Exploration and Colonization Test Review

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Exploration and Colonization Test Review

Spain’s Exploration to New World

  • Goods/gold

  • God (convert Native Americans to Christianity)

  • glory

  • Spoke Spanish

  • Areas explored: Florida, Southwest US, Mexico and the islands of the Caribbean, Central and South America

France’s Exploration to New World

  • To find the North West Passage

  • Goods (fur trade)

  • God (convert Native Americans to Christianity)

  • Spoke French

  • Areas explored: Canada, Louisiana Territory, and islands within the Caribbean

England’s Exploration to New World

  • Gold

  • God (convert Native Americans to Christianity)

  • Glory

  • Religious freedom

  • Economic profit from colonies

  • Spoke English

  • Explored the East coast of America, Canada

  • Expand political power

Jamestown, Virginia

  • 1607

  • First successful English colony in New World

  • Funded by Virginia Company

  • Established for economic /commercial reasons

  • Landed in Virginia on a swampy peninsula of land

  • Mostly wealthy gentlemen who did not know how to work; just searched for gold

  • Starving Time -- first winter

  • John Smith saved colony – “he who will not work, shall not eat!”

  • Pocahontas saved John Smith, helped colonists

  • John Rolfe saved colony with tobacco, married Pocahontas

  • Tobacco was Jamestown’s cash (profit) crop

  • Rich, fertile soil and warm weather

  • Virginia House of Burgesses- 1619—was the first representative government in the colonies

Plymouth, Massachusetts

  • 1620

  • Founded for religious freedom by the Pilgrims (Separatists)

  • Charter from King to settle in Virginia—landed 1,000 miles north at Cape Cod

  • Wrote the Mayflower Compact –signed before leaving ship

  • Mayflower Compact—colonists agreed to self-government and majority rule

  • William Bradford—leader

  • Starving Time -- first winter

  • Wampanoag Native Americans helped the colonists survive by teaching them to farm and hunt – Squanto spoke English

  • Freezing cold winters, rocky, poor soil

Reasons for Development of Representative Government in Colonies

  • Colonists were familiar with the English historical traditions (Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights) and representative gov’t structure (Parliament)

  • Colonial religious communities largely practiced democratic self-rule, elected pastors and officers

  • They were far away from England, making them independent

  • Salutary neglect” by the British made them even more self-sufficent

  • Many settlements were far apart and isolated—representatives could meet to decide issues

  • To gain some stability in a chaotic and different place—provide law and order in the colonies

New England Colonies

New Hampshire, Massachusetts,

Rhode Island, and Connecticut

Government, economy, geography, religion, social:

  • Smallest farms

  • Cold climate and short growing season

  • Thin, rocky soil

  • Subsistence farming (enough to survive)

  • Shipbuilding, fishing, timber—major economic activities

  • Center of shipping trade

  • Well organized towns

  • Met in town halls and governed through a democratic system

  • Town hall meetings

  • All eligible white males could vote

  • Plymouth—1620—second successful English settlement in America

  • Mayflower Compact—Pilgrims

  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (first written constitution)

  • Most religious—Puritans

  • All colonies founded for religious reasons

  • Religion dominated society

  • Daily activities focused around the church

  • Urban setting—Boston

  • Public education

Middle Colonies

New York, New Jersey,

Pennsylvania, and Delaware

Government, economy, geography, religion, social:

  • Middle sized farms

  • Mild climate, shorter winters

  • Fertile soil

  • Breadbasket region (wheat, grain)

  • Iron mills and mining

  • Diversified economy; agriculture, dairy, iron works and ship building

  • Most culturally and religiously diverse

  • Mostly egalitarian society (everyone is considered as equals—treated equally)

  • Most religiously tolerant colony

  • Government classified as colonial assemblies (towns were too far apart for town hall meetings)

  • William Penn made treaty with Native Americans

  • Pennsylvania was the colony for Quakers to settle in peace

  • New Amsterdam was founded by the Dutch for business/trade – later taken over by the English and became New York

