Looking at a map of the world of around 1914, the beginning of WW I, one might be surprised to note that about half of the world was covered by colonies and about 40% of the world population, i. e. more than 600 million people, were under colonial rule.
Since the beginning of modern European expansion in the 15th century the meaning of the term colony, derived from Latin ‘colonia’ (settlement), was gradually changed to denote territories owned by European nations overseas.
The success of the expansion of the European countries is most likely be explained by their superiority as to their naval power and certain branches of technology especially in the military field. Historians of colonial history have often emphasised that European conquests enforced a kind of ‘pax colonica’ (colonial peace) among the warring peoples of the new territories which promoted the readiness of the conquered to accept foreign control, besides the Europeans often skilfully exploited the conflicts of the native rulers among themselves. One of the main ways in which use was made of overseas territories was economic exploitation. Then colonies were useful as naval bases, and finally they were places where settlers could make use of cheap land. The methods of how to control the overseas territories varied. Britain especially faced the necessity of limiting the number of (English) administrators, largely because of the huge size of its empire. In India in 1939 760 British members of the Indian Civil Service ruled over nearly 381 million Indians supported by 15,000 British and 250,000 Indian soldiers.
One of the widely practiced forms of British colonial rule was the so-called ‘indirect rule’ which meant that under the supremacy of the colonial power native chiefs and princes were left in their position, as for example in India’s 500 or so princely states within the territories of British India. These princes were not allowed to follow their own foreign policy and British ‘advisors’ at the court saw to it that British interests were not neglected.
The Process of Decolonisation
In view of the large colonial empires with their enormous territories and the multitudes of peoples two examples are to illustrate the process of decolonisation. India was the largest and probably the most valuable colony under British rule, as the late PM Churchill’s statement of 1931 underlines: “The loss of India […] could […] be a process that would reduce us to the scale of a minor power.” [quoted in Collins-Lapierre, Freedom at Midnight, before p. 1]. India also set an example to many other territories in their struggle for political freedom.
African Nigeria was another large territory, controlled by Britain with a cultural background very different from that of India, and geographically far apart from it.
India could be referred to as the prototype of a territory controlled practically without white settlers. The English were not the first Europeans that tried to exploit the fabulous riches of the subcontinent, e. g. spices. The Portuguese navigator*, Vasco da Gama, opened the sea route to India in 1598. Portugal concentrated on obtaining naval bases and trading posts. The Dutch, French and British then gradually replaced the Portuguese. The Dutch followed the principle not to annex territories. The administration of their trading settlements was in the hand of the Dutch East India Company. For various reasons the company was eventually financially ruined. The French ‘Companie des Indes’ was in its aims and methods comparable to the Dutch (and British) companies. The rivalry and following military conflicts between France and Britain – among others the Seven Year War (1756–63)* – weakened the French position in India. The fate of the company was finally sealed by the military defeat of France.
The British East India Company (founded in 1600) established three branch offices: Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras) and Fort William near Kolcatta (Calcutta). The disintegration of the Mughal* Empire in India favoured the expansion of British control. Britain’s clash with France and the involvement in local conflicts of Indian princes gradually led to larger territorial conquests and a dual system of control: directly ruled territories as in Bengal (North India) and a large number of Indian principalities indirectly controlled. The administration of territories under direct control was run by the East India Company which gradually developed a colonial civil service, whose majority of high-ranking members were British. The civil service was essential for the British rule in India but the real backbone* was the army, which consisted mainly of native soldiers. A great mutiny of these native soldiers – the Sepoy* or Indian Mutiny in 1857–58 – compelled the company to introduce changes. The number of British soldiers was radically increased and that of the native troops considerably reduced. Indian nationalists often refer to the Sepoy Mutiny as an outstanding example of Indian resistance against foreign rule. In the course of the mutiny horrible atrocities* were committed on both sides. The widespread rebellion failed.
Image 1: Cruel punishment of mutineers. Blowing mutineers from guns. A black-and-white reproduction of a painting by Vasili Vereshchagin in the 1880s.[Wikimedia pub. domain]
Apart from military reorganisation the events also resulted in the transfer of government in India to the British Crown. The quick spread of the rebellion suggests the uneasiness felt by many Indians about the impact of Western ideas. There was the belief that the British aimed at breaking down the caste system. The introduction of western methods and concepts of education was considered as a threat to the orthodox Hindu and Muslim society. The English language and syllabus had been made the basis for higher education. Indian students considered it as a chance to gain access to the civil service and obtain social prestige. Plans for a general primary education were not realised as being too costly. So the rate of illiteracy* remained extremely high. The British colonial policy in the years after the Indian Mutiny was characterised by a cautious attitude to interferences into the Indian cultural and social system and religion. In economic matters, however, the British position drew a lot of complaints from Indian nationalists. Machine-made products from Britain flooded the Indian market and suffocated the native manufacturing industry, increasing poverty and misery in rural India. To promote the industrialisation of India did not suit British interests, as they needed India as a great export market. The building of a railroad network, one of the main British contributions to India, from about 200 miles in 1858 to 35,000 miles in 1914, accelerated* the destruction of India’s handicraft industry as the machine-made British products could be widely and quickly distributed, but it also helped to connect the various parts of the huge country and eased military transports.
