Executive Board of the United Nations Development

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United Nations


Executive Board of the
United Nations Development
Programme and of the
United Nations Population Fund

Distr.: General

13 July 2010

Original: English

Second regular session 2010

30 August to 3 September 2010, New York

Item 3 of the provisional agenda

Country programmes and related matters
Draft country programme document for Somalia (2011-2015)




Situation analysis……………………………………………………………



Past cooperation and lessons learned…………………………..……………



Proposed programme…………………………………………….………….



Programme management, monitoring and evaluation……..…………………



Results and resources framework for Somalia (2011-2015) …………………


I. Situation analysis

1. Levels of human security vary dramatically across Somalia. For most of the past 20 years large parts of South-Central Somalia have been afflicted by chronic insecurity. The human burden of conflict is profound and seriously impacts any prospect of being able to tackle the entrenched poverty that also exists. Freedom from fear of violence and freedom from hunger are never too distant and human rights abuses are frequently reported to be perpetuated with impunity. Women suffer cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment brought about by conflict and are excluded from decision-making and asset ownership in a society where deeply rooted gender inequality prevails. Somalia remains one of the few countries worldwide that has not yet ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, although the Cabinet has approved it subject to ratification by parliament.

2. Somali society is founded on a deep clan-based culture with a strong pastoral tradition. Despite an almost wholly unified ethnic, linguistic and religious culture, Somali inter-clan contest has proven to be one of the principal sources of conflict. Conversely, clan leaders have also been the prime means for conflict resolution. More particular to South-Central Somalia, power struggles among clans and sub-clans have become increasingly politicized, radicalized and militarized over recent years, especially among young men. External influences, reinforced by a ready supply of weapons, have contributed to the polarization and escalation of violent conflict inside Somalia. Despite this depravity, a myriad of local peacebuilding efforts have been brokered and sustained at the community level.

3. Poverty is a proximate cause, driver and result of the conflict. For example, of the total estimated population of 9 million who inhabit Somalia, over one third live in extreme poverty, 3.2 million require emergency humanitarian assistance1 and about 1.4 million are internally displaced persons (IDPs)2 - the majority of whom reside in South-Central Somalia and Puntland. Rates of acute malnourishment of children (1 in 6) are among the highest in the world and 1 in 10 die before their fifth birthday.3 Malaria and tuberculosis are also rife. Overall rates of HIV/AIDS are about 1 per cent.4 Less than 20 per cent of the population of Somalia is literate (and of this only 13 per cent are women) while life expectancy at birth is a mere 47 years.5 Women are inadequately protected and the female genital mutilation rate is estimated at 95 per cent, primarily performed on girls aged 4 to 11 years.6 In sum, human conditions in parts of Somalia are extremely grim, especially for women who continue to bear the brunt of the effects of grinding poverty.7

4. The internationally recognized authority for Somalia is the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), which was created from the Somali National Reconciliation Conference in late 2004 following a legacy of failed peace processes. The Transitional Federal Government established its presence in Mogadishu in January 2007 where it has since remained. The institutional capacity of the Transitional Federal Government remains weak and has so far been unable to extend control or protection over the population within the capital where it continues to face armed resistance from several opposition groups. The African Union peacekeeping mission (AMISOM), despite also coming under frequent assault, remains committed to supporting the Government through its limited presence of 5,250 troops in Mogadishu. The semi-autonomous areas of Puntland in the north-east, and to an increasing extent, the unilaterally declared independent Somaliland in the north-west, have experienced progressively greater stability. Piracy has emerged as an additional threat off the Somali coast.

5. Despite these conditions, the Somali private sector has proven remarkably resilient, sustaining average per capita parity purchasing power (PPP) of $795.8 Agriculture, livestock and fisheries constitute the backbone of the Somali economy and provide employment to more than two thirds of the workforce.9 Remittances have provided an essential income upon which about 40 per cent of the population in some areas wholly depend, and from which 80 per cent of start-up capital is sourced. Aid flows10 to South-Central remain relatively strong, although assistance to Puntland and Somaliland has been more modest. Notwithstanding this, Somalia’s context continues to pose serious security risks and operations challenges to aid organizations, limiting access and resulting in higher transaction costs.

