Emperors or claimants emperors (Wars) Shows duration of wars

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Timeline of Rome
Important events EMPERORS or claimants EMPERORS (Wars) Shows duration of wars


1000 Villanovans enter Italy

900 Etruscans enter Italy

814 Carthage founded

752 Latins move into Italy

753 Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus

753-715 reign of Romulus First king

734 Syracuse founded

707 Tarentum founded

715-673 reign of Numa Pompilius Second king: creation of the Roman senate and the priestly officials

673-642 reign of Tullus Hostilius Third king

667 Battle between Horatii and Curiatii

665 Alba Longa destroyed

642-616 reign of Ancus Marcius Fourth king

616-579 reign of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Fifth king

c.600 Forum laid out

578-534 reign of Servius Tullius Sixth king defined the sacred boundary of Rome - the pomerium

  • first census

540 Etruscans defeat Greeks at Alalia

534-509 reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Seventh king and the last.

509 Treaty between Rome and Carthage

509 Expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus

  • first consuls are Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus

  • First Plebeian (commoner) senators appointed (conscripti) to fill vacancies created by the overthrow of the monarchy

  • possible siege of Rome : Roman-Etruscan Wars

  • Battle of Silva Arsia – Romans defeated Tarquinii and Veii

  • Temple of Jupiter on Capitol, is dedicated.

508 The office of pontifex maximus (high priest) created when these powers are stripped from the consuls

  • possible second siege of Rome by Etruscans : Roman-Etruscan Wars

504 Consul Publius Valerius Publicola grants due process rights to all Roman citizens,

  • Criminalizes all future attempts to plot to seize a tyranny.

502 Battle of Pometia – Latins won over the Romans, one of the consuls badly wounded by a spear that penetrated through his groin.

501 Offices of Roman Dictator and Master of the Horse created...

498 Temple of Saturn built

498-93 (Latin War) 5 years

496 (Latin War) Battle of Lake Regillus - Rome defeats Leono and Phippy the Etruscan-led Latin League

495 Battle of Aricia – consul Publius Servilius Priscus defeats the Aurunci.

494 First Secession of the Plebs, two tribunes of the plebs and two plebeian aediles are elected for the first time

492 Rome joins Latin League

491 Coriolanus leads army against Rome

490 Marathon in Greece

482 Battle of Antium – the Volscians defeat consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus.

482 Battle of Longula – consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus defeats the Volscians the day after his defeat in the Battle of Antium.

480 Battle of Veii – consuls Vibulanus and Cincinnatus win heavy battle against Veians and their Etruscan allies.

480 Salamis in Greece

477 Battle of the Cremera – All the Fabii except Quintus Fabius Vibulanus are killed in battle with the Veians

477 Battle of Temple of Hope – consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus fights indecisive battle with the Etruscans

477 Battle of Colline Gate – consul Gaius Horatius Pulvillus has indecisive victory over the Etruscans soon after the Battle of Temple of Hope

474 Naval Battle of Cumae – Hiero of Syracuse defeats Etruscans.

471 Plebeians allowed to organize by tribe, reorganization of Plebeian Council from Curia to Tribe.

459 The college of the tribune of the Plebs is raised from two to ten tribunes

458 Cincinnatus dictator

458 Battle of Mons Algidus – Cincinnatus defeats the Aequi

451-50 The Decemvirs council of ten

449 Plebeian Council resolutions ("plebiscites") given full force of law over Plebeians and Patricians, but still subject to Senate veto

  • Twelve Tables of Roman law

447 Tribal Assembly created: two quaestors elected for the first time

446 Battle of Corbione – Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus leads Roman troops to defeat the Aequi and the Volsci.

445 Marriage between patricians (aristocrats) and plebeians (commoners) allowed

443 The office of consul is replaced by an assembly of military tribunes with consular powers, for this year.

  • Office of Censor created. Duties of Censor were Consular duties until this point, where consuls are replaced.

421 Number of quaestors raised from 2 to 4; office opened to plebeians

408 Consul replaced with Tribuni militum consulari potestate .

c. 400 Gauls settle Po valley

396 Rome captures and sacks Veii

  • Roman soldiers earn their first salary

394 Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate.