Indian national feelings crystallised in the Indian National Congress party founded in 1883. The majority of its members were Hindus. As Muslims feared that the future development would be dominated by the large Hindu majority – about 2/3 of the 400 million population – they established the Muslim League in 1906 to voice their interests.
During WW I (1914–18) the Indian public partly showed sympathy in Britain’s struggle against Germany. The Indian war contribution favoured the passing of the Government of India Act of 1919 in the British Parliament which granted limited self-government, but Indian nationalists pressed for more political concessions. The events of the Russian Revolution with the overthrow of an unpopular regime, and the 14 Points of American President Wilson with the principle of self-determination encouraged Indian nationalists. The atmosphere between the British and the Indians suffered considerably after the murder of 4 Europeans in Amritsar (Punjab) in 1919: troops had opened fire on an unarmed crowd killing 378 people and wounding 1200. Under the leadership of Gandhi (see below) a series of non-cooperation and civil disobedience campaigns was sanctioned by the Indian National Congress.
M Image 2: Gandhi and the British viceroy Lord Mountbatten 1947 [wikipedia pub. domain] . K. Gandhi (1869–1948) had studied law in Britain and had lived several years in South Africa where he had already practised the idea of ‘satya graha’, (literally: ‘truth + firmness’), i. e. non-violent non-cooperation. This idea of mobilising the native people against foreign rulers or of a suppressed part of the population against discrimination and exploitation by the ruling class was later taken over in many countries, though only a few of the followers maintained the principle of non-violence as in the case of Martin Luther King in the USA. Though many looked upon Gandhi as a charismatic* leader, others, especially many British, had mixed feelings, varying between amusement and resentment. His clothes, his lifestyle and views caused comments like ‘this half-naked fakir’ (Churchill). Gandhi become celibate at the age of 36, while still married, was a strict vegetarian , used fasting as a form of political protest, gave up wearing western-style clothing, which he associated with wealth and success and wore a dhoti* to express the simplicity of his life. Several times he was sentenced, jailed and released for his actions, for example after his march with followers from Ahmedabad (west coast of India) to the sea where in a symbolic action they distilled salt from seawater to demonstrate their opposition to the salt tax. In 1935 another Government of India Act extended the franchise. Though the 1935 act contained some more political concessions it did not provide Dominion* status.
When WW II (1939–45) broke out the British Vice-Roy in India declared war on Germany without consulting Indian politicians. In most provinces Congress ministers resigned in protest, in provinces with a Muslim majority Muslim ministers stayed in office. Most of the important Indian politicians did not have a great liking for Fascism and Gandhi expressed his sympathy for the British people at the beginning of the war. A few radical Indian Congress politicians such as former Congress President S. Ch. Bose followed the principle that Britain’s enemy is India’s friend. New protests led to new arrests in India where nearly all leading members were sent to prison, among them Nehru, one of the younger outstanding leaders. The round-up* of more than 10,000 Indian patriots did not meet with much sympathy among Britain’s friends, especially the USA with its anti-colonial attitude. Churchill’s statement of 1941 that the principle of self-determination of the Atlantic Charter referred only to the countries liberated from the Axis Powers increased the Indian suspicion about British war aims. The quick Japanese advances in South-East Asia with its threat to India’s defence prompted Britain to act quickly. A member of the British War Cabinet was sent to India in March 1942 to offer the Indian politicians the Dominion status and the idea that an Indian National Assembly should draw up a constitution. But all this should happen only after the end of the war. In July 1942 the Indian National Congress demanded British immediate withdrawal from India in the so-called ‘Quit* India Resolution’. The British authorities reacted promptly by forcing Congress leaders back into jail. The situation in India exploded into a series of violent actions: government buildings were set ablaze*, police stations attacked, roads blocked, bridges blown up and trains derailed. Within a few weeks, however, the army and the police were in control again. Till the end of the war which brought India huge problems of supply – Bengal suffered from one of the greatest famines in its history – political matters remained as they were.