II. Past cooperation and lessons learned

6. A number of review exercises have generated recommendations for this new country programme document – only the second ever for Somalia: the Assessment of Development Results (ADR), recently undertaken; review of the current country programme document (2008-2010); and an evaluation of the UNDP strategic partnership with donors to Somalia. More broadly, the evaluation report carried out on the United Nations Transition Plan (2008-2010) identified issues of programming disconnect between the Reconstruction and Development Plan and the United Nations Transition Plan that are being remedied in the new United Nations programming cycle. The overarching recommendation is that the UNDP portfolio of discrete rule of law, governance and recovery programmes must be more contextually sensitive and considerably more integrated and should more consciously analyse and reinforce peacebuilding within all development programming.

7. Several compelling lessons emerged from the recent evaluations and reviews for UNDP future direction: (a) proceed with the UNDP core development mandate and comparative advantage at the forefront of all activities; (b) limit engagement in functions that can be categorized as provision of last resort where UNDP does not traditionally have a comparative advantage; (c) avoid large civil works projects in which UNDP lacks engineering and quality assurance competencies; (d) augment institutional support programmes with a sharper focus on the promotion of human rights and gender equality; (e) ensure that larger segments of the Somali poor benefit directly from UNDP interventions; (e) diversify partnerships with government counterparts at all levels to engage a broader range of civil society organizations and private sector actors; (f) evolve the Recovery and Sustainable Livelihoods programme into a coherent “area-based” approach that systematically empowers communities at the local level in their own development; (g) ensure closer sequencing of recovery and sustainable livelihood activities with the successful United Nations Joint Programme on Local Governance (JPGL).

8. In the previous country programme document cycle, UNDP was also handicapped in not possessing dedicated capability to reinforce gender as a cross-cutting theme. Similarly, UNDP lacked the ability to be able to independently analyse the changing nature of the conflict and peace initiatives taking place within Somalia through which it could better inform and adjust its interventions. Critically, greater differentiation needs to be applied in the design of detailed implementation plans that reflect the markedly different conditions that exist in South-Central Somalia, Puntland and Somaliland. In general terms, over the course of the new country programme document, UNDP Somalia should transform into a more analytical, comprehensive and strategic organization equipped to support higher-level peacebuilding through strategic partnerships, placing greater emphasis on medium- to long-term processes and policies.

III. Proposed programme

9. The present country programme document has been prepared in the context of the review of the Somali Reconstruction and Development Plan. Simultaneous consultations have developed the United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy (UNSAS) 2011-2015. As a result, there is strong strategic alignment of priorities across the Reconstruction and Development Plan, the United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy 2011-2015 and the country programme document. UNDP has also engaged in consultations on the present country programme document directly with the Transitional Federal Government, Somaliland and Puntland authorities, as well as donors, civil society and United Nations agencies. UNDP will continue to work across the spectrum of state-building, peacebuilding and nation-building activities, providing lead support in the areas of rule of law, democratic governance and human development, all of which are working towards MDG attainment – the overarching vision of the United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy. The following priorities arose from both internal and external consultations with UNDP development partners as well as recommendations contained within the evaluation exercises referred to above. The entire framework of the country programme document is predicated on an analysis that identified key interrelated themes that contribute to the perpetuation of the Somali conflict:11 a range of international and inter-zonal factors that continues to destabilize the country; the enduring lack of national and sub-national institutions of governance; the omnipresence of poverty and lack of proper management of environmental resources (conflict over pastoral rights being commonplace); finally, the appalling treatment of half of the population – women and girls - both as a result of the conflict and in general. By structuring the UNDP country programme document to address each of these four conflict drivers, UNDP seeks to work consciously and systematically ‘on’ the conflict. These four areas translate into the four UNDP priority outcome areas for 2011-2015.

Outcome one: capacity-building for peace and human security

10. The overarching objective of the country programme document is dedicated to the building of capacities for peace and human security. UNDP will diversify its participation in strategic peacebuilding activities, such as the constitutional process, including civil society organizations, particularly women’s groups, and the private sector, to deepen peace within their own communities. UNDP will strengthen its analytical capabilities and help strengthen the capacity of its partners to better analyse and manage conflict. UNDP will also seek to promote more regional and inter-zonal cooperation. Human Development Reports (HDRs) will research human security, community safety, and human rights, featuring issues such as youth inclusion, gender inequality, women’s empowerment, community cohesion, and integrated peace and development initiatives. UNDP will apply its capacity development framework to ensure that a consistent approach is applied at all levels.

