Protestants: Christian religions that broke away from the Catholic Church
Student will analyze the role of religion in colonial life by examining the economic ties between the colonies and England and describe the economic/political differences that existed between the colonies.
1. Mayflower Compact: a set of basic laws written by the Pilgrims
2. Town meetings: gatherings in which colonists decided local issues
3. House of Burgesses: Virginia’s colonial assembly
4. Parliament: England’s legislature
5. Bicameral Legislature: a law-making body made up of two houses.
6. Navigation Acts: laws passed by Parliament to control colonial trade
7. Middle Passage: a deadly journey in which slaves were shipped from Africa to North and South America
Name the Original 13 English Colonies?1. New Hampshire
7. The colony of New Jersey was founded by the Society of Friends, which believed in nonviolence, religious tolerance, and the equality of women and men before God.
USHX 1.3 The Founding of the Nation 1. Powhatan 7. Dominion of New England
3. Mayflower Compact 8. Middle Passage
4. Anne Hutchinson 9. southern
5. South Carolina 10. Philadelphia; New York City
6. New Jersey
The Middle Passage
1. Conditions for the enslaved Africans: crowded tightly together below deck, no fresh air and the stench of human waste and perspiration made many slaves ill, most in chains.
2. Slaves were allowed above deck while the ship was in port, but only until the ship began to make preparations to leave port; those who fell ill were allowed above deck to breathe fresh air.
3. Enslaved Africans tried to fight against the conditions of their confinement by trying to steal bits of fresh fish; others tried to jump overboard in an attempt to kill them selves.
4. Enslaved Africans were treated as Orlando described because of the avarice (greed) of the slavers.
Summary: In today’s lesson we analyzed the role of religion in colonial life, examined the economic ties between the colonies and England, and describe the economic/political differences that existed between the colonies.
Homework: Parliament & Bicameral Legislature
Parliament: England’s legislature (law making body)
Bicameral Legislature: a law-making body made up of two houses (Congress).
Name _______________________ Class _______________ Date __________
USHX 1.3 The Founding of the Nation FILL IN THE BLANK with the appropriate word, phrase, or name.
Dominion of New England, Powhatan, Middle Passage, Mayflower Compact, Philadelphia; New York City, slaves, New Jersey, South Carolina, Anne Hutchinson, southern.
1. During the early 1600s, Algonquian Indians who belonged to the __________________ Confederacy taught the Jamestown colonists how to grow corn.
2. Bacon’s Rebellion resulted in the increased use of _______________________ as laborers in the Virginia colony.
3. The Pilgrims who settled at Plymouth wrote the ___________ _________________ to govern themselves.
4. Because she challenged Puritan authority, ________________ __________________ was banished from Massachusetts.
5. Slaves in the colonies of _____________ __________ and Georgia worked the rice plantations in coastal areas.
6. Members of the Society of Friends, which believed in nonviolence, religious tolerance, and the equality of women and men before God, settled in the colony of _______________________ .
7. King James attempted to centralize royal power by uniting the New England colonies under the ___________ __ ____ _________ .
8. Africans sent to the Americas to be sold as slaves experienced tremendous physical suffering d ring the ____________ ___________, and many of them died before reaching their destination.
9. While the New England colonies produced ships and the middle colonies exported livestock, the _______________________ colonies cultivated cash crops such as tobacco.
10. As commercial centers in the middle colonies, _____________________ and _______________________ became two of the largest and most important colonial cities.
1. What were conditions like for the enslaved Africans below deck?
2. When were they allowed above deck?
3. How did the enslaved Africans try to fight against the conditions of their confinement?
4. Why were the enslaved Africans treated as Orlando described?
Summary: In your own words, summarize today’s lesson.
USHX 1.3 Narrative of the Life of Orlando Equiano
Orlando, the son of an elder in Benin, was enslaved by other Africans at the age of 11. Eventually he was sold to a European slave trader and shipped to Barbados. Orlando was sold several times, until he was permitted to purchase his freedom in 1766. His autobiography was published by London abolitionists in 1789. The selection printed below describes conditions on board the ship that carried him to Barbados. As you read the excerpt, think about the treatment that enslaved Africans received.
At last, when the ship we were in, had got in all her cargo, they made ready with many fearful noises, and we were all put under deck, so that we could not see how they managed the vessel. But this disappointment was the least of my sorrow. The stench [very bad smell] of the hold while we were on the coast was so intolerably loathsome [disgusting], that it was dangerous to remain there for any time, and some of us had been permitted to stay on the deck for the fresh air; but now that the whole ship’s cargo were confined together, it became absolutely pestilential [disease-ridden].
The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number of the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious [excessive] perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration [breathing] from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died-thus falling victims to the . . . avarice [greed], as I may call it, of their purchasers.
This wretched situation was again aggravated by the galling [irritation] of the chains, now become insupportable [unbearable], and the filth of the necessary [waste disposal] tubs, into which the children often fell, and were almost suffocated. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered [made] the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable.
Happily perhaps, for myself, I was soon reduced so low here that it was thought necessary to keep me almost always on deck; and from my extreme youth I was not put in fetters [chains]. In this situation I expected every hour to share the fate of my companions, some of whom were almost daily brought upon deck at the point of death, which I began to hope would soon put an end to my miseries. Often did I think many of the inhabitants of the deep much more happy than myself. I envied them the freedom they enjoyed, and as often wished I could change my condition for theirs.
Every circumstance I met with, served only to render my state more painful, and heightened my apprehensions [fears], and my opinion of the cruelty of the whites. One day they had taken a number of fishes; and when they had killed and satisfied themselves with as many as they thought fit, to our astonishment who were on deck, rather than give any of them to us to eat, . . . they tossed the remaining fish into the sea again, although we begged and prayed for some as well as we could, but in vain; and some of my countrymen, being pressed by hunger, took an opportunity, when they thought no one saw them, of trying to get a little privately; but they were discovered, and the attempt procured [got] them some very severe floggings [beatings]. One day . . . two of my wearied countrymen who were chained together, (I was near them at the time,) preferring death to such a life of misery, somehow made through the nettings and jumped into the sea: immediately, another quite dejected [depressed] fellow, who, on account of his illness, was suffered [allowed] to be out of irons, also followed their example; and I believe many more would very soon have done the same, if they had not been prevented by the ship’s crew, who were instantly alarmed.
Those of us that were the most active, were in a moment put down under the deck, and there was such a noise and confusion amongst the people of the ship as I never heard before, to stop her, and get the boat to go out after the slaves. However, two of the wretches were drowned, but they got the other, and afterwards flogged him unmercifully, for thus attempting to prefer death to slavery. In this manner we continued to undergo more hardships than I can now relate, hardships which are inseparable from this accursed [hateful] trade. Many a time we were near suffocation from the want of fresh air, which we were often without for whole days together. This, and the stench of the necessary tubs, carried off many.
From The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Orlando Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African,
Written by Himself by Orlando Equiano. Excerpted from The Norton Anthology of American