A conference called by the British Vice-Roy in Simla, India, in 1945 failed as a result of the hostilities b
Jinnah & Ghandi 1944 [Wikipedia pub. domain] etween Congress and Muslim League leaders. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leading politician of the League, took up demands for a separate state for Muslims, named Pakistan*. He also declared that Muslims would no longer follow constitutional methods to establish a separate Muslim state. As a consequence of the growing hostilities racial and religious riots between Muslims and Hindus followed in some places and made it more than difficult for interim Prime Minister Nehru to work.
Britain was especially economically weakened as a result of the war and faced increasing difficulties to provide the means for colonial rule. The new British Vice-Roy Lord Mountbatten realised that it was impossible to maintain a united India. He feared that the country would be plunged into a civil war and set up a commission to deal with the partition of India. There were a lot of problems to be solved, including the partition of the All- Indian forces and the civil service, but the greatest problems caused the drawing of boundaries, particularly in Punjab and Bengal with its mixed Hindu and Muslim populations.
A Image 3: Refugees, railway station in the Punjab , Northern India 1947 [Wikimedia pub. domain] s a result of the new boundaries 5 million Muslims left India for West Pakistan and 5 million Hindus the other way round. One million Hindus migrated from East Pakistan to India. The new state consisted of two separate parts, West and East Pakistan, over about 1,000 miles apart. The exchange of the populations occurred under terrible circumstances.
It is calculated that already 500,000 people were killed before they left their original homes as a result of hysteric mob violence,
Image 4: Calkutta riot 1946 [wikimedia pub. domain] and another million were slaughtered or died when they tried to reach the new frontiers by foot or by train. Trains full of dead bodies with the inscription ‘Gift by Pakistan’, respectively ‘Gift by India’ were sent across the borders. Gandhi supported the protection of the Muslim minority and Pakistan’s right to obtain its share of the public treasury. Considering this attitude as treason a Hindu fanatic assassinated* him in 1948. The murder of the Mahatma (‘Great Soul’), as Gandhi was referred to, caused a shock for most Indians.
Part of a one rupee note with Hindi and English at the top and other Indian languages below (private photo)
he Indian princes had been granted to choose whether to join Pakistan or India. Except for three rajas all joined the Indian Union. The principality of Kashmir with its Muslim majority, but its maharaja’s option for India developed into a permanent centre of conflict with military clashes, as both India and Pakistan claimed the territory as part of their state.
On 15th August 1947 India and Pakistan respectively had gained their political freedom. In a speech delivered on the eve of gaining independence, Nehru, India’s first official prime minister, announced that “At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.” The midnight ceremony stayed in people’s memory and motivated authors to integrate the date into their writings, such as Salman Rushdie in his epic novel Midnight’s Children.
There were a lot of old problems the new state had to cope with. Illiteracy was widely spread, even today (2011) about 39% of people over 15 are still unable to read and write. Hinduism, the religion of the majority, with its principle of accepting fate did not favour a dynamic attitude towards life. The caste system separated groups of society from each other as to occupation, diet, marriage and other aspects of life. As an example, the so-called untouchables* are still often not allowed to draw water from the village well in the presence of higher caste members, as they are supposed to debase* these higher castes with their shadows. Meanwhile caste discrimination is made a legal offence, but it is still practised in many areas, especially in village communities. Another serious impediment was and still is the population growth. At present India has a population of nearly 1.2 billion people. The three mega cities Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi and Kolkatta (Calcutta) with surrounding areas number a total of about 56 million inhabitants. Birth control programs have had little success. As a result starvation and poverty have always troubled India’s population in spite of economic progress since 1991, the year when India abandoned Nehru’s socialism. Seven million children die every year, about 90% of them of hunger according to experts. Public food relief programs for the poor do not work. Caste discrimination intensified by corruption seems to be the main reason for the situation. Not at last the country has to deal with her language problems. Though Hindi is the most widely spoken Indian language, many Dravidian* language speakers in South India do not accept Hindi as the only official language, so English enjoys the status of a subsidiary official language. The constitution recognises 15 official languages.
Considering all the staggering figures the following statement of an African scholar about India is probably not surprising: “Too many people, too many animals, too many customs, too many gods – too much of everything” [quoted in Fodor: Guide to India, p. 84, no year given]. On the other hand India takes pride in the fact that it is the most populous democracy in the world and presents itself as the third largest economy in Asia. When in 2008 the Indian Tata Company took over the British car manufacturers Jaguar and Land Rover many Indians considered this as the last step of liberation from its former colonial rulers.