Outcome two: governance and rule of law institutions, systems, practices and services

11. Outcome two commits UNDP to strengthening governance and rule of law institutions, systems, practices and services. Transitional governance and rule of law institutions within Somalia are very fragile. Outcome two is critical for the assertive management of conflict, the protection of human rights, the advancement of gender equality, and the achievement of localized MDGs. Assistance will establish the basic principles of good governance and the rule of law and activities based on transitional priorities towards implementation of a new constitutional framework. Key public sector reforms will be designed and implemented in an inclusive, gendered, participatory and transparent manner. Capacity development of parliamentary and civil society actors will strengthen effective and accountable government oversight, including core integrity institutions. The legislative and judicial branches will be supported and supplemented by developing community mechanisms to enhance accountability. The police will be fully distinguishable, civilian and accountable in character. Respect and support for the principle and practice of legal pluralism will be pursued through the harmonization of the various paths to justice and security. This will be accomplished in a manner consistent with human rights, featuring empowerment and access for women, the poor and marginalized, as well as minority clans, internally displaced persons and refugees.

Outcome three: livelihood opportunities and natural resources institutional arrangements and policies

12. Outcome three will improve livelihood opportunities for the most poor and strengthen institutional arrangements and policies for better management of natural resources. Despite years of intense conflict, there are pockets of opportunities where communities can engage in activities for early recovery, community empowerment and the revival of sustainable livelihoods. There will be greater focus on area-based community-level planning to promote localized, integrated, gender-sensitive MDG-based interventions for human security and human development. These activities are founded on a number of guiding principles, foremost of which are adapting a comprehensive conflict sensitive approach, the empowerment of the poor through a rights-based approach and greater social mobilization to prevent and stop violence on the part of those most affected from conflict and extreme poverty. Building on the recommendations of the ADR and country programme document review exercises, a substantively new integrated area-based approach will be devised to more fully exert leadership of the early-recovery cluster to: (a) empower local Somali enterprise; (b) strengthen institutional capacities at the community level; (c) rehabilitate productive community infrastructure, and; (d) protect fragile natural resources through proper management and conservation and in support of climate change adaptation and mitigation. A framework of support will be provided for the creation of an enabling environment for the private sector in which the policy and operational focus will be improving the micro-finance sector in pursuit of inclusive growth. Federal and regional authorities will be engaged for advancing and enforcing responsible policies for the protection of the natural environment.

Outcome four: gender equality

13. Outcome four – achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women. This country programme document responds directly to the acute challenge faced by Somali women today, tackling some of the most extreme and recurrent aspects of abuse and discrimination. The UNDP intent is to make women’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all policies and programmes in the political, economic and social spheres of life. As acknowledged in the Millennium Declaration, gender equality is both a goal in itself12 and a condition for the achievement of the other goals. UNDP proposes a twin track approach by undertaking women-specific interventions as well as mainstreaming gender in all the programme components. Interventions will be designed to go beyond simply being gender-sensitive and gender-responsive but gender-transformative, i.e., by addressing the causes of gender inequality through strategic actions that seek to transform the unequal power relations between men and women resulting in improved status of women and gender equality. In the Somali context, UNDP will focus on addressing the following issues: (a) the persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women; (b) sexual and gender-based violence; (c) the effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women; (d) inequality in economic structures, productive activities, assets and access to resources; (e) inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making at all levels; (f) lack of respect for and inadequate promotion and protection of women’s human rights; (g) access to justice; and (h) gender inequalities within government. A major effort will be made to incorporate the United Nations Security Council resolutions13 addressing women, security and peace and sexual violence in armed conflict, into national action plans, while expanding the role of Somali women in leadership in all fields of endeavour, and particularly in the prevention and resolution of conflict. In addition, efforts will be made to encourage Somalia to become a States party to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.

