Timeline of Rome
Important events EMPERORS or claimants EMPERORS (Wars) Shows duration of wars
1000 Villanovans enter Italy
900 Etruscans enter Italy
814 Carthage founded
752 Latins move into Italy
753 Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus
753-715 reign of Romulus First king
734 Syracuse founded
707 Tarentum founded
715-673 reign of Numa Pompilius Second king: creation of the Roman senate and the priestly officials
673-642 reign of Tullus Hostilius Third king
667 Battle between Horatii and Curiatii
665 Alba Longa destroyed
642-616 reign of Ancus Marcius Fourth king
616-579 reign of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Fifth king
c.600 Forum laid out
578-534 reign of Servius Tullius Sixth king defined the sacred boundary of Rome - the pomerium
540 Etruscans defeat Greeks at Alalia
534-509 reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Seventh king and the last.
509 Treaty between Rome and Carthage
509 Expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus
first consuls are Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus
First Plebeian (commoner) senators appointed (conscripti) to fill vacancies created by the overthrow of the monarchy
possible siege of Rome : Roman-Etruscan Wars
Battle of Silva Arsia – Romans defeated Tarquinii and Veii
Temple of Jupiter on Capitol, is dedicated.
508 The office of pontifex maximus (high priest) created when these powers are stripped from the consuls
possible second siege of Rome by Etruscans : Roman-Etruscan Wars
504 Consul Publius Valerius Publicola grants due process rights to all Roman citizens,
Criminalizes all future attempts to plot to seize a tyranny.
502 Battle of Pometia – Latins won over the Romans, one of the consuls badly wounded by a spear that penetrated through his groin.
501 Offices of Roman Dictator and Master of the Horse created...
498 Temple of Saturn built
498-93 (Latin War) 5 years
496 (Latin War) Battle of Lake Regillus - Rome defeats Leono and Phippy the Etruscan-led Latin League
495 Battle of Aricia – consul Publius Servilius Priscus defeats the Aurunci.
494 First Secession of the Plebs, two tribunes of the plebs and two plebeian aediles are elected for the first time
492 Rome joins Latin League
491 Coriolanus leads army against Rome
490 Marathon in Greece
482 Battle of Antium – the Volscians defeat consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus.
482 Battle of Longula – consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus defeats the Volscians the day after his defeat in the Battle of Antium.
480 Battle of Veii – consuls Vibulanus and Cincinnatus win heavy battle against Veians and their Etruscan allies.
480 Salamis in Greece
477 Battle of the Cremera – All the Fabii except Quintus Fabius Vibulanus are killed in battle with the Veians
477 Battle of Temple of Hope – consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus fights indecisive battle with the Etruscans
477 Battle of Colline Gate – consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus has indecisive victory over the Etruscans soon after the Battle of Temple of Hope
474 Naval Battle of Cumae – Hiero of Syracuse defeats Etruscans.
471 Plebeians allowed to organize by tribe, reorganization of Plebeian Council from Curia to Tribe.
459 The college of the tribune of the Plebs is raised from two to ten tribunes
458 Cincinnatus dictator
458 Battle of Mons Algidus – Cincinnatus defeats the Aequi
451-50 The Decemvirs council of ten
449 Plebeian Council resolutions ("plebiscites") given full force of law over Plebeians and Patricians, but still subject to Senate veto
Twelve Tables of Roman law
447 Tribal Assembly created: two quaestors elected for the first time
446 Battle of Corbione – Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus leads Roman troops to defeat the Aequi and the Volsci.
445 Marriage between patricians (aristocrats) and plebeians (commoners) allowed
443 The office of consul is replaced by an assembly of military tribunes with consular powers, for this year.
Office of Censor created. Duties of Censor were Consular duties until this point, where consuls are replaced.
421 Number of quaestors raised from 2 to 4; office opened to plebeians
408 Consul replaced with Tribuni militum consulari potestate .
c. 400 Gauls settle Po valley
396 Rome captures and sacks Veii
Roman soldiers earn their first salary
394 Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate.
