Disability Equality in Education Inclusion in Schools Course Book

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Disability Equality in Education

Inclusion in Schools

Course Book

Disability Equality In Education Registered Charity No. 1055287 Unit GL Leroy House, 436 Essex Road, London N1 3QP. Tel: 020 7359 2855 Fax: 020 7354 Email: Info@diseed.org.uk


Marie Aderotoye

Prof. Colin Barnes

Prof. Len Barton

Prof. Tim Brighouse

Mandy Hudson

Lois Keith

Preethi Manuel

Tony Purcell

David Ruebain

Anna Sullivan


Richard Rieser

(Tel: 020 7359 2855)

Training Co-ordinator

Sue Rickell

(Tel: 0117 956 5420)


Pat Monkman

(Tel: 020 7359 2855)

This Course Book was produced by Richard Rieser and Hazel Peasley.]

This booklet is for the participants on DEE courses. It may not be reproduced without the permission of Disability Equality in Education.

Cover pix:

Top left: Cleves, Newham

Top right: Maresa’s Circle of Friends, Ellis Guilford School, Nottingham City.

Bottom right: Beckford Primary School, Camden.

Bottom left – pix courtesy Sally & Richard Greenhill.
© Disability Equality in Education February 2002


Section A: Policy 1

1. Inclusion, Education & Human Rights 1

2.Factors Affecting the Development of a School Inclusion Policy 4

3.The Policy Context 5

4. Salamanca Statement 9

5.SEN Action Programme, DfEE 10

6.Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 11

7. Definitions of Disability under the DDA 14

8.Labour Force Survey Spring 2001 15

9. Segregation & Inclusion by LEA: 1999/2000 15

11. Unequal Opportunities - Growing Up Disabled 19

12. Differences in GCSE Results for Year 11 Students in Special & Mainstream Schools in England – 2001 20

13. Outcome of GCSE’s 15-year olds in Newham, 2000 21

Section B: History & Images 22

14.A Brief History of Attitudes to Disabled People 22

15.Eugenicist Thinking 25

16.The Mental Deficiency Act 1913 26

17.Out of Sight 26

18.Statutory Categories of Impairment Labels of 'Special Educational Needs': 1886 – 1998 29

19.Disability in the Media 30

Section C: Medical Model / Social Model 33

20.Definitions 33

17.Medical and Social Model Thinking in Schools 35


Section D: Integration / Inclusion 41

19.Integration and Inclusion 41

20.From Segregation to Inclusion 42

21.Checklist & Notes on What a Whole School Policy on Disability Equality and Inclusion Should Cover 43

22.Index for Inclusion: The Index Process & School Development Planning Cycle 46

29. Inspecting Inclusion – OFSTED ‘In a Nutshell’ 51

30. General Statement of Inclusion QCA 53

31.Aims of the School Curriculum 59

32.Planning Time And Learning Support Assistants 60


34.Courage 62

35.Circles of Friends: A Tool for Inclusion 63

36.Maresa’s Story 63

37.The language we use 65

38.London Borough of Newham and Inclusion 67

39.Cleves Primary School, Newham 68

40.Somerset Inclusion Project 69

Count Me In 73

Section E: Behaviour 75

41.Challenging Behaviour 75

42.The Way Forward to Inclusion for Children With Behavioural Difficulties 75

43.Macpherson Report on the Murder of Stephen Lawrence, February 1999 77

44.Inclusion and the Race Relations amendment Act 2001 77

Section G: Resources 79

46. Recommended Reading 79

Section H: Activities 84

47. Images of Disabled People 84

48.Representation of Disabled People 85

49. Disability Discrimination in Schools – Activity 86

50. Identifying Barriers in Schools 89

51. Segregation, Integration, Inclusion (10 Statements) 90

52.Exercise to explore parents oppression-target group professionals and other allies. 91

53.Developing an Inclusive Classroom 92

54.Circles of Friends 93

55. Word Power 94

56.Working with Children Who Have Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties 94

57.Disability Discrimination in Schools - Responses 95

58.Inclusive Solutions – Action Planning 98

Section I: Disability Equality in Education (DEE) 100

59.DEE Training For Inclusion: Evaluation 100

Section A: Policy
    1. Inclusion, Education & Human Rights

Increasingly, Inclusion and Inclusive Education are becoming buzzwords to which everyone subscribes. However, behind the language lies a struggle for human rights, which is by no means won nor complete.

