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United States History DBQ: The Civil Rights Movement Mr. Peterson



Directions: (200 points)

Step 1: Read and closely examine each document and then answer the questions which follow them. (Question a is the claim, question b is the evidence, and question c is your reasoning).

Step 2: Present the documents to the class.

Step 3: Write an essay which answers one of the below questions.

Questions: (Choose a question and use the documents for supporting evidence)

  1. Which methods were used to achieve Civil Rights?

  2. Which methods were used to try to deny Civil Rights?

  3. Would you use nonviolent or violent methods to achieve Civil Rights?

  4. Create your own essay question with teacher approval.

Historical Context: Throughout American history there has been a struggle among certain groups to gain equal access and opportunity to the American Dream. African-Americans have struggled for legal, political, and social equality since early colonial times. After the Civil War, Blacks were granted freedom, but were continually denied equal access and opportunity through legalized segregation. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the Supreme Court legalized the separation of Blacks and Whites in a variety of ways – in train cars, later interpreted to public places including schools. This ruling limited opportunities for African- Americans in education as did Jim Crow laws in employment and representation. In 1954 the Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education overturned legalized segregation in public schools. With the 1954 decision the Civil Rights Movement gained the legal foundation it needed to protest segregation in all areas of life in the United States.
DOCUMENT 1 (Model): Brown versus the Board-Chief Justice Earl Warren (1954)

We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal…

Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. . . . In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity . . . is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.


1a. What claim does Chief Justice Warren make in this document? Chief Justice Warren claims in document 1, “We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place.”
1b. What evidence is there in the document to support Warren’s claim? The evidence included in the Brown versus the Board ruling is, “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal…, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity . . . is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.”

1c. Why is Brown versus the Board important today? I think that the Brown versus the Board ruling is important today because it has opened the door for not only equal access for education for African-Americans but a demand for Civil Rights for women and girls, Latinos, people who have physical or mental disabilities, and the LGBT community. Civil Rights have been gained in education, job opportunities, access to public funding, and equal treatment under the law as a result of the Brown versus the Board ruling.



DOCUMENT 2: “Nonviolence and Racial Justice,” by Martin Luther King, Jr., 1957
Hence the basic question which confronts the world’s oppressed is: How is the struggle against the forces of injustice to be waged? There are two possible answers. One is resort to the all too prevalent [common] method of physical violence and corroding hatred….[Yet,] violence solves no social problems; it merely creates new and more complicated ones… If the American Negro and other victims of oppression [give in to] the temptation of using violence in the struggle for justice, unborn generations will live in a desolate night of bitterness, and their chief legacy will be an endless reign of chaos. The alternative to violence is non-violent resistance. This method was made famous in our generation by Mohandas K. Gandhi, who used it to free India from the domination of the British empire. Five points can be made concerning nonviolence as a method in bringing about better racial conditions.

1) First, this is not a method for cowards; it does resist.; [this] method is passive or non-aggressive in the sense that he is not physically aggressive toward his opponent. But his mind and emotions are always active, constantly seeking to persuade the opponent that he is mistaken

2) A second point is that non-violent resistance does not seek to defeat or humiliate the opponent, but to win his friendship and understanding… The aftermath of non-violence is the creation of the beloved community, while the aftermath of violence is tragic bitterness.

3) A third characteristic of this method is that the attack is directed against forces of evil rather than against persons who are caught in those forces. It is evil we are seeking to defeat, not the persons victimized by evil.

4) At the center of non-violence stands the principle of love. To retaliate with hate and bitterness would do nothing but intensify [make worse] the hate in the world. Along the way of life, someone must have sense enough and morality enough to cut off the chain of hate… Here we rise to the position of loving the person who does the evil deed while hating the deed he does.

5) Finally, the method of non-violence is based on the conviction that the universe is on the side of justice. This belief that God is on the side of truth and justice comes down to us from the long tradition of our Christian faith….So in Montgomery we can walk and never get weary, because we know that there will be a great camp meeting in the promised land of freedom and justice.

2a. What claim does Martin Luther King make in this document?

2b. What evidence is there in the document to support King’s claim?

2c. Was Dr. King correct about the use of non-violence ? I think…



Document 3: Photo and Quote by Elizabeth Eckford
“As I stepped out into the street, the people who had been across the street start surging forward behind me. So, I headed in the opposite direction where there was another bus stop. Safety to me meant getting to the bus stop. I think I sat there for a long time before the bus came. In the meantime, people were screaming behind me. What I would have described as a crowd before, to my ears sounded like a mob.”—Elizabeth Eckford, 1957



Elizabeth Eckford at Central High School, September 1957

3a. What is the claim of this document? (Use both the image and quote)

3b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

3c. What is your reaction to the document? I think…



DOCUMENT 4: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founding statement, 1960

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Founding Statement

We affirm the philosophical or religious ideal of nonviolence as the foundation of our purpose, the presupposition of our belief, and the manner of our action.

Nonviolence, as it grows from the Judeo-Christian tradition, seeks a social order of justice permeated by love. Integration of human endeavor represents the crucial first step towards such a society.

Through nonviolence, courage displaces fear. Love transcends hate. Acceptance dissipates prejudice; hope ends despair. Faith reconciles doubt. Peace dominates war. Mutual regards cancel enmity. Justice for all overthrows injustice. The redemptive community supersedes immoral social systems.


