Emperor Isaac Angelas, established a Hobenstauten claim to the Greek throne

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THE NEAR EAST 1208 AJ> 1267 AJ>


Emperor Isaac Angelas, established a Hobenstauten claim to the Greek throne. Heary died 1197

Pope Innocent HI determined to regain control of the crusading movement, and hoping to unite the Greek and Latin Churches, issued a call to the monarehs, it v, as ignored (.Philip II and King John of LngUnd "were at udds, Germany in chaos, the Spanish rulers busy \\ith the Moors), and the brunt fell again on the French baronage .LgypL, the objective, could oaly be reached by water, negotiations with Venice (1201) terms, 85,000 marts and half the booty Meeting at Hagenau (1201) between Philip (brother of Henry \1), Bomface ot Montterrat, and (?) Alex­ius, decision to di\ert the crusade to Con-atVI), Venice may ha\e shared m the de­cision As it \vas impossible to raise 85,000 marks, Venice agreed to tulfill her bargain it the Christum city of Zara were taken by the crusade Despite Innocent's iurious opposition, Zani was taken and sacked Uaoaj, Innocent excommunicated the cru­sade Constantinople was entered (.1203); IbddC Angelub and his son Alexius IV were restored, Greek opinion was tunous at the ne\\ e^acLionij to pay the clamorous cru-sadc'rSj *nd Ale.\ms V soon succeeded Isaac The crusaders btormed and took Constan­tinople (1204), the first capture of Con­stantinople in histoi}, and sacked it with unparalleled honors The Latin Empire ot the Last (Romania) replaced the Greek Lmpirc at Constantinople from 1204 to 1261, the first emperor, Baldwin of Flan­ders, a Latin patriarch, a Venetian (Moro-Sim}, replaced the Gieek patriarch and technically the bchibrn wab ended, actually he Greeks rehiied all union Venice ac­quired tliree-eiglHht, oi the city, Adnanople, Gallipoh, N«i\os, Andros, Euboea, Crete, and the Ionian inlands Innocent III was hvmfied and helpless The government ot the Latin Empire wna completely feudal under the Assizes of Romania (copied from the Aloises of Jinisalun) The Greek em-peiors ruled at xiuiej. (1204-1263:] until Michvicl VIII surprised .md took Constan-oinople, 1261. The Fourth Cmsa.de shocked 1 urope, diati edited the papacy and the whole crusading movement, and facilitated

the advance wf the Turks 1208. THE ALBIGENSIAW CRUSADE, a European crusade against the Albigwisian heretics m southern France, proclaimed by Innocent III (1208) (see p. 229)

1812 The so-callud Children's Crusade, preached, by the lad Stephen of and hy N cholafi of Cologne n

Germany Stephen's contingent reached Marseilles and was sold into sla\ erj. Kich olas' company was turned back The whole episode is supposed to have been the ongm

of the story of tie Pied Piper 1218-1221. THE FIFTH CRUSADE. In

accent III, unwilling to let the crusading idea lapse, preached the Fifth Crusade at the Fourth Lateran Council Egypt was to be the objective, the date 1217, John of Bnenne, King of Jerusalem, was replaced by the papal legate Pelagms as leader (1218) Capture of Danuetta (1219), rejection (m the expectation of Frederick IPs arnvalj of the offers of the sultan (12 £9) to exchange Jerusalem for Damiettd, lailure of the march on Cairo, Treaty of 1221- eight-year truce, Dattuetta

lost; retreat 1228-1229. THE SIXTH CRUSADE, of

the Emperor Frederick II. Es­sentially lay, the crusade continued the policy of Frederick's father, Henry VI Frederick, King of Jerusalem by his mar­riage (.1225) to Yolande of Bnenne, sailed (1227) after careful preparation, returned ill with fever, and was excommunicated He sailed again (1228), the pope proclaimed a crusade against Frederick's Sicilian lands and renewed the excommunication, Her-mannof Salza Masterof the Teutonic Order, remained loyal to Frederick Frederick, the first crusader to understand the Mos­lems, negotiated a treaty (1.229} with Md,hk-al-Kimilj nephew oL Saladin, Sultan of Egjpt, peace fur tea years, grant ol Nazareth, Bethlehem, Jetusalem, etc , and a corridor from Jerusalem to the coast tor the Christians The Patriarch of Jerusalem opposed Frederick at e^ery turn, and Eredenek had to cro^n himseli king (1229; m the Church of the Holy Sepulcher He returned home at once to repel the papal crusade m his lands The capture of Jeru salem by a rush of Moslem mtrcenanes (i 244) led to the crusades ot King Louis IX of France, but Jerusalem was not again in Christian hands until General AUcnby captured it (rgi?)

The crusades of Theobald of Navarre (1239) and Richard of Cornwall (1240-1241,) were forbidden by the pope and were

fruitless 1248-1254. THE SEVENTH CRUSADE,

the first of King Louis IX ot Fraace. Poorly organized, Damietta taken without a blow; march to Cairo (1249), rout of the army, capture ot Louis, massa­cre of the army, loss of Damietta. Louis, ransomed, spent four years on a pilgrimage

to Jerusalem (1251-1254)
1367 ChadeMi ei Anjoa, aiming at the
onqueat of tmople be-

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