God, deliver us from the fury of the Northmen”

  • Alfred the Great, 871-899, managed to turn back the Viking invaders…

  • Gradually, Alfred and successors united kingdom under one rule, calling it England- “land of the Angles”

    • Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that invaded Britain

  • 1016- Danish king Canute conquered England, molded Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people

  • 1042- King Edward the Confessor, descendant of Anglo-Saxon Alfred the Great, took the throne…died in January 1066 without an heir

  1. The Norman Conquest

  • William, duke of Normandy, invaded England and became William the Conqueror

    • Normandy was northern region of France that had been conquered by the Vikings

    • Normans were descended from Vikings, but were French in language and in culture

    • William was King Edward’s cousin…claimed the throne and invaded with a Norman army

  • William’s rival was Harold Godwinson, Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne.

  • October 14, 1066- Norman and Saxons fought the Battle of Hastings…Harold was killed by an arrow in his eye, the Normans won

  • William then declared all of England his personal property

  • English lords that had supported Harold lost their lands…William then granted fiefs to about 200 Norman lords who swore oaths of loyalty to him personally…laid the foundation for centralized government and feudalism in England

  1. England’s Evolving Government

  • William the Conqueror’s descendants owned land both in Normandy and in England

  • English King Henry II added to the holdings by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine…she brought more lands from France

  • English kings wanted to

    • 1. Hold and add on to their French lands

    • 2. They wanted to strengthen their own power over the nobles and the Church

  1. Monarchs, Nobles, and the Common Law

  • Eleanor of Aquitaine one of the most remarkable women in history

    • Wife to 2 kings and mother to 2 kings

  • Eleanor married Louis VII of France when the Second Crusade began

    • 1147 she accompanied him to the Holy Land

    • Her marriage was then annulled

  • Eleanor then married Henry Plantagenet, who became Henry II of England

    • Had four sons- 2 kings (Richard the Lion-Hearted and John)

    • Henry also gained a large territory in France called Aquitaine

  • Henry held lands in France, he was a vassal to the French king, but he was also a king in his own right

  • Henry ruled England from 1154 to 1189

    • Strengthened the royal courts of justice by sending royal judges to every part of England at least once a year

    • Collected taxes, settled lawsuits, and punished crimes

    • Henry also introduced use of jury in English courts

    • Jury in Medieval England was a group of loyal people- 12 neighbors of the accused- and answered a royal judge’s questions about the facts of the case

  • Overtime, rulings of England’s royal judges formed a unified body of law that became known as common law

    • Principles of English common law are the basis for law in many English-speaking countries, including the United States

  1. The Magna Carta

  • Henry was succeeded by Richard the Lion-Hearted, then other son John

  • John ruled from 1199 to 1216

    • Failed military leader, called John Softsword

    • John lost Normandy and all his lands in northern France

    • John then faced a confrontation with his nobles

  • John was mean to his subjects and tried to squeeze money from them…raised taxes to an all-time high to finance his wars…nobles revolted

  • June 15, 1215- nobles forced John to agree to the most celebrated document in English history, the Magna Carta (Great Charter)

    • Guaranteed basic political rights

    • Nobles wanted to safeguard their own feudal rights and limit the king’s powers

    • Guaranteed rights- no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and the protection of the law

  • Robin Hood Legend

  1. The Model Parliament

  • Important step toward democratic government resulted from Edward I’s struggles to hold onto his last remaining French lands

  • 1295- Edward I needed to raise taxes for a war against the French

  • Edward summoned 2 burgesses (citizens of wealth and property) from every borough and 2 knights from every county to serve as a parliament (legislative group)

  • November 1295- first meeting of the Model Parliament- knights, burgesses, bishops, and lords met together at Westminster in London…new makeup (commoners, non-nobles, and lords) served as a model for later kings

  • 1300 to 1400- King called the knights and burgesses whenever a new tax was needed

  • Knights and burgesses gradually formed an assembly of their own within Parliament called the House of Commons…

  • Nobles and bishops met separately in the House of Lords

  • Under Edward I- Parliament was a royal tool that helped to weaken the great lords…eventually, Parliament became strong and provided a check to royal power

  1. Capetian Dynasty Rules France

  • Kings of France looked for ways to increase their power

  • After the breakup of Charlemagne’s empire, French counts and dukes ruled their lands independently under the feudal system

  • By 1000, France was divided into 30 feudal territories

  • 987- last member of Carolingian family- Louis the Sluggard- died

  • Hugh Capet- duke from middle of France- succeeded him

  • Hugh Capet began the Capetian dynasty of French kings that ruled France from 987 to 1328

  1. France Becomes a Separate Kingdom

  • Hugh Capet, his son, and his grandson were weak rulers

  • Capetian territory was on important trade routes in northern France

  • Power of the king gradually spread outward from Paris…eventually, growth of the royal power would unite France

  1. Philip II Expands His Power

  • One of the most powerful Capetians was Philip II, called Philip Augustus, ruled from 1180-1223

    • Philip wanted to weaken the power of the English kings in France

    • Philip had more success against King John

      • Philip gained so much land- he was called Augustus (Latin for “majestic”)

      • Seized Normandy from King John in 1204

      • Philip tripled the lands under his direct control

      • For the first time, French king had become more powerful than any of his vassals

  • Philip Augustus wanted a stronger central government…established royal officials called bailiffs

    • Paris to every district in kingdom to preside over the king’s courts and collect the king’s taxes

  1. Philip II’s Heirs

  • France’s central government was made even stronger during reign of Philip’s grandson, Louis IX, ruled from 1226-1270

    • Louis was pious and saintly

    • Known as an ideal king

    • Canonized by the Catholic Church after his death

    • Created a French appeals court which could overturn decisions of local courts…strengthened the monarchy while weakening feudal ties

  • 1302, Philip IV, ruled from 1285-1314, involved in a quarrel with the pope

    • Pope refused to allow priests to pay taxes to the king

    • Philip disputed the right of the pope to control Church affairs in his kingdom

    • Philip IV called a meeting to gain support for his policies and included commoners

    • France- 3 Estates

      • 1. First Estate- Clergy/ Church leaders

      • 2. Second Estate- Lords

      • 3. Third Estate- everybody else/ commoners

  • Meeting of the Estates-General

    • Helped to increase royal power against the nobility

    • Unlike Parliament, Estates-General never became an independent force that limited the king’s power

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