Powerful policy statements have been adopted by the international community following pressure from human rights activists and the Disabled People’s Movement.

The Salamanca Statement, adopted by UNESCO in July 1994, was adopted by 94 governments and 20 non-government organisations.

  • Every child has a fundamental right to education and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain acceptable levels of learning.

  • Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs.

  • Education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs.

  • Those with special educational needs must have access to mainstream schools, which should accommodate them with a child-centred pedagogy capable of meeting those needs.

  • Mainstream schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all. Moreover, they provide an effective education for the majority of children (without special needs) and improving the efficiency and ultimately the cost effectiveness of the entire education system.

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and the UN Standard Rules on Equalisation (1993) both unequivocally support the right to equal treatment for all and view this as a right to mainstream education.

In the UK, the Labour Government has adopted the Salamanca Statement and in Excellence for All and the Programme of Action have supported the development of inclusion, though confusion remain about what it means. “Promoting inclusion within mainstream schools, where parents want it and appropriate support can be provided will remain the cornerstone of our strategy. There are strong educational as well as social and moral grounds for educating children with SEN, or with disabilities, with their peers. This is an important part of building an inclusive society.” – Ch 3.1 AP

In 2001 the Government have brought forward the Special Educational Needs and Disability Bill, which extends the Disability Discrimination Act to education. In addition, Clause 316 of 1996 Act has been amended, so the expectation is that disabled children will be educated in mainstream schools if parents want it and it does not interfere with the efficient education of other children.

Trade unions and voluntary organisations in the UK are now committed to all children having the opportunity to go to an inclusive mainstream school or nursery. UNISON, GMB, NUT, AEP, TUC, The Council for Disabled Children, and the Special Education Consortium, representing the voluntary sector, have all agreed such policies. Yet there remains considerable confusion and resistance to the development of inclusion from medical professionals, many of who work in the education system, not least those who work in segregated special schools and parents.

What Is Inclusion

“All children / students are educated in an age-appropriate mainstream classroom in neighbourhood schools and the supports provided, so that children / students, teachers and classrooms can be successful.” – New Hampshire Institute of Disability

Inclusion is a process.

Integration is a matter of location.

Integration is not inclusion.

“The participation of all pupils in the curriculum and the social life of the school.” – Action Programme

“The intentional building of relationships where difference is welcomed and all benefit”.

Research on human development on twins has established that after genetic potential, peer relationships are the most important force in shaping who we are. This is far more important than parental influence. But what happens when parents internalise oppressive attitudes from professionals to their child?

Where Do Oppressive Attitudes Come From

  • Different cultures have responded in various ways to disabled people. There are many strange beliefs about difference. Impairment has often been seen as a punishment from God, even Glen Hoddle. In the west, our ideas are dominated by Greek and Roman ideas of the body beautiful and physical perfection.

  • Judaic / Christian ideas of charity have also shaped our treatment to giving asylum and alms, but at times of social change, disabled people have been made scapegoats as in the Great Witch Hunts or during plagues. Mostly in feudal and early modern Europe, disabled people would have been accepted as part of the family or work group. The 19th century saw greater segregation of disabled people.

  • The workforce had to be more physically uniform to perform routine factory operations. Disabled people were rejected. Disabled people were viewed as worthy poor as opposed to ‘work shy’ unworthy poor and given Poor Law Relief. Disabled people became dependent more and more on the medical profession for cures, treatments and benefits. Eugenicists believed disabled people would weaken the gene pool of the nation and weaken competitiveness.

  • Increasingly, disabled people were shut away in single sex institutions for life or sterilised. Separate special schools and later nurseries were set up that denied non-disabled people the day-to-day experience of living and growing up with disabled people and vice-versa.

The last 25 years have seen the growth of the Disability Movement arguing for an end to segregation and a strong push for human rights from parents. Disabled people make a distinction between impairment and disablement.