  • English took over New York to unite their colonies

Southern Colonies

Virginia, Maryland, Georgia,

North Carolina, and South Carolina

Government, economy, geography, religion, social:

  • Plantations (largest farms)

  • Warm climate and long growing season

  • Most fertile soil

  • Cash crops of indigo, tobacco, rice, sugar cane, and cotton

  • Little commerce (business) and industry

  • Authoritarian and deference society

(authoritarian: based on servitude; deference: based on rank)

  • Majority of slaves

  • Jamestown—1607—first successful English settlement in America and had first Anglican church in 1619

  • Virginia House of Burgesses, 1619, first representative government

  • Colonial assemblies

  • Rural

  • Religion dominated by Anglican church (church of England)

  • Most colonies founded for profit

  • Maryland founded for Catholics to practice religion freely

  • Had royal governor who was appointed by the King of England, to sit at the head of the colonial assembly

Protestant Reformation

  • Split in the Catholic church

  • Those who protested church practices became known as “Protestants”

  • Many new Christian churches and denominations emerged from the Protestant Reformation

  • To escape persecution, many of these Protestants left Europe and came to the colonies in search of religious freedom

The First Great Awakening

  • Democratized the Protestant churches—believed everyone equal in the eyes of God—salvation for all

  • Welcomed all—women, African Americans, Native Americans

  • Encouraged ideas of equality and the right to challenge authority

  • Contributes to the revolutionary idea of independence in years to come

The Enlightenment

  • Intellectual movement that changed the perspective of the masses—fostered skepticism and questioning of government and religion

  • Main values: liberty, democracy, republicanism, religious tolerance

Locke: English philosopher—wrote about individual rights of life, liberty, protection of property—influenced Declaration of Independence

Montesquieu: French philosopher—wrote about 3 branches of gov’t, separation of powers, checks and balances—influenced U.S. Constitution

Blackstone: English judge—wrote about natural rights (life, liberty), idea of self-defense—influenced American legal system and 2nd Amendment (right to bear arms)

Magna Carta—1215

  • King John ruled over England and abused his powers as king

  • King John used unfair practices to control people like unfair taxes, rules that limited individual rights

  • Dictatorial style leadership

  • King John’s actions angered the nobles

  • The nobles used their political and economic power to make King John sign a charter protecting the fundamental rights of the people….

  • Signed on June 15th, 1215, called the Magna Carta or the “Great Charter”

  • It limited the king’s power and protected specific individual rights of the people, such as due process of law, property protection, proper taxation

  • Magna Carta serves as a foundation for future protection of rights for all people

Mayflower Compact—1620

  • Signed in 1620 by the Pilgrims and Puritans sailing on the Mayflower from England to the New World

  • When they realized their boat was over 1,000 miles off course and outside of Virginia jurisdiction, the men of the Mayflower boat wanted to create some law and order for themselves

  • They drew up this compact and signed it before they left the boat

  • The Mayflower Compact guaranteed a democratic system of government and the protection of individual rights

  • Based on majority rules

Virginia House of Burgesses—1619

  • Established in 1619

  • Created in the colony of Virginia

  • Served as the first colonial assembly in the 13 colonies (first representative gov’t)

  • A colonial assembly consisted of persons elected by the people as representatives to government

  • The colonial assembly met to determine laws and governmental policies for the people in their colony

  • Virginia House of Burgesses was the first representative government in the colonies.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  • First written colonial constitution

  • Adopted in 1639

  • Connecticut’s constitution protected the individual rights of the Connecticut colonists

  • The constitution established a religiously tolerant government

  • It also helped to serve as an example for future colonial constitutions

Transatlantic Slave Trade/Triangular Trade

  • The trade routes from Europe, to Africa, to the Americas, and then to Europe again.

  • Raw goods from the New World would go to Europe where they would manufacture those raw goods and send them to Africa in exchange for slaves; the slaves would go to Brazil, the West Indies or the English Colonies.

  • 95% of enslaved Africans went to Brazil and the West Indies; 5% to the English Colonies

  • Triangular Trade was based on the theory of mercantilism

  • The theory that a state’s or nation’s power depended on its wealth. The practice of regulating colonial trade for the profit of the home country.