4a. What claim does Ella Baker and SNCC make in this document?

4b. What evidence is there in the document to support Baker and SNCC’s claim?

4c. Was Baker and SNCC correct about the use of non-violence ? I think…

DOCUMENT 5: David Fankhauser’s account of events along the Freedom Ride, 1961

On May 21, 1961, the surviving contingent of Riders took a bus from Birmingham to Montgomery, Alabama, protected by a contingent of the Alabama State Highway Patrol. However, when they reached the Montgomery city limits, the Highway Patrol abandoned them. At the bus station, a large white mob was waiting with baseball bats and iron pipes. The local police allowed them to viciously beat the Freedom Riders uninterrupted. Again, white Freedom Riders were singled out for particularly brutal beatings. There is a famous picture of Jim Zwerg with blood running all down his suit. Justice Department official Seigenthaler was beaten and left unconscious lying in the street. Ambulances, manned by white attendants, refused to take the wounded to the hospital. Brave local blacks finally rescued them. A number of the Freedom Riders were hospitalized.

5a. What is the claim of this document?

5b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

5c. What is your reaction to the document? I think…


DOCUMENT 6: March on Washington, August 28, 1963


The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was primarily organized by Martin Luther King, Jr (MLK) representing the SCLC, John Lewis from SNCC and James Farmer of CORE, and was attended by over 250,000 people from across the country. Marchers and organizers demonstrated support for the passage of civil rights legislation, the elimination of racial segregation, jobs, equal opportunity in hiring and a meaningful minimum wage.

6a. What is the claim of this document? (Use both the image and quote)

6b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

6c. What is your reaction to the document? I think…



Document 7: George Wallace’s 1963 Inaugural Address as Governor of Alabama
“… Today I have stood, where once Jefferson Davis stood, and took an oath to my people. It is very appropriate then that from this Cradle of the Confederacy, this very Heart of the Great Anglo-Saxon Southland, that today we sound the drum for freedom as have our generations of forebears before us done, time and time again through history. Let us rise to the call of freedom-loving blood that is in us and send our answer to the tyranny that clanks its chains upon the South. In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny… and I say… segregation today…. Segregation tomorrow… segregation forever….”

7a. What is the claim of this document?

7b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

7c. What is your reaction to the document? I think…


Document 8: Civil Rights Act of 1964

. . . All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, and privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.

. . . Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that any person or group of persons is engaged in a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of any of the rights secured by this title, and that the pattern or practice is of such a nature and is intended to deny the full exercise of the rights herein described, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in the appropriate district court of the United States by filing with it a complaint . . . requesting such preventive relief, including an application for a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order or other order against the person or persons responsible for such pattern or practice, as he deems necessary to insure the full enjoyment of the rights herein described.



8a. What is the claim of this document?

8b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

8c. What is your reaction to the document? I think…

Document 9: Malcolm X Press Conference, New York City 1964

“It is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks. It is legal and lawful to own a shotgun or rifle. We believe in obeying the law. The time has come for the American Negro to fight back in self-defense whenever and wherever his is being unjustly and unlawfully attacked.”

9a. What is the claim of this document?

9b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

9c. What is your reaction to the document? I think…

Document 10: Voter Registration Rates in Selected Southern States, 1965

State

Percentage of Voting Age African-Americans Registered to Vote

Percentage of Voting Age Whites registered to vote

Alabama

19.3%

69.2%

Georgia

27.4%

62.6%

Louisiana

31.6%

80.5%

Mississippi

6.7%

69.9%

10a. What is the claim of this document? (Analyze the data to make a conclusion)

10b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

10c. What is it important to have the right to vote? I think…
DOCUMENT 11: Black Panther Party Platform, 1966
1. We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our Black Community.

2. We want full employment for our people.

3. We want an end to the robbery by the white man of our Black Community.

4. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings.

5. We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society.

6. We want all black men to be exempt from military service.

7. We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people.

8. We want freedom for all black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails.

9. We want all black people when brought to trial to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their black communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States.

10. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace. [Black Panther Party]

11a. What is the claim of this document? (Summarize the Black Panther Party’s position)

11b. What evidence is there in the document to support the claim?

11c. What is your reaction to the document? I think…


Your Name

Bogan High School

U.S. History

June 8, 2015


The Civil Rights Movement

Intro:
Several methods were used to achieve Civil Rights. The methods included utilizing the law (Doc. 1), integration of schools (Doc. 3), and nonviolent protest (Doc. 2, 4, 5, 6).

Body:

Chief Justice Warren claims in document 1, “We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place.” “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal…, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity . . . is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.” I think that the Brown versus the Board ruling is important today because it has opened the door for not only equal access for education for African-Americans but a demand for Civil Rights for women and girls, Latinos, people who have physical or mental disabilities, and the LGBT community. Civil Rights have been gained in education, job opportunities, access to public funding, and equal treatment under the law as a result of the Brown versus the Board ruling.



  1. Claim for paragraph three. Document 3

  2. Evidence from the documents to support your claim.

  3. I think…




  1. Claim for paragraph four. Document 4 and 5

  2. Evidence from the documents to support your claim.

  3. I think…

Conclusion:



  1. Repeat your claim from the intro.

2. Repeat your list of topics from the intro.



3. I think…(global lesson: what would you tell the whole world about your claim?)

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