“Impairment is the loss or limitation of physical, mental or sensory function on a long-term and permanent basis.

Disablement is the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the normal life of the community on an equal level with others due to physical and social barriers.” – Disabled People’s International, 1981

The dominant view is the Medical Model. Here disabled people are seen as a problem to be cured or ‘fixed’ by therapy, medicine, surgery and special treatments. It becomes a personal tragedy when this can’t happen. Powerful and pervasive views are reinforced in the media, books, films, art and language. Institutions are organised to segregate and exclude. The environment, in general, presents many barriers, as we are not expected to be anywhere but in specialist environments.

The Social Model of disablement focuses on the barriers in the environment. People are disabled by their environment – the attitudes of others and the policies, practices and procedures of organisations. Not much can be done to change impairments. A great deal can be done to get rid of barriers and create a more equal society in all aspects of life. This is the struggle for disabled people’s rights.

Parents and professionals should be allies to young disabled people

Empowering disabled children to have a strong sense of self as disabled people.

Struggling to stop segregative practice.

Building strong peer relationships with disabled and non-disabled peers.

Getting rid of barriers in the environment. Do an access audit.

Challenging negative attitudes and low expectations.

Challenging stereotypes and developing positive images of young disabled people.

Develop teaching and learning strategies where all pupils maximise their potential.

Developing professional practice that develops the above.

Struggling in your locality to get a choice of inclusive provision.

Build parent support groups to empower parents to become allies in their children’s struggles for human rights.

Link with the disabled people’s movement in your area and use their knowledge and expertise to develop inclusion.

Have training for Inclusion delivered by DEE trainers to school staff, governors, LEA staff and parents.

Set up parents support groups at your school

    1. Factors Affecting the Development of a School Inclusion Policy

    2. Global


      Local Education Authority


      Human Rights

      UNESCO Salamanca

      UN Children's Rights

      UN Standard Rules

      European Directives
      Experiences in other countries

      Tools for inclusion-MAPS, PATH, Circle of Friends

      Disabled Peoples' International


      Special Education thinking
      Research findings
      Links via internet, letter, twinning etc.

      Human Rights Act

      Disability Discrimination Act-extended to education

      Disability Rights Task Force, D R C
      DfEE-Policy, Action Programme, Revised SEN Code of Practice

      QCA-National Curriculum 2000 guidance, p- scales

      OFSTED-Inspection framework, guidance

      Macpherson Report- statutory

      Social Inclusion-EiC, EAZ, Quality Protects, Sure Start

      Pupil Retention Grant

      Connections, Learning & Skills Councils 14-19
      Inclusion Movement

      Social/Medical Model Training DEE


      Opinion Formers/Media

      Teacher Trade Unions
      Good Practice exemplified

      Information exchange-inclusion web site/ SENCO network Ngfl

      Inclusion Policy
      Education Development Plan & Targets
      Behaviour Policy

      Social Inclusion Policy

      SEN Policy

      EMTAG Policy

      Links with Health

      Links with Social Services

      Funding Formula- additional resourcing
      Implementation of Literacy & Numeracy Strategy
      Parent Partnership

      Strength of local inclusion movement

      Attitude of Councillors / Officers
      Local parents/ voluntary organisations for 'Special Educational Needs'
      Best Value

      Ethos of the school

      Headteacher's view

      Full Staff involvement

      Governors' support

      Deployment of staff & school resources
      Teaching & Learning Policies and Practices- collaboration, mentoring, differentiation

      Diversification of learning

      Emotional intelligence- multiple intelligences
      Deployment of support
      School Democracy-pupil and parent involvement

      Catchment of school

      Whole school Policies -Admissions, Behaviour, Trips, Assessment, Equal Opportunities, Child Protection, Health & Safety, Recruitment
      School Self Review- Index for Inclusion
      The Policy Context

Earlier Policy Developments

Prior to the election of the present Government in 1997, progress towards including pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools was piecemeal. The Warnock Report in 1978 introduced the concept of integration of pupils with SEN in mainstream schooling. The 1981 Education Act placed a duty on local education authorities to secure education for children with statements of SEN in mainstream schools, provided that two conditions were met:

  • The child would receive the required special education provision, and …

  • It was compatible with the provision of efficient education for the children with whom the child was being educated and the efficient use of resources.