391 Camillus charged with taking booty from Veii for himself and banished to Ardea.

391 Office of Tribuni militum consulari potestate replaces office of consul.

390 July 18- Battle of Allia River – Gauls defeat the Romans, sack Rome.

384 Manilius executed

378 Servian Walls

375-371 Anarchy years: no magistrates elected

367 Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate for last time.

366 Plebeian Consuls allowed to be elected. By this, Plebeians acquire de facto right to be elected Censor or appointed Dictator.

  • Plebeians allow the Patricians to create the offices of Praetor and Curule Aedile, and allow only Patricians to run for these offices.

365 Death of Camillus

354 Latin League established under Roman domination

351 Elected : first non-patrician Dictator

351 Elected : first non-patrician censor

348 Second treaty between Rome and Carthage

345 Subjugation of Aurunci

343-1 (First Samnite War)

343 (First Samnite) Rome captures Campania and Capua : First Samnite War

342 (First Samnite) Battle of Mount Gaurus. Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites.

  • Lex Genucia passed: no man can hold the same office before 10 years have elapsed from the first election

  • Second law passed, disallowing any man from holding two offices at once.

341 (First Samnite) Battle of Suessula – Roman consul Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites once more.

341 Battle of Veseris - Roman victory but Decius killed

341 (First Samnite) Rome withdraws from the conflict with the Samnites. End of First Samnite War.

340-38 (Latin War) 2 years

340 (Latin War) Latin League pushes for ind ependence

340 (Latin War) Battle of Sinnuessa

339 (Latin War) Battle of Vesuvius – Romans under P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus defeat the rebellious Latins.

339 Law passed (the lex Publilia) which requires the election of one Plebeian censor for each five year term.

338 Battle at Pedum - Roman victory

338 (Latin War) Battle of Trifanum –Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus decisively defeats the Latins.

338 (Latin War) Latin League dissolved and Rome controls territory : Latin War Ends.

338 Capua legal equality with Rome

337 Elected the first non-patrician Praetor (Q. Publilius Philo).

334 Alexander the Great invades Persia

328 Roman occupation of Fregallae

326-04 (Second Samnite War) 22 years

326 (Second Samnite) War begin, Samnites attack Campagnia

323 Death of Alexander the Great

321 (Second Samnite) Battle of Caudine Forks – Romans under Albinus and Calvinus are defeated by Samnites under Gaius Pontius.

316 (Second Samnite) Battle of Lautulae – Romans are defeated by the Samnites.

312 Via Appia built, first aqueduct built

311 Etruscans join the Samnites against Rome.

310 Agathocles of Syracuse invades Africa

310 Battle of Lake Vadimo – Romans, led by dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor, defeat the Etruscans.

309 Vadimonian Lake - Lucius Papirius defeats Samnites

308 Fabius Maximus defeats Etruscans

308 (Second Samnite) war escalates as Umbrians, Picentini, and Marsians join against Rome.

306 Battle of Mevania – Roman Victory

306 The Hernici revolt against Rome.

306 Third treaty between Rome and Carthage

305 (Second Samnite) Battle of Bovianum - Samnite capitol taken

304 Aequi defeated.

  • (Second Samnite) Rome conquers Central and Southern Italy

  • (Second Samnite) Peace treaty, War ends

300 Lex Ogulnia passed: priesthoods opened to plebeians

298-90 (Third Samnite War) 8 years

298 (Third Samnite) Battle of Camerinum – Samnites defeat the Romans in first battle of the War.

298 (Third Samnite) Rome captures Samnite cities Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena.

297 (Third Samnite) Battle of Tifernum – Romans defeat the Samnite army

295 (Third Samnite) Battle of Sentinum - Romans defeat Samnites and their Etruscan and Gallic allies

294 (Third Samnite) Samnite victory at Luceria

293 (Third Samnite) Battle of Aquilonia - Romans decisively defeat the Samnites.

291 (Third Samnite) Romans storm the Samnite city of Venusia.

290 (Third Samnite) Rome dominates Italian Peninsula : War ends.

287 Last Plebeian Secession

  • Lex Hortensia ends Senate veto power over Plebeian Council

  • Conflict of the Orders ends.