IV. Programme management, monitoring and evaluation

14. UNDP will maintain a direct execution modality over all its programming, but with parallel efforts to support the leadership, ownership, management and direct contribution of national counterparts. All activities will take place on the basis of maximizing opportunities to empower stakeholders in an inclusive and participatory manner. Detailed annual implementation plans will be devised for the three distinct zones of Somalia to accord with the ADR and as greatly appreciated by the Transitional Federal Government, Puntland and Somaliland authorities. UNDP will continue to exercise clear and transparent principles and practices of governance over the entire portfolio, using a range of zonal, programme and project Boards that ensures participation of all partners in consultations and decision-making over the design, management, monitoring and evaluation of all substantive investments made in Somalia. UNDP will approach new international development partners with a prospective interest in Somalia and seek to lever additional South-South and regional cooperation opportunities. UNDP will continue to play a major role in the United Nations country team in support of the coordinated implementation of the United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy. For example, as a lead partner to the United Nations Joint Programme on Local Governance. UNDP will seek to establish other joint-programming opportunities where appropriate. Not least, UNDP will continue to invest fully in the vital and robust strategic partnership with donors.

15. In accordance with the ADR, UNDP Somalia commits to continue to improve its accountabilities through enhanced monitoring and evaluation, thereby ensuring a more effective oversight, especially where accessibility remains a challenge. As part of this effort, a Monitoring and Evaluation Unit will be established and an Oversight and Compliance Adviser will be recruited. This will be accompanied by a more astute focus on improved results-based management and result reporting. Insecurity is likely to remain a significant obstacle limiting the exposure and contact of UNDP “in-country” with key government agencies, implementing partners, community representatives and with the Somali people in general. As a result, some quality assurance functions have been devolved though a local oversight agency for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Analytical capabilities in relation to conflict and peacebuilding will be strengthened to inform programming decisions and critical risks to the country programme document results framework. Updates of risks will be reported and consulted regularly with all stakeholders. Although UNDP operations are likely to continue to be based out of Nairobi, Kenya, for the foreseeable future as a result of the devastating attacks of 2008/2009, more intense use of the UNDP sub-offices in Hargeisa (Somaliland) and Garowe (Puntland) will be made. Furthermore, a functional review of the country office will take place and selected international staff will be deployed to sub-offices from Nairobi, to the extent the security situation will allow. UNDP looks forward to being able to expand its full presence inside Somalia where and when it is deemed permissible.

Annex. Results and resources framework for Somalia 20012-20015

National priority or goal: Somali Reconstruction and Development Plan Outcome 2: Deepening peace, improving security and establishing good governance

Intended United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy outcome #3: Good governance and human security: Somali people live in a stable environment where rule of law is respected and rights-based and engendered development is pursued.

Programme component

Country programme outcomes

Country rogramme outcome: baseline, indicator(s) and targets

Country programme outputs

Role of partners

Indicative resources by goal

(thousands of $)

Goal 3:

Supporting crisis prevention and recovery.

Outcome 1:

Somali women and men and authorities are better able to build peace and manage conflict.

1(a) Indicator: Extent to which violent conflict in South-Central is resolved.14 Baseline: Violent conflict in South-Central unresolved and ongoing dispute between Puntland and Somaliland. Target: Violent conflict in South-Ccentral reduced.15

1(b) Indicator: Degree to which peaceful transition is accomplished. Baseline: Federal constitution and majority of transitional tasks unaccomplished, Somaliland elections postponed twice. Target: Federal constitution ratified and implemented, Somaliland elections peacefully and transparently held, and sub-national constitutions aligned.

1(c) Indicator: Structured peacebuilding partnerships and processes between and among key players16 lead to a reduction in armed violence at the community level17. Baseline: Multiplicity of ad-hoc peacebuilding initiatives18. Target: Strengthened and coordinated peacebuilding, resulting in a significant reduction in armed violence.

1(d) Indicator: Somali Authorities and civil society participation in cross-zonal and regional initiatives that contribute to deepening peace and cooperation. Baseline: Limited cooperation between Somali authorities and civil society on cross-zonal and regional initiatives. Target: Increased Somali Authority and civil society participation in strategic cross-zonal and regional cooperation peacebuilding.

1.1: Mechanisms in place, and support for the constitutional process and associated legal framework development.