  • 1502--Columbus first imported African slaves to the Americas

  • After trade, Africans were packed tightly into slave ships and sent to the Americas—this voyage was called the Middle Passage.

  • Conditions of the Middle Passage were horrible, the death rate was 15-20%.

Slavery and slaves in the Colonies

  • Tobacco was Virginia’s “gold”—production reached 30 million pounds by the 1680s

  • The expansion of tobacco led to an increased demand for field labor

  • Native Americans were first used for labor, but their lack of immunity to European diseases made them susceptible to illness

  • European indentured servants were used next for labor, but escape was easy for them with their many ties and familiarity with the European culture

  • The spread of tobacco led settlers to turn to slavery, which offered many advantages over indentured servants

  • Africans were seen as alien in their color, religion, and social practices

  • Plantation system: Production system using large agricultural tracts to produce cash crops using slave labor

  • Most slaves could not read or write, and it was illegal for them to learn

  • Slaves were often brutally punished for misbehaving or escape

  • Southern Colonies—large tobacco plantations; center of the domestic slave trade

  • Carolinas and Georgia—large rice and cotton plantation


New England region

  • Plymouth founded in 1620 by Pilgrims and William Bradford

  • Massachusetts Bay founded in 1630 by Puritans and John Winthrop

  • Founded for religious freedom

Rhode Island

New England region

  • Founded in 1636 by Roger Williams after he was banished from Massachusetts Bay

  • Founded for Williams’ belief in separation of church and state and for religious freedom

  • Williams set up the most tolerant New England colony

  • Anne Hutchinson also moved to Rhode Island after being banished from Massachusetts Bay (for her beliefs and actions as a woman)


New England region

  • Founded in 1636 by Thomas Hooker

  • Founded for religious and political freedom, also for economic reasons to expand trade

  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut—first written constitution in the colonies

New York

Mid-Atlantic region

  • Founded in 1624 by Dutch Settlers—New Amsterdam

  • Founded for profit and commercial reasons—also wanted to expand trade in the colonies

  • England took over New Amsterdam in 1664

  • King Charles II gave the colony to his brother, the Duke of York—so they changed the name to New York

  • It was a proprietary colony: a colony which the owner, or proprietor, owned all the land and controlled the government


Mid-Atlantic region

  • Founded in 1681 by William Penn

  • Founded for Quakers to practice their religion freely

  • Quakers believed everyone was equal in God’s eyes and had an egalitarian society

  • Very religiously tolerant

  • William Penn made a treaty of peace with the Native Americans


Southern region

  • Founded 1632 by Cecil Calvert (Lord Baltimore)

  • Founded as a safe place for Catholics to practice their religion freely

  • King Charles I gave Calvert the proprietary colony

  • Calvert died before receiving the colony, but his son followed his wishes

  • Maryland turned to tobacco for profit

  • Maryland Act of Toleration (1649) provided religious freedom for Catholics and Protestants alike


Southern region

  • Jamestown founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company with the help of John Smith

  • Founded for trade and profit (hoped to find gold like the Spanish!)

  • Founded as a joint stock company

  • Only 60 of the first 500 colonist survived the first winter known as the “Starving Time”

  • Tobacco industry set up by John Rolfe is what “saved” the Jamestown colony from failure. John Rolfe married Pocahontas


Southern region

  • Founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe

  • Founded as a colony that was a safe haven for debtors (people in debt—owe money)

  • Allowed for social mobility and political freedom

  • Georgia also acted as a buffer territory from Spanish controlled Florida

North Carolina / South Carolina

Southern region

  • Founded as just “Carolina” in 1663 by a group of 8 proprietors (businessmen)

  • Founded for trade and profit in real estate (opportunity in the sale and rental of land) and farming, religious freedom

  • These colonies were a joint business venture between investors

  • The area of North Carolina originally was made up of former indentured servants working small farms growing tobacco

  • Rice became the major crop on plantations in South Carolina, worked by slaves

  • So…the two regions grew apart and separated officially in 1712

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