285-282 Struggles with the Celts

285 Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls

283 Battle of Lake Vadimo – Rome defeats the Etruscans and the Boii

282 Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.

281 Mounting tensions between Rome and Tarentum. Tarentum appeals to Pyrrhus of Epirus for aid

280-272 (Pyrrhic War) 8 yrs

280 (Pyrrhic War) begins, Pyrrhus lands army in Italy

280 (Pyrrhic War) Battle of Heraclea – First engagement of Roman and Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious, but at great cost (Pyrrhic victory)

279 (Pyrrhic War) Battle of Asculum– Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans.

279 (Pyrrhic War) Praeneste nearest town to Rome captured by Pyrrhus

279 (Pyrrhic War) Treaty between Carthage and Rome against Pyrrhus

278 Pyrrhus breaks Carthaginian investment of Syracuse

277-276 (Pyrrhic War) Pyrrhus unsuccessful siege of Lilybaeum

275 (Pyrrhic War) Battle of Beneventum– Inconclusive encounter between Pyrrhus and the Romans under Manius Curius

272 (Pyrrhic War) Pyrrhus withdraws to Epirus

  • (Pyrrhic War) Tarentum surrenders to Rome, War Ends, Pyrrhus dies in Greece.

268 First Roman silver coins.

267 Number of quaestors raised from 4 to 6

264-241 (First Punic War) 23 years

264 Mamertines seek assistance from Rome to replace Carthage's protection against the attacks of Hiero II of Syracuse.

264 Earliest record of gladiatorial combats

263 Hiero II is defeated by consul Manius Valerius Messalla and is forced to change allegiance to Rome

262 (First Punic) Roman intervention in Sicily. The city of Agrigentum, occupied by Carthage, is besieged.

261 (First Punic) Battle of Agrigentum – Carthaginian are defeated by the Romans, who control of most of Sicily.

260 (First Punic) Battle of the Lipari Islands – A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians

  • (First Punic) Battle of Mylae – Roman naval force under C. Duillius defeats the Carthaginian fleet.

259 (First Punic) The land fighting is extended to Sardinia and Corsica.

258 (First Punic) Battle of Sulci – Minor Roman victory against the Carthaginian fleet near Sardinia

257 (First Punic) Battle of Tyndaris – Naval victory of Rome over Carthage

256 (First Punic) Battle of Cape Ecnomus – Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated

  • (First Punic) Battle of Adys – Romans under Regulus defeat the Carthaginians in North Africa

255 (First Punic) Battle of Tunis – Carthaginians under Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, defeat the Romans under Regulus, who is captured.

255 (First Punic) Battle of Bagradas – Roman invasion of Africa defeated.

254 A new fleet of 140 Roman ships is constructed to substitute the one lost in the storm and a new army is levied.

253 (First Punic) Romans then pursued a policy of raiding the African coast east of Carthage.

251 (First Punic) Battle of Panormus – Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal are defeated by the Romans under L. Caecilius Metellus.

249 (First Punic) Battle of Drepana – Carthaginians under Adherbal defeat fleet of Roman admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher.

248 (First Punic) Beginning of a period of low intensity fighting in Sicily, without naval battles. This lull would last until 241 BC.

247 Hamilcar Barca appointed general in Sicily. His son Hannibal Barca is born.

242 Office of Praetor peregrinus created

241(First Punic) Battle of Lilybaeum

241 (First Punic) March 10 - Battle of the Aegates Islands – Roman sea victory over the Carthaginians, ending War

241 (First Punic) Sicily becomes first Roman province : First Punic War Ends

241-238 The Mercenaries’ Revolt against Carthage

237 Sardinia and Corsica become Roman Provinces in the "Truceless War" with Carthage

237-229 Hamilcar Barca establishes protectorate in Southern Spain

231 Alleged first Roman embassy to Hamilcar Barca

229-227 (First Illyrian War)