1.2: Capacities of authorities, particularly women’s groups, civil society19 and the private sector strengthened for conflict management, peacebuilding and human development.

1.3: South-South, cross-regional and cross-zonal partnerships, studies and policies developed that contribute to peace, cooperation and development.

UNDP will continue to support and engage Somali authorities, donors and civil society, including women’s groups, in the constitutional process at all levels. Additional efforts will be made to engage partners in processes of an inter-zonal, regional and South-South nature that promote confidence- and peace-building activities around development initiatives.

Regular resources

Other resources

National priority or goal: Somali Reconstruction and Development Plan Outcome 2: Deepening peace, improving security and establishing good governance

Intended United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy outcome #3: Good governance and human security: Somali people live in a stable environment where rule of law is respected and rights-based and engendered development is pursued.

Goal 2:

Fostering democratic governance.

Outcome 2:

Somali women and men, girls and boys benefit from more inclusive, equitable and accountable governance, improved services, human security, access to justice and human rights20.

2(a) Indicator: Number of public institutions providing basic public services,21 particularly to the most marginalized and vulnerable. Baseline: Absence of a functioning central government, and weak state administrations.22 Target: Expansion of the delivery of public services is achieved, as measured by citizen satisfaction surveys.

2(b) Indicator: Degree to which policing practices and judicial systems, institutions and practice conform to modern international standards, including those contained in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Baseline: Police and judicial systems are weak, outdated and inconsistently applied. Target: Policing and justice systems reviewed in line with international standards, including human rights, and with the capacity to deliver effective policing and justice measured through police and court records and citizen satisfaction surveys.

2(c) Indicator: Degree to which accountable and participatory governance institutions systematically communicate with Police and service providers to deliver basic safety/security and foster an enabling environment for increasing livelihoods. Baseline: Police and service providers have weak links to participatory governance institutions and accountability is poor. Target: Formal mechanisms established to ensure full accountability of police and service providers to governance institutions.

2(d) Indicator: The performance, transparency and accountability of public institutions, including the security sector, to conform to international standards. Baseline: All Somali public institutions face significant difficulties, lacking adequate administrative infrastructure, systems and coherent policies23. Target: Improvements in the performance, transparency and accountability and gender responsiveness of public institutions, including security sector institutions, and in oversight mechanisms as evaluated against international standards, indices and checklists.

2.1: Mechanisms for the transition to democratic and accountable structures and systems of governance designed and implemented.

2.2: Key public sector reforms designed and implemented in an inclusive, gender-sensitive, participatory and transparent manner24.

2.3: The capacities of parliamentary and civil society actors strengthened for effective and accountable Government oversight25.

2.4: Technical Assistance provided to improve security, establish a functioning judiciary, access to justice, a constitutional and legal framework and protection of human rights under the rule of law.

2.5: Mechanisms in place to support improved access to equitable prioritized basic services, particularly for women and vulnerable groups.

Key partners, such as the executive, legislative and judiciary, together with integrity institutions, will be supported to improve their performance.

Regular resources

Other resources


Total: 110,750

National priority or goal: Somali Reconstruction and Development Plan Outcome 3: Establishing a sustainable enabling environment of rapid poverty reducing development

Intended United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy Outcome #2: Livelihoods and poverty reduction: Somali people benefit from poverty reduction through equitable economic development and decent work.

Programme Component

Country Programme outcomes

Country programme outcome: baseline, indicator(s) and targets

Country programme outputs

Role of partners

Indicative resources by goal

(thousands of $)

Goal 1:

Achieving the MDGs and reducing human poverty.

Goal 4:

Managing the environment for sustainable development.

Outcome 3:

Somali women and men benefit from increased sustainable livelihood opportunities and improved natural resources management.

3(a) Indicator: Increase in incomes, employment and diversified livelihood assets.26 Baseline: 43% of Somalis live on less than $1/day, and 73% less than $2/day,27 unemployment stands at 48%28 and 80% of Somali households rely on natural resource-dependent activities for their livelihoods.29 Target: Increased levels of income, reduced levels of unemployment, as well as declining percentage of Somali households relying on natural resource-dependent activities.

3(b) Indicator: Improved natural resource management; Baseline: Very limited public sector capacity and limited number of sustainable community-based natural resource management initiatives.30 Target: Improved public sector capacities to manage environmental protection, and increase in sustainable community-based natural resource management initiatives.