391 Camillus charged with taking booty from Veii for himself and banished to Ardea.
391 Office of Tribuni militum consulari potestate replaces office of consul.
390 July 18- Battle of Allia River – Gauls defeat the Romans, sack Rome.
384 Manilius executed
378 Servian Walls
375-371 Anarchy years: no magistrates elected
367 Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate for last time.
366 Plebeian Consuls allowed to be elected. By this, Plebeians acquire de facto right to be elected Censor or appointed Dictator.
Plebeians allow the Patricians to create the offices of Praetor and Curule Aedile, and allow only Patricians to run for these offices.
365 Death of Camillus
354 Latin League established under Roman domination
351 Elected : first non-patrician Dictator
351 Elected : first non-patrician censor
348 Second treaty between Rome and Carthage
345 Subjugation of Aurunci
343-1 (First Samnite War)
343 (First Samnite) Rome captures Campania and Capua : First Samnite War
342 (First Samnite) Battle of Mount Gaurus. Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites.
Lex Genucia passed: no man can hold the same office before 10 years have elapsed from the first election
Second law passed, disallowing any man from holding two offices at once.
341 (First Samnite) Battle of Suessula – Roman consul Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites once more.
341 Battle of Veseris - Roman victory but Decius killed
341 (First Samnite) Rome withdraws from the conflict with the Samnites. End of First Samnite War.
340-38 (Latin War) 2 years
340 (Latin War) Latin League pushes for ind ependence
340 (Latin War) Battle of Sinnuessa
339 (Latin War) Battle of Vesuvius – Romans under P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus defeat the rebellious Latins.
339 Law passed (the lex Publilia) which requires the election of one Plebeian censor for each five year term.
338 Battle at Pedum - Roman victory
338 (Latin War) Battle of Trifanum –Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus decisively defeats the Latins.
338 (Latin War) Latin League dissolved and Rome controls territory : Latin War Ends.
338 Capua legal equality with Rome
337 Elected the first non-patrician Praetor (Q. Publilius Philo).
334 Alexander the Great invades Persia
328 Roman occupation of Fregallae
326-04 (Second Samnite War) 22 years
326 (Second Samnite) War begin, Samnites attack Campagnia
323 Death of Alexander the Great
321 (Second Samnite) Battle of Caudine Forks – Romans under Albinus and Calvinus are defeated by Samnites under Gaius Pontius.
316 (Second Samnite) Battle of Lautulae – Romans are defeated by the Samnites.
312 Via Appia built, first aqueduct built
311 Etruscans join the Samnites against Rome.
310 Agathocles of Syracuse invades Africa
310 Battle of Lake Vadimo – Romans, led by dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor, defeat the Etruscans.
309 Vadimonian Lake - Lucius Papirius defeats Samnites
308 Fabius Maximus defeats Etruscans
308 (Second Samnite) war escalates as Umbrians, Picentini, and Marsians join against Rome.
306 Battle of Mevania – Roman Victory
306 The Hernici revolt against Rome.
306 Third treaty between Rome and Carthage
305 (Second Samnite) Battle of Bovianum - Samnite capitol taken
304 Aequi defeated.
(Second Samnite) Rome conquers Central and Southern Italy
(Second Samnite) Peace treaty, War ends
300 Lex Ogulnia passed: priesthoods opened to plebeians
298-90 (Third Samnite War) 8 years
298 (Third Samnite) Battle of Camerinum – Samnites defeat the Romans in first battle of the War.
298 (Third Samnite) Rome captures Samnite cities Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena.
297 (Third Samnite) Battle of Tifernum – Romans defeat the Samnite army
295 (Third Samnite) Battle of Sentinum - Romans defeat Samnites and their Etruscan and Gallic allies
294 (Third Samnite) Samnite victory at Luceria
293 (Third Samnite) Battle of Aquilonia - Romans decisively defeat the Samnites.
291 (Third Samnite) Romans storm the Samnite city of Venusia.
290 (Third Samnite) Rome dominates Italian Peninsula : War ends.
287 Last Plebeian Secession
Lex Hortensia ends Senate veto power over Plebeian Council
Conflict of the Orders ends.
285-282 Struggles with the Celts
285 Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls
283 Battle of Lake Vadimo – Rome defeats the Etruscans and the Boii
282 Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.
