English Colonies

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English Colonies
1. Who was Roger Williams?
Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay colony for preaching different ideas that the Puritans favored. He felt that people should be able to worship in any way they want. He was banished back to England however he and went South during the winter. He met a group of Native Americans near Narragansett Bay who cared for him until the spring. When spring came his family and other followers met up with him. He would buy land from the Native Americans and they called it Providence. In Providence he welcomed people with different religious beliefs.
2. How were African Americans treated in Rhode Island?
Slaves did not have any freedom in Rhode Island. It would become one of the larges slave trading centers in the world.
3. Who was Thomas Hooker?
Thomas Hooker was a Puritan clergyman who lived near Boston. He didn’t agree with some of the laws or leadership in Massachusetts. Therefore he moved to a more fertile land. He was able to convince his family and about 100 other people to move with him. Their settlement would be called Hartford.
4. What was the Fundamental Orders?

It was the first written plan of government for any of the colonies. It guaranteed the right to vote to all men who were Puritan. The governor’s powers were limited.
5. How did Connecticut become a colony?
Neither New Haven nor Hartford were legally authorized by King Charles II. Hartford was established by Hooker who left the Massachusetts colony and New Haven was also established by a group of Puritans who agreed to live by the word of god. Their laws were more stick then those in Hooker’s Connecticut colony. Therefore Charles granted a charter for a new Connecticut colony that included Hartford and New Haven. The charter gave the colonists of Connecticut more rights than most other colonists except for Rhode Island.
Charter Oak- King Charles sent someone to Harford 15 years later to take back the colonists’ charters. However someone stole it and hid it in the trunk of an oak tree.

6. Why were so many people discouraged from settling in New York?
James, the Duke of York awarded large estates along the Hudson River to wealthy Englishmen. The new landowners charged high rents to farmers working their land. Because of this there was a large difference in wealth. He also appointed people to run the colony. He issued his own laws and declared which people living in New York should pay taxes.
7. How did New Jersey become a colony?

Duke of York gave some of the New York land to his friends Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. They renamed it New Jersey.
8.Who was William Penn? What do Quakers believe? How was Pennsylvania different from the other colonies.

He was a Quaker. Quakers believe in simple lifestyle and in treating people as equal. They refused to bow before the king, fight in wars, or pay taxes to the Church of England. In 1688 the King threw Penn in jail hoping to stop him from preaching the Quaker’s ideas. However when he got out of jail he continued. He wanted to establish a colony in America where they could be safe. The King granted Penn a very large area of land between the Puritan colonies of New England and the Anglican colonies of the South. He promised in his Great Law of 1682 that people of all faiths would be treated equally. He created documents making Pennsylvania the first democracy in America.

9. What would Pennsylvania’s Lower Counties become?

It was land along the lower Delaware River. Setters did not want to send delegates to a distant assembly in Philadelphia because it was so far way. Therefore they were allowed to elect their own assembly. The Lower Counties would break away and from the colony of Delaware in 1704.
10. Why was the colony of Maryland created?
George Calvert, named Lord Baltimore by King James become a Roman Catholic. The official church in England was the Anglican Church so Catholic were treated harshly. Therefore Calvert wanted to start a colony where there would be a religious freedom. Calvert died and the new king, King Charles I granted a charter for the colony to Calvert’s son. The charter gave complete control of the colony to the Calverts.
11.What was the Act Concerning Religion? Why was it created?
It was the first law guaranteeing religious liberty. It was passed in Maryland. The law only applied to Christians. Jews and atheists were not included.
It was created because the governor of Maryland saw that Catholics would always be outnumbered in Maryland. The colony welcomed Protestants as well as Catholics.
12.Why did Georgia become a colony? What individual helped form it?
Some people in England wanted to help poor people in England stay out or debtors prison. At the time people who could not pay their bills went to jail . James Oglethorpe helped create this colony by inspiring wealthy Englishmen to give money to help establish a colony where the poor could build better lives instead of going to jail.

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