3(c) Indicator: Improvement in the enabling environment for small and micro enterprises.31 Baseline: Lack of transparent private sector development regulatory framework32 and weak micro-finance sector to support small and micro-businesses.33 Target: A clear and transparent regulatory framework for private sector development implemented, improved governance of the micro-finance sector, increased number or micro-finance organizations providing a greater volume of funds to small and micro-enterprises.

3.1: MDG planning, programming and policy implementation capacities developed among partners for robust, participative analysis, including human rights, gender equality, HIV/AIDS.

3.2. Strategic economic development policies formulated and implemented with focus on small and micro-finance for inclusive growth.34

3.3: Environment and natural resources utilized in a sustainable, equitable, gender- and conflict-sensitive manner through the formulation and implementation of strategic policies. 3.3: Local communities empowered to analyse, participate in and advance recovery and development, local enterprise, conflict and sustainable environment management.

Government agencies with responsibility for economic governance and natural resources management will be direct partners. Community and women’s groups will be empowered for greater advocacy, leadership and ownership of local development initiatives.

Regular resources


Other resources

Total: 83,300

National priority or goal: Somali Reconstruction and Development Plan Outcome 2: Deepening peace, improving security and establishing good governance

Intended United Nations Somali Assistance Strategy Outcome #3: Good governance and human security: Somali people live in an environment where rule of law is respected and rights-based development is pursued.

Goal 2:

Fostering democratic governance.

Goal 3:

Supporting crisis prevention and recovery.

Outcome 4:

Somali women and men attain greater gender equality and are empowered.

4(a) Indicator: Number of women’s groups and advocates empowered to promote social change and gender equality. Baseline: Lack of capacity among women’s organizations. Target: Increase in women’s organizations and networks effectively working for social change and gender equality.

4(b) Indicator: Percentage of representation and participation of women at all levels.

Baseline: Huge discrepancy between male and female representation and participation in peacebuilding and political participation in governance and development processes. Target: Increased number of women in parliament (30%), and government positions, including number of women engaging in peace-building initiatives.

4(c) Indicator: Increased access of women to social services, justice and legal protection.

Baseline: Limited women’s access to services, justice, and protection. Target: Increased number of women accessing social services, judicial systems and reduction in cases of sexual violence in conflict.

4(d) Indicator: Extent to which the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and Security Council resolutions 1325, 1888 and 1889 are integrated into institutional, regulatory and policy frameworks. Baseline: n/a

Target: Integration and implementation of the CEDAW, Security Council resolutions 1325, 1888 and 1889 through institutional, regulatory and policy frameworks.

4.1: Gender equality and the empowerment of women implemented through advocacy initiatives in partnership with civil society and public institutions.

4.2: Women’s participation in peace-building, representation, civil service and public life increased at all levels.

4.3: Women are empowered in social and economic development.35

4.4: Women supported by appropriately designed, implemented and enforced the legal and policy frameworks in line with Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and Security Council resolutions 1325 (2000), 1888 (2009) and 1889 (2009)36

Government, the private sector, civil society, women’s groups will engage in an increase of activities that promote gender equality and significantly advance the status and rights of women at all levels of society.



Other resources

Total: 12,450

List of acronyms


Assessment of Development Results


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


African Union


African Union Peacekeeping Mission in Somalia


Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery


Country Programme Document


Female Genital Mutilation


Food Security Nutrition Analysis Unit


Human Development Report


Human Immunodeficiency Virus


Internally Displaced Persons


Joint Program on Local Governance


Millennium Development Goals


Natural Resource Management


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development


Public Financial Management


Private Sector Development


Reconstruction and Development Plan


Recovery and Sustainable Livelihoods


Sexual and Gender-Based Violence


Transitional Federal Government


United Nations Development Programme


United Nations Department of Safety and Security


United Nations High Commission for Refugees


United Nations Political Office for Somalia


United Nations Somalia Assistance Strategy


United States Dollar


United Nations Security Council Resolution


United Nations Transitional Plan

1 According to the Food Security Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU) – Somalia (February 2010).

2 UNHCR Somalia (March 2010).

3 UNDP MDG Review for Somalia 2007.

4 WHO ANC sentinel surveillance studies carried out in 2007 and 2004, HIV prevalence is thought to be 1.5% in Somaliland (North-West Somalia), 0.7% in Puntland (North-East Somalia) and 0.6% in South Central Somalia.