281 Mounting tensions between Rome and Tarentum. Tarentum appeals to Pyrrhus of Epirus for aid
280-272 (Pyrrhic War) 8 yrs
280 (Pyrrhic War) begins, Pyrrhus lands army in Italy
280 (Pyrrhic War) Battle of Heraclea – First engagement of Roman and Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious, but at great cost (Pyrrhic victory)
279 (Pyrrhic War) Battle of Asculum– Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans.
279 (Pyrrhic War) Praeneste nearest town to Rome captured by Pyrrhus
279 (Pyrrhic War) Treaty between Carthage and Rome against Pyrrhus
278 Pyrrhus breaks Carthaginian investment of Syracuse
277-276 (Pyrrhic War) Pyrrhus unsuccessful siege of Lilybaeum
275 (Pyrrhic War) Battle of Beneventum– Inconclusive encounter between Pyrrhus and the Romans under Manius Curius
272 (Pyrrhic War) Pyrrhus withdraws to Epirus
(Pyrrhic War) Tarentum surrenders to Rome, War Ends, Pyrrhus dies in Greece.
268 First Roman silver coins.
267 Number of quaestors raised from 4 to 6
264-241 (First Punic War) 23 years
264 Mamertines seek assistance from Rome to replace Carthage's protection against the attacks of Hiero II of Syracuse.
264 Earliest record of gladiatorial combats
263 Hiero II is defeated by consul Manius Valerius Messalla and is forced to change allegiance to Rome
262 (First Punic) Roman intervention in Sicily. The city of Agrigentum, occupied by Carthage, is besieged.
261 (First Punic) Battle of Agrigentum – Carthaginian are defeated by the Romans, who control of most of Sicily.
260 (First Punic) Battle of the Lipari Islands – A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians
(First Punic) Battle of Mylae – Roman naval force under C. Duillius defeats the Carthaginian fleet.
259 (First Punic) The land fighting is extended to Sardinia and Corsica.
258 (First Punic) Battle of Sulci – Minor Roman victory against the Carthaginian fleet near Sardinia
257 (First Punic) Battle of Tyndaris – Naval victory of Rome over Carthage
256 (First Punic) Battle of Cape Ecnomus – Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated
(First Punic) Battle of Adys – Romans under Regulus defeat the Carthaginians in North Africa
255 (First Punic) Battle of Tunis – Carthaginians under Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, defeat the Romans under Regulus, who is captured.
255 (First Punic) Battle of Bagradas – Roman invasion of Africa defeated.
254 A new fleet of 140 Roman ships is constructed to substitute the one lost in the storm and a new army is levied.
253 (First Punic) Romans then pursued a policy of raiding the African coast east of Carthage.
251 (First Punic) Battle of Panormus – Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal are defeated by the Romans under L. Caecilius Metellus.
249 (First Punic) Battle of Drepana – Carthaginians under Adherbal defeat fleet of Roman admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher.
248 (First Punic) Beginning of a period of low intensity fighting in Sicily, without naval battles. This lull would last until 241 BC.
247 Hamilcar Barca appointed general in Sicily. His son Hannibal Barca is born.
242 Office of Praetor peregrinus created
241(First Punic) Battle of Lilybaeum
241 (First Punic) March 10 - Battle of the Aegates Islands – Roman sea victory over the Carthaginians, ending War
241 (First Punic) Sicily becomes first Roman province : First Punic War Ends
241-238 The Mercenaries’ Revolt against Carthage
237 Sardinia and Corsica become Roman Provinces in the "Truceless War" with Carthage
237-229 Hamilcar Barca establishes protectorate in Southern Spain
231 Alleged first Roman embassy to Hamilcar Barca
229-227 (First Illyrian War)