It was enabling legislation, which empowered LEAs to move forward on integration, but practice varied according to individual LEAs level of commitment and resources.

The 1988 Education Reform Act (ERA) and subsequent developments also affected commitment to integration. The delegation of budgets to schools and the publication of the results of National Curriculum assessment and public examination results have sometimes worked against integration (and still may impede progress towards inclusion): schools may be tempted to focus on children who will improve their league table results and schools may spend more or less of their nominal allowance for special education. (This issue was highlighted in a recent report from the Institute of Education, London, by Ingrid Lunt and Brahm Norwich, Can Effective Schools be Inclusive?)

The Education Act 1993 made it a duty of school governing bodies to ensure that a child with special educational needs in a mainstream school had their needs met and was integrated as far as possible into the school. A key document arising from the Act, the Code of Practice on the Identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs, set out the guidance and procedures to be followed by schools and the LEA in assessing and meeting the special educational needs of children.

Excellence for All Children

The Green Paper, Excellence for All, published in October 1997, marked a departure from previous government policy. It was heralded as the most far-ranging review of SEN since the Warnock Report. It demonstrated an intention by government, for the first time, to make significant moves towards the inclusion of pupils with SEN in mainstream schools wherever possible. In line with the Government’s agenda on standards contained in its White Paper, Excellence in Schools, there was an emphasis on high expectations for pupils with SEN. There was a shift away from the notion of ‘integration’ introduced by the Warnock Report, towards the idea of ‘inclusion’ of pupils with SEN in mainstream schooling, while still maintaining a role for special schools as sources of expertise to support colleagues in mainstream schools and support services.

We aim to increase the level and quality of inclusion within mainstream schools, while protecting and enhancing specialist provision for those who need it. We will redefine the role of special schools to bring out their contribution in working with mainstream schools to support greater inclusion.” – DfEE Green Paper, Excellence for all children, Meeting Special Educational Needs, October 1997.

The drive for greater inclusion was accompanied by an emphasis on effective support for parents with children with SEN; shifting resources away from remediation to prevention and early intervention; on changing the emphasis on lengthy and costly procedures and paperwork associated with the statementing process to practical support; and opportunities for staff development in SEN. The importance of multi-agency working was emphasised. The Green Paper also stressed the importance of tackling the difficulties of children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) early.

Meeting Educational Needs – A Programme of Action

Following consultation on the Green Paper, the Government published a programme of action, which outlined the steps to be taken to improve the educational achievements of children with SEN. It confirmed the intention to promote inclusion where parents want it and appropriate support can be provided, but emphasised that specialist provision, including special schools would continue to play a vital role, working more flexibly and providing outreach support for staff in mainstream schools.

It confirmed the importance of:

  • Working with parents, particularly through parent partnership schemes.

  • Improving school-based provision by focusing on practical support for children, so that more parents feel confident that their child’s needs can be met without a statement.

  • Developing the knowledge and skills of educational professionals working with children with SEN – teachers, learning support assistants and educational psychologists – and of school governors.

  • Working in partnership with all agencies making provision for children with SEN.

The programme of action was backed with £37 million of targeted support for SEN under the Standards Fund for 1999/2000 (£8 million for promoting inclusion/EBD) and £20 million under the Schools Access Initiative for the 1999/2000 to make more primary and secondary schools accessible to disabled pupils. The Standards Fund for 2000/2001 has been increased to £55 million (£15 million for promoting inclusion/EBD). A further £30 million is available under the Schools Access Initiative 2000-2001.