5 UNDP MDG Review for Somalia 2007.

6 Eradication of female genital mutilation in Somalia (UNICEF).

7 UNDP Human Development Indicators Index for 2000-2002. Since then, it has not been possible to obtain accurate or reliable data to be able to rank Somalia.

8 World Bank Country Economic Memorandum (2006) based on PPP method (albeit based on 2001 data).

9 UNDP MDG Review for Somalia 2007.

10Official development assistance to Somalia increased from $269m in 2005 to $727m in 2008 (OECD, “Development Aid at a Glance”, 2010 edition).

11 This analysis, facilitated by the Bureau of Crisis Prevention and Recovery in a 3.5-day workshop that took place in Nairobi from 16-19 February 2010 involving some 50 UNDP Somalia staff (including from the sub-offices) arrived at broadly similar conclusions about the key causes and drivers of conflict as the World Bank study “Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics”, January 2005. This workshop helped to frame the approach to the new country programme document 2011-2015 and guided UNDP in formulating a strategy that enables it to work more deliberately ‘on’ the conflict, rather than merely just ‘in’ or ‘around’ it.

12 MDG-3

13 UNSCR’s 1325, 1888 and 1889

14 This indicator relates directly to one of the key outcome indicators of the Somali reconstructive development programme (Deepening peace and strengthening governance, as stated in Volume 1 Results-based Management of April 2010

15 Including progress achieved in the dispute between Puntland and Somaliland over the regions of Sool and Sanang.

16 Including government agencies, civil society, private sector actors and community groups.

17 Partnerships that in particular engage vulnerable groups, women and youth.

18 Peace processes operating without a national framework or means to verify impact and properly monitor armed violence at the community level.

19 Civil society in this context refers also to non-state actors, in particular the diaspora, youth associations, women’s groups, internally displaced persons and vulnerable groups, and networks of such groups, empowered to participate in peace processes.

20 All data on population access to public services to be disaggregated by gender, group, minority, etc.


 Improved provision of basic public services is also intended to measure access by vulnerable and excluded groups, women and youth.

22 Baseline source United Nations Transitional Plan. In addition to the baseline, it should also be stated that the capacities and resources of local governing authorities vary substantially across Somalia, with local authorities in Puntland and Somaliland relatively better established and more capable of providing services than in other parts of the country. There are, however, no current baselines on the access of vulnerable groups to basic public services. Furthermore, the majority of public revenues generated are absorbed into security sector expenditures.

23 See United Nations Transitional Plan.

24 This entails support to enable the functioning of core state institutions and in developing and implementing coherent public policies and strategies, legal and regulatory frameworks, planning and monitoring mechanisms in the security, police, justice, civil service/public administration, PFM, economic governance and environment sectors

25 This includes Independent Parliamentary Commissions and institutions such as the Auditor General’s Office, etc.

26 Livelihood assets relates to a range of skills and productive assets measured periodically by household survey. The need to diversify livelihood away from being natural resource dependent is stated in the RDP (page 71) and provides the baseline for livelihood component of the indicator.

27 Baseline source: page IX of the RDP – March 2008

28 World Bank - Country Economic Memorandum for Somalia, ‘Somalia From Resilience to Recovery and Development’ January 2006

29 Baseline source: RDP 2008, page 71

30 Baseline source: page 70 of the RDP.

31The intention here is to measure the impact of economic development policies on the economic sector most likely to promote inclusive growth for the benefit of the poor, vulnerable groups, women and the marginalised.

32 Baseline source: RDP 2008 – page 72

33 Baseline source: RDP 2008 – page 69

34 To ensure that growth is pro-poor in nature and benefits youth, women, the disabled, people with HIV/AIDS, minorities and IDPs

35 Empowered with support and access including, but not limited to legally empowered social and economic rights, assets, skills and finance, including micro-finance etc.

36 UNSCRs: United Nations Security Council Resolutions on women, security and peace and sexual violence against women in armed conflict.

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