229 Adriatic Control : First Illyrian War begins.
229 Death of Hamilcar Barca, son-in–law Hasdrubal takes command in Spain
228 Romans invited to participate in Isthmian Games
227 Queen Teuta surrenders : First Illyrian War ends
Number of quaestors raised from 6 to 8
number of praetors raised from 2 to 4
227 Founding of Carthago Nova in Spain
226 The Ebro Treaty between Hasdrubal and Romans
225 Battle of Faesulae – Romans are defeated by the Gauls of Northern Italy.
224 Battle of Telamon Rome defeats Gaul invasion :
222 Battle of Clastidium – Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeat the Gauls.
221 Circus Flaminius is built
221Hasdrubal’s murder, Hannibal takes over
220 Hannibal and Roman envoys meet at New Carthage
220 Via Flaminia is constructed
220-219 (Second Illyrian War)
219 Hannibal besieges Saguntum
218-201 (Second Punic War) 17 years
218 (Second Punic) Summer – Battle of Lilybaeum – First naval clash between Carthage and Rome during War.
(Second Punic) Aug - Hannibal conquered Catalonia.
(Second Punic) Sep- Hannibal defeated the Gaul Volcae tribe in the Battle of Rhone Crossing.
(Second Punic) Oct - Hannibal's army defeated Gauls in two battles while crossing the Alps.
(Second Punic) Fall – Battle of Cissa – Romans defeat Carthaginians near Tarraco.
(Second Punic) Nov 8 Hannibal and army finishes crossing of alps and decends into Italy
(Second Punic) Nov – Battle of the Ticinus – Hannibal defeats Romans under Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight.
(Second Punic) 18 Dec – Battle of Trebia – Hannibal defeats Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus.
217 Fabius Maximus becomes dictator
(Second Punic) Spring – Battle of Ebro River – Romans defeat and capture the Carthaginian fleet in Hispania.
(Second Punic) 21 June – Battle of Lake Trasimene – In ambush, Hannibal destroys Roman army of Gaius Flaminius.
(Second Punic) Summer – Battle of Ager Falernus –Hannibal escapes Fabius' trap in this small skirmish.
(Second Punic) Battle of Geronium
216 (Second Punic) Aug 2 - Battle of Cannae - Hannibal defeats Roman forces :
(Second Punic) First Battle of Nola – Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by Hannibal.
(Second Punic) Capua defects to Hannibal
215 (Second Punic) Second Battle of Nola – Marcellus again repulses an attack by Hannibal.
(Second Punic) A Roman fleet under Titus Otacilius Crassus defeated a Carthaginian fleet near Sardinia.
(Second Punic) Battle of Dertos - Hasdrubal Barca is defeated by the Scipio brothers
(Second Punic) Battle of Cornus – Roman victory
Alliance of Hannibal with Philip V of Macedonia
214 (Second Punic) Third Battle of Nola – Marcellus fights an inconclusive battle with Hannibal.
(Second Punic) Battle of Beneventum - Tiberius Gracchus' slave legions defeat Hanno (son of Bomlicar)
(Second Punic) The Siege of Syracuse begins.
(Second Punic) Syracuse allies with Carthage
214-205 (First Macedonian War) 9 years
213 (Second Punic) Syracuse besieged by Roman Army under command of Marcellus
212 (Second Punic) First Battle of Capua – Hannibal defeats consuls Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but Roman army escapes
(Second Punic) Battle of the Silarus – Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula.
(Second Punic) Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius.
(Second Punic) Siege of Syracuse – Romans sack city. Archimedes slain.
(Second Punic) Defection of Tarentum, Locri, Thurii and Metapontum to Hannibal
Roman alliance with Aetolian league
211 (Second Punic) Battle of Upper Baetis – Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio are killed in battle with Hasdrubal Barca
(Second Punic) Second Battle of Capua – City surrenders to Romans
(Second Punic War) Hannibal marches on Rome sits outside walls.
(Second Punic) Death of Scipios in Spain
210 (Second Punic) Second Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Fulvius Centumalus, who is killed
(Second Punic) Battle of Numistro – Hannibal defeats Marcellus once more
(Second Punic) Battle of Sapriportis - Tarentine Greek navy defeated a Roman squadron.