Circulars 10/99 AND 11/99 –

Social Inclusion: Pupil Support

Developments associated with the inclusion of pupils with SEN were echoed when in July 1999, the Government issued Circulars 10/99 and 11/99, Social Inclusion: Pupil support. These formed part of the Government’s central strategy to increase social inclusion, and broadened out the term inclusion to encompass pupils with disruptive behaviour. The drive towards inclusion was reinforced by emphasising the importance of managing disruptive behaviour in mainstream settings. Circular 10/99 outlined a series of good practice principles that schools should use. There was an emphasis on early intervention to prevent emerging problems becoming special emotional needs, rewarding achievement, working with parents, and multi-agency working to support schools. In cases where pupils are excluded from school, the emphasis was on planned, speedy re-integration into mainstream schools, with intensive support provided by the LEA for an initial period after an excluded has been re-admitted into a mainstream school.

When determining their arrangements for excluded pupils LEAs must consider the role of Pupil Referral Units (PRUs), established by the Education Act 1986 and set up by LEAs to provide education otherwise than at school. For pupils attending PRUs who have special educational needs and statements of EBD, the guidance made it clear that PRUs are not a long-term option. Choices need to be made about whether the needs of these pupils can best be met by a short-term stay in a PRU followed by planned re-integration into a mainstream school, or by a special school named in a statement.


Local Management of Schools (LMS) introduced delegated budgets and some of the funding for SEN was delegated to schools. Schools could however spend the nominal mount delegated for special educational needs as they wished.

LEAs adopted different approaches to the delegation of SEN funding. Many LEAs delegated all or most of the SEN funding for stages 1 – 3 of the Code of Practice to individual schools, allowing schools to take their own decisions about purchasing support.

Circulars 2/94 increased the proportion of centrally held resources to be delegated to 90% and some LEAs were prompted to consider the partial delegation of the provision for statemented pupils to mainstream schools. However, where funding for statementing were retained centrally, statementing continued to grow as a means to get extra money.

Fair Funding replaced the system of LMS and took effect in April 1999. One of the areas for which LEAs are allowed to retain central budgets is SEN, including the educational psychology service, statementing of pupils, support for pupils with SEN, education otherwise than at school, preparation of Behaviour Support Plans, and PRUs.

Under Fair Funding, LEAs are expected to limit features that provide purely financial incentives for statements by reviewing the formula they use to distribute SEN funding. They are also expected to clarify the amount of funding delegated to schools for SEN and identify explicitly for schools the levels and types of need which they are expected to meet from their delegated budgets and what the LEA will meet from centrally retained funds.

Disability Discrimination Act (1995)

The development of inclusion has taken place against a backdrop of the advance of the rights of disabled people in the UK by the introduction of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA). The provision of education is currently excluded from Part III of the DDA (provision of goods and services). However, with effect from 1 October 1999, where schools non-educational services, such as holding governing body meetings to present the annual report to parents or community uses of school premises, they have a legal duty to make reasonable adjustments for disabled people to enable them to access services, for example by providing information for disabled parents in an alternative format.

Special Educational Needs Bill

A Special Educational Needs Bill announced in the Queen’s Speech on 17 November 1999 is expected to strengthen the right of children with SEN to be educated in mainstream schools. It is also expected to give local government a stronger role in raising standards of achievement for all children with special needs; place new duties on LEAs to improve services to parents by establishing parent partnership schemes and arrangements for conciliation where disputes arise; reinforce the powers of the Special Educational Needs Tribunal and introduce new duties on LEAs to prevent discrimination against disabled children in the education system.

Disability Rights Task Force Report

The Disability Rights Task Force Report, From Exclusion to Inclusion, published in December 1999, also made a number of important recommendations to tackle discrimination against disabled students in schools, further, higher and adult education. The Government intends to bring forward freestanding ‘Disability in Education’ legislation shortly to implement the Task Force recommendations and make provision on special educational needs as foreshadowed in the Queen’s Speech. The Bill will ensure that:

  • Schools and local education authorities plan strategically and make progress in increasing accessibility for disabled pupils to school premises and the curriculum.

  • Disabled pupils are treated fairly by schools.

  • Schools make reasonable adjustments to their policies, practices and procedures where they disadvantage disabled children.

  • Access is improved to further, higher and adult education, backed by a statutory code of practice.