229 Adriatic Control : First Illyrian War begins.

229 Death of Hamilcar Barca, son-in–law Hasdrubal takes command in Spain

228 Romans invited to participate in Isthmian Games

227 Queen Teuta surrenders : First Illyrian War ends

  • Number of quaestors raised from 6 to 8

  • number of praetors raised from 2 to 4

227 Founding of Carthago Nova in Spain

226 The Ebro Treaty between Hasdrubal and Romans

225 Battle of Faesulae – Romans are defeated by the Gauls of Northern Italy.

224 Battle of Telamon Rome defeats Gaul invasion :

222 Battle of Clastidium – Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeat the Gauls.

221 Circus Flaminius is built

221Hasdrubal’s murder, Hannibal takes over

220 Hannibal and Roman envoys meet at New Carthage

220 Via Flaminia is constructed

220-219 (Second Illyrian War)

219 Hannibal besieges Saguntum

218-201 (Second Punic War) 17 years

218 (Second Punic) Summer – Battle of Lilybaeum – First naval clash between Carthage and Rome during War.

  • (Second Punic) Aug - Hannibal conquered Catalonia.

  • (Second Punic) Sep- Hannibal defeated the Gaul Volcae tribe in the Battle of Rhone Crossing.

  • (Second Punic) Oct - Hannibal's army defeated Gauls in two battles while crossing the Alps.

  • (Second Punic) Fall – Battle of Cissa – Romans defeat Carthaginians near Tarraco.

  • (Second Punic) Nov 8 Hannibal and army finishes crossing of alps and decends into Italy

  • (Second Punic) Nov – Battle of the Ticinus – Hannibal defeats Romans under Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight.

  • (Second Punic) 18 Dec – Battle of Trebia – Hannibal defeats Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus.

217 Fabius Maximus becomes dictator

  • (Second Punic) Spring – Battle of Ebro River – Romans defeat and capture the Carthaginian fleet in Hispania.

  • (Second Punic) 21 June – Battle of Lake Trasimene – In ambush, Hannibal destroys Roman army of Gaius Flaminius.

  • (Second Punic) Summer – Battle of Ager Falernus –Hannibal escapes Fabius' trap in this small skirmish.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Geronium

216 (Second Punic) Aug 2 - Battle of Cannae - Hannibal defeats Roman forces :

  • (Second Punic) First Battle of Nola – Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by Hannibal.

  • (Second Punic) Capua defects to Hannibal

215 (Second Punic) Second Battle of Nola – Marcellus again repulses an attack by Hannibal.

  • (Second Punic) A Roman fleet under Titus Otacilius Crassus defeated a Carthaginian fleet near Sardinia.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Dertos - Hasdrubal Barca is defeated by the Scipio brothers

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Cornus – Roman victory

  • Alliance of Hannibal with Philip V of Macedonia

214 (Second Punic) Third Battle of Nola – Marcellus fights an inconclusive battle with Hannibal.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Beneventum - Tiberius Gracchus' slave legions defeat Hanno (son of Bomlicar)

  • (Second Punic) The Siege of Syracuse begins.

  • (Second Punic) Syracuse allies with Carthage

214-205 (First Macedonian War) 9 years

213 (Second Punic) Syracuse besieged by Roman Army under command of Marcellus

212 (Second Punic) First Battle of Capua – Hannibal defeats consuls Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but Roman army escapes

  • (Second Punic) Battle of the Silarus – Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius.

  • (Second Punic) Siege of Syracuse – Romans sack city. Archimedes slain.

  • (Second Punic) Defection of Tarentum, Locri, Thurii and Metapontum to Hannibal

  • Roman alliance with Aetolian league

211 (Second Punic) Battle of Upper Baetis – Publius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio are killed in battle with Hasdrubal Barca

  • (Second Punic) Second Battle of Capua – City surrenders to Romans

  • (Second Punic War) Hannibal marches on Rome sits outside walls.

  • (Second Punic) Death of Scipios in Spain

210 (Second Punic) Second Battle of Herdonia – Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Fulvius Centumalus, who is killed

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Numistro – Hannibal defeats Marcellus once more

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Sapriportis - Tarentine Greek navy defeated a Roman squadron.