(Second Punic) Scipio the Elder takes command in Spain
209 (Second Punic) Battle of Asculum – Hannibal once again defeats Marcellus, in an indecisive battle
(First Macedonian War) First Battle of Lamia – Romans defeated by Philip V of Macedon
(First Macedonian War) Second Battle of Lamia – Romans defeated by Philip V once more
(Second Punic) Fabius captures Tarentum
(Second Punic) Scipio Africanus captured New Carthage
208 Death of Marcellus
(Second Punic) Battle of Baecula – Scipio defeats Hasdrubal
(Second Punic) Battle of Clupea - The Carthaginian navy is defeated in a battle off the African coast.
Hasdrubal leaves with an army for Italy
207 (Second Punic) Battle of Grumentum –Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal
(Second Punic) Battle of the Metaurus – Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army.
(Second Punic) Battle of Carmona – Romans under Scipio besiege Carmona and take it from Hasdrubal Gisco
(Second Punic) Naval Battle of Utica - A Carthaginian fleet of 70 ships is defeated by a Roman fleet of 100 ships near Utica.
206 (Second Punic) Hannibal trapped in Bruttium
(Second Punic) Battle of Ilipa – Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Hispania.
(Second Punic) Gades surrenders to Romans
(Second Punic) Numidian king Syphax allies himself with Cathage.
(Second Punic) Battle of the Guadalquivir – Romans defeats a Carthaginian army under Hannón at Guadalquivir.
(Second Punic) Battle of Carteia – Roman fleet under Gaius Laelius defeats a Carthaginian fleet under Adherbal
205 Scipio Africanus consul
(First Macedonian War) Philip V of Macedon makes peace with Rome
204 (Second Punic) Battle of Crotona – Hannibal fights a drawn battle against the Roman general Sempronius in Southern Italy.
204-202 (Second Punic) Scipio Africanus Major invades Africa,
204 (Second Punic) Destruction of the Carthaginian and Numidian camps near Utica.
(Second Punic) Syphax killed and Masinissa becomes king of Numidia
(Second Punic) Hannibal recalled
203 (Second Punic) Battle of Bagbrades – Romans under Scipio defeat Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax. Hannibal return to Africa.
(Second Punic) Battle of Castra Cornelia - Carthaginian fleet under plunders Roman supply convoy.
202 (Second Punic) Oct 19 Battle of Zama – ending the Second Punic War
202-191 Roman conquest of Cisalpine Gaul
200-197 (Second Macedonian War)
200 Battle of Cremona – Roman forces defeat the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul
198 (Second Macedonian War) Battle of the Aous – Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeat the Macedonians under Philip V
197 (Second Macedonian War) Battle of Cynoscephalae –Romans defeat Philip in Thessaly
197 Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Tarraconensis become Roman provinces
Number of quaestors raised from 8 to 12
number of praetors raised from 4 to 6
196 Declaration of independence for Greek states by Flamininus
196 Hannibal elected Suffete
195 Hannibal exiled to eastern Mediterranean
194 Battle of Placentia – Roman victory over the Boian Gauls
Battle of Gythium – With some Roman assistance, Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Nabis
193 Battle of Mutina – Roman victory over the Boii, decisively ending the Boian threat.
192-188 (Roman–Syrian War) 4 years
191-189 Revolt in Spain
191–189 (Aetolian War) 2 years - Romans fight Aetolian League
191 (Roman–Syrian War) Battle of Thermopylae – Romans defeat Antiochus III
190 (Roman–Syrian War) Battle of the Eurymedon – Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal.
(Roman–Syrian War) Battle of Myonessus – Another Seleucid fleet is defeated by the Romans
(Roman–Syrian War) Dec - Battle of Magnesia –Romans defeat Antiochus III the Great.
189 Battle of Mount Olympus – Romans deliver a crushing defeat to an army of Galatian Gauls
Battle of Ancyra – Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and Attalus II defeat the Galatian Gauls again before Ancyra
188 (Roman–Syrian War) Peace of Apamea ends war
184 Cato the Elder becomes censor
184 Rome rejects Cathage’s appeal against Numidia
183 Suicide of Hannibal in Bithynia
182 Rome rejects another Carthaginian appeal against Numidia
181 Battle of Manlian Pass – Romans under Fulvius Flaccus defeat an army of Celtiberians.
180 Lex Villia annalis: minimum ages for the cursus honorum offices, established an interval of two years between offices
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