Salamanca Statement

International developments have also promoted the cause of inclusive education. In June 1994, representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organisations formed the World Conference on SEN held in Salamanca, Spain. They agreed a statement on the education of disabled children, which called for inclusion to be the norm. The conference also adopted a new framework for action, the guiding principle of which is that ordinary schools should accommodate all children regardless of the physical, intellectual, social, emotional linguistic or other conditions. The framework says all that educational policies should stipulate that disabled children attend the neighbourhood school “that would be attended if the child did not have a disability.”

(Reproduced with the permission of the Education Network)

    1. Salamanca Statement

The Salamanca Statement of the UNESCO World Conference On Special Needs Education: Access and Quality (June 1994) states that:

  • Every child has a fundamental right to education and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain acceptable levels of learning;

  • Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs;

  • Education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs;

  • Those with special educational needs must have access to mainstream schools which should accommodate them within a child-centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs;

  • Mainstream schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all. Moreover, they provide an effective education for the majority of children (without special needs) and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system.

The statement went on to urge Governments to:

  1. Give the highest policy and budgetary priority to improve the education system to enable them to include all children regardless of individual differences or difficulties.

  2. Adopt as a matter of law or policy the principle of inclusive education, enrolling all children in mainstream schools, unless there are compelling reasons for doing otherwise.

  3. Develop demonstration projects in conjunction with LEAs in every locality and introduce a teacher exchange programme with countries having more experience with inclusive schools.

  4. Establish decentralised and participatory mechanisms for planning, monitoring and evaluating educational provision for children and adults with special educational needs.

  5. Encourage and facilitate the participation of parents, communities and organisations of disabled people in the planning and decision making processes concerning the provision for special educational needs.

  6. Invest greater effort in early identification and intervention strategies, as well as in vocational aspects of inclusive education.

  7. Ensure that, in the context of a systematic change, teacher education programmes, both pre-service and in-service, address the provision of special needs education in inclusive schools.

The statement was adopted by 94 Governments and over 20 NGOs. In October 1997, the UK Government gave its support in the Green Paper Excellence for All. NUT adopted this as policy in 1996.

    1. SEN Action Programme, DfEE

November 1998

"The education of children with special educational needs is a key challenge for the nation. It is vital to the creation of a fully inclusive society in which all members see themselves as valued for the contribution they make. We owe all children – whatever their particular needs and circumstances – the opportunity to develop their full potential to contribute economically, and to play a full part as active citizens."

"We recognise the case for more inclusion where parents want it and appropriate support can be provided...."

"It is a measure of the priority we are giving special educational needs that we have decided virtually to double - to £37 million - the targeted support for SEN under the Standards Fund in 1999-2000. We are planning further large increases for the following two years. We are increasing five-fold the capital support under the Schools Access Initiative, from the £4 million we inherited in 1997-98 to £20 million in 1999-2000, and are planning big increases for the following two years." David Blunkett, Secretary of State, in Forward to SEN PLAN OF ACTION

Chapter 3 - Developing a More Inclusive Education System

"Promoting inclusion within mainstream schools, where parents want it and appropriate support can be provided, will remain the cornerstone of our strategy. There are strong educational, as well as social and moral, grounds for educating children with SEN, or with disabilities, with their peers. This is an important part of building an inclusive society." (Para. 1)

For those with more complex needs, the starting point should always be the question, 'Could this child benefit from education in a mainstream setting? If so, what action would be needed, by whom, to make this possible? What are the parent's and child's views?'

“It is not good enough simply to say that local mainstream schools have not previously included a child with these needs." (Para. 4)

"We will require LEAs to publish information, in their Education Development Plans, about their policy on inclusion." (Para. 6)

"We will encourage schools to develop an inclusive ethos, for example, by involving all staff in training activities to promote a greater understanding of inclusion. We are committed to increasing opportunities for professional training." (Para. 8) "We will review the statutory framework for inclusion." (Section 316 of 1996 Education Act) (Para. 9)

    1. Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001

The SEN and Disability Act 2001 makes significant changes to the educational opportunities available to disabled children and students and those with special educational needs. The Act affects LEAs, nurseries (with public funding), schools, including independent and non-maintained special schools, FE colleges, HE and youth services. This summary indicates the main changes that affect the School and Post School stages of education.

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