“I’m a Nigerian because a white man created Nigeria and gave me that identity […] but I was Igbo* before the white man came”, argues one of the main characters in the novel ‘Half of a Y Image 5: Linguistic groups in Nigeria
[Provider Central Intelligence Agency; Date created 1979; Source: Original image housed by Perry-Castañeda Library, University of Texas at Austin
The map is believed to be in the public domain; ellow Sun’ (2006) by the Nigerian writer Ch. N. Adechie. Borderlines in Africa were indeed often drawn by foreigners without much knowledge of the people concerned. If, however, the principle of self-determination had been applied in the full sense, there would not exist the present 50 or so states in Africa, but hundreds if not thousands, most of them unable to survive.
According to a recent estimate about 430 ethnic groups live in Nigeria, with Hausa*, Igbo and Yoruba* as the three largest ethnicities. Three out of four major African language families are spoken in the country. The Igbo, one of the majority peoples mainly dominate the south-eastern, the Yoruba the western and the Hausa the northern region.
When Europeans first set up trading settlements on the West African coast they were confronted with obstacles that made it difficult to intrude into the hinterland. The climate was unhealthy (especially because of malaria and sleeping sickness), not many rivers were navigable and forests often impenetrable*. As a consequence of the slave trade – the infamous ‘triangular trade’ in the 18th and 19th century – Africans often showed a hostile attitude towards white explorers and traders. So until the middle of the 19th century little was known about the African interior. Africa was a ‘Dark Continent’ for Europeans.
In pre-colonial Nigeria a number of kingdoms and empires had developed in some regions. In the northern plains the Hausa people had formed some centralised states. Islam had been introduced there in the 14th century. In the forested area west of the Niger and the Hausa land several kingdoms had come into existence. Many Nigerian peoples did not develop centralised monarchical systems. The Igbo in the south-east of Nigeria usually lived together in village communities were the extended family and clan regulated social life.
The Portuguese traders first focused on Sokoto (in the north) and Benin. Other European traders, especially British, tried to expand their influence in Nigeria, too. Along with the traders came missionaries. Apart from teaching the Bible and reading and writing they also introduced European thinking. In the course of time they succeeded in forming a small class of western-educated Africans, a group useful for colonial rule. The work of the missionaries also resulted in the formation of independent churches as a lot of Africans disliked the concepts and dogmas of European Christians. Today about 45% of the Nigerian population are Christians (mostly Protestant and independent churches) and Muslims respectively; about 9% are supposed to follow traditional religions. Many Africans had and still have their own view about the missionaries’ work, as expressed in the saying ‘When you came to us, you had the Bible and we the soil. Now we have the Bible and you have the soil!’ [cf. Ansprenger, Geschichte Afrikas, p. 84].
Since the middle of the 19th century Britain gradually began to spread its influence in Nigeria, In 1861 the ‘Protectorate of Lagos’ was established and in 1885 the British ‘Niger Coast Protectorate’ had expanded its power into the interior of the country. British military operations broke down the resistance offered by some smaller states in the Niger delta. In about the same period of time the British succeeded in terminating the more or less permanent civil wars between the Yoruba kingdoms. In 1885 the ‘British Royal Niger Company’ was founded to advance English trading interests. The company also acted on behalf of the British administration and made agreements with local rulers.
In 1899 the British Government abolished the charter of the Company and declared the territories as ‘Protectorate of Northern Nigeria’. Frederic Lugard who had been in charge of the military forces of the Royal Niger Company became the first governor-general. After the conquest of the Sokoto Caliphate he amalgamated the north and the south of Nigeria to form the ‘Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria’. To achieve an economic and efficient administration Lugard applied the method of indirect rule (see above). This principle worked fairly well with the emirs of the Caliphate. To keep most of their power the emirs were willing to co-operate with the British and accepted guidance by European advisors. The British guaranteed that Christian missionaries would not obtain permission to be active in that part of Nigeria. In return the emirs agreed to the abolition of slavery and contributed half of their revenue to the British administration. The money was needed for the economic development of the North. The first railway line, opened before WW I, connected Lagos with Kano in the North. So, to some extent, the northern and southern regions were more closely connected, but on the whole they were far apart. The northern regions isolated themselves by rejecting modern influences from other regions, thus lagging more and more behind in their economic development and standard of education.