  • (Second Punic) Scipio the Elder takes command in Spain

209 (Second Punic) Battle of Asculum – Hannibal once again defeats Marcellus, in an indecisive battle

  • (First Macedonian War) First Battle of Lamia – Romans defeated by Philip V of Macedon

  • (First Macedonian War) Second Battle of Lamia – Romans defeated by Philip V once more

  • (Second Punic) Fabius captures Tarentum

  • (Second Punic) Scipio Africanus captured New Carthage

208 Death of Marcellus

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Baecula – Scipio defeats Hasdrubal

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Clupea - The Carthaginian navy is defeated in a battle off the African coast.

  • Hasdrubal leaves with an army for Italy

207 (Second Punic) Battle of Grumentum –Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal

  • (Second Punic) Battle of the Metaurus – Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Carmona – Romans under Scipio besiege Carmona and take it from Hasdrubal Gisco

  • (Second Punic) Naval Battle of Utica - A Carthaginian fleet of 70 ships is defeated by a Roman fleet of 100 ships near Utica.

206 (Second Punic) Hannibal trapped in Bruttium

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Ilipa – Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Hispania.

  • (Second Punic) Gades surrenders to Romans

  • (Second Punic) Numidian king Syphax allies himself with Cathage.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of the Guadalquivir – Romans defeats a Carthaginian army under Hannón at Guadalquivir.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Carteia – Roman fleet under Gaius Laelius defeats a Carthaginian fleet under Adherbal

205 Scipio Africanus consul

  • (First Macedonian War) Philip V of Macedon makes peace with Rome

204 (Second Punic) Battle of Crotona – Hannibal fights a drawn battle against the Roman general Sempronius in Southern Italy.

204-202 (Second Punic) Scipio Africanus Major invades Africa,

204 (Second Punic) Destruction of the Carthaginian and Numidian camps near Utica.

  • (Second Punic) Syphax killed and Masinissa becomes king of Numidia

  • (Second Punic) Hannibal recalled

203 (Second Punic) Battle of Bagbrades – Romans under Scipio defeat Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax. Hannibal return to Africa.

  • (Second Punic) Battle of Castra Cornelia - Carthaginian fleet under plunders Roman supply convoy.

202 (Second Punic) Oct 19 Battle of Zama – ending the Second Punic War

202-191 Roman conquest of Cisalpine Gaul

200-197 (Second Macedonian War)

200 Battle of Cremona – Roman forces defeat the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul

198 (Second Macedonian War) Battle of the Aous – Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeat the Macedonians under Philip V

197 (Second Macedonian War) Battle of Cynoscephalae –Romans defeat Philip in Thessaly

197 Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Tarraconensis become Roman provinces

  • Number of quaestors raised from 8 to 12

  • number of praetors raised from 4 to 6

196 Declaration of independence for Greek states by Flamininus

196 Hannibal elected Suffete

195 Hannibal exiled to eastern Mediterranean

194 Battle of Placentia – Roman victory over the Boian Gauls

  • Battle of Gythium – With some Roman assistance, Philopoemen of the Achaean League defeats the Spartans under Nabis

193 Battle of Mutina – Roman victory over the Boii, decisively ending the Boian threat.

192-188 (Roman–Syrian War) 4 years

191-189 Revolt in Spain

191–189 (Aetolian War) 2 years - Romans fight Aetolian League

191 (Roman–Syrian War) Battle of Thermopylae – Romans defeat Antiochus III

190 (Roman–Syrian War) Battle of the Eurymedon – Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal.

  • (Roman–Syrian War) Battle of Myonessus – Another Seleucid fleet is defeated by the Romans

  • (Roman–Syrian War) Dec - Battle of Magnesia –Romans defeat Antiochus III the Great.

189 Battle of Mount Olympus – Romans deliver a crushing defeat to an army of Galatian Gauls

  • Battle of Ancyra – Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and Attalus II defeat the Galatian Gauls again before Ancyra

188 (Roman–Syrian War) Peace of Apamea ends war

184 Cato the Elder becomes censor

184 Rome rejects Cathage’s appeal against Numidia

183 Suicide of Hannibal in Bithynia

182 Rome rejects another Carthaginian appeal against Numidia

181 Battle of Manlian Pass – Romans under Fulvius Flaccus defeat an army of Celtiberians.

180 Lex Villia annalis: minimum ages for the cursus honorum offices, established an interval of two years between offices

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