As pointed out above missionaries were the first to introduce school education which acquainted young Africans with western ideas. A number of them went abroad for further academic training. Among them was the Igbo N. Azikiwi (1909–96), who after his return from the USA joined the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM) to spread the ideas of political freedom and self-determination. He and others later founded the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC). The organisation of an impressive general strike in 1945 made the British think about plans of a possible independence of Nigeria. Azikiwi also strongly promoted the idea of ethnicity, as expressed in a declaration of 1949 that “it would appear that the God of Africa has specially created the Igbo nation to free the children of Africa from the bondage of ages” [quoted in Wilson, African Decolonisation, 1994, p. 94]. Another leading figure was the Yoruba O. Awolowo who after his studies in London advocated the Yoruba ethnicity with the aim “to unite the various clans in Yoruba land […] and foster the idea of a single nationalism throughout Yoruba land” [Wilson, ibid.].
After 1945 the ideas and principles of the Atlantic Charter, the Charter of the UN and India’s freedom struggle considerably influenced the thinking and acting of nationalists in African colonies. The Hausa in the North realised the threat for their power by the growing nationalism of the South and formed their own party: ‘The Northern People’s Congress’ (NPC).
So, Nigeria was more or less distinctly divided into three main regions, the Hausa area in the north, the Yoruba area in the west and the Igbo dominated area in the south-east. Each of the regions had been granted its own autonomous administration, jurisdiction and separate Houses of Representatives by the British. Aiming at greater political participation and limiting the influence of the majority peoples the numerous minority peoples pressed for a reorganisation of the federal structure. Though all groups agreed to this suggestion they were not willing to accept them for their own region. So, when on 10 October 1960 Nigeria was given full political independence, it remained a state split into three parts with a central government in Lagos – at least for the time being. To avoid unrest and pacify the smaller ethnicities the three regions were gradually further divided.
In 1963 Nigeria was proclaimed a federal state with Azikiwi as its first president. The joy of many Nigerians about the political freedom was soon spoilt as tribal differences developed increasingly into serious problems, intensified by growing economic difficulties. In 1966 the government was overthrown by a military coup. The military government under Igbo general Ironsi then made the (northern) Hausa fear the loss of their power. Riots broke out and Igbos living in the north were massacred. Many Igbos fled from various part of Nigeria to their original (Igbo) region. This eastern region under military governor Ojukuva declared the region to be an independent state under the name Biafra. Only an independent Igbo state, Ojukuva asserted, could protect the safety of the Igbo people. The central government launched what was called ‘a short political police action’ to bring back the separatists into Nigeria. The central government was supported by Britain and the Soviet Union, Biafra by France. Heavy loss of lives and mass starvation, especially in Biafra characterized the bitter conflict, with the estimated number of 36,000 dead soldiers and 600,000 civilians. In 1970 Biafra had to surrender. The following years Nigeria lived through a sequence of military coups with changing governments. Apart from the short-lived Second Republic 1979–83, the era of military rule of nearly 33 years ended in 1999.
Though potentially a wealthy country, due to its oil reserves, Nigeria underwent a series of economic crises mainly because of its dependence on the world market prices. Apart from that the country had always suffered from what the first person narrator in S. Atli’s novel
Everything good will come (2005) describes as follows: “Oil leaked from the drilling fields of the Niger Delta into people’s Swiss bank accounts.” Severe air and groundwater pollution, partly caused by careless oil production and partly by the insufficient waste management has been a permanent threat to people’s health.
One of the most serious problems, the sectarian strife* between Muslims and Christians, has increased. According to a rough estimate about 10,000 people fell victim to religious clashes in the last decade. Often the religious riots are caused or intensified by social and economic conflicts about jobs, arable land, pastures, watering places and other scarce resources. A
Image 6: Lagos, the largest town in Nigeria with ca. 17 million inhabitants, photo taken by Stefan Magdalinski (Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic, CC BY 2.0) ll these conflicts are complicated by ethnic confrontations.
In 2010 after an election with comparatively little violence and manipulations, Goodluck Jonathan was declared President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria with at present 36 states and about 150 million inhabitants. English has the status of the official language, besides three recognised national languages Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba and five recognised regional languages. With Jonathan the first head of state from the Southern region has come into Lagos, the largest city, with about 17 million inhabitants.
office. He is one of the few leading politicians in the country without a military background. Perhaps and hopefully his name is a good omen for the future of Nigeria.
Auseinandersetzung zwischen verschiedenen religiösen Gruppen
Indian native soldier
Seven Year War
A global war between 1756 and 1763 affecting Europe ,central America, North America, the West African coast, India and the Philippines and involving Britain, France/Spain, Prussia and Habsburg/Austria as the main belligerent powers
Der Siebenjährige Krieg
a large group of the Indian society beneath and outside the social order of the four main castes, i. e. the Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (administrators and soldiers), Vaisyas (commercial and artisan class) and Sudras (farming and humbler jobs).