he Roman mythology was based on the Greek polytheistic religion. Like the Greeks, the Romans used their mythology to explain natural phenomena, human qualities and life events. The Romans used the Greek gods, but changed the names of most of them. One of the great works of Roman literature is the Aeneid written by Virgil. The Aenid is a myth, which tells the story of the beginnings of the Roman race.
Christianity spread around the Mediterranean basin during the Roman Empire. The Apostles, including Paul, carried Christianity throughout the Roman Empire. Persecution by Roman authorities slowed its progress, but it was eventually adopted and legalized by Emperor Constantine. As the Roman Empire declined in the West, the Church in Rome grew in importance, membership, and influence. The Church became an example of moral authority and loyalty to the church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor. The Church became main unifying force of Western Europe.
Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural and technological achievements throughout the Empire. Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome.
Roman architecture built upon the techniques of the Greeks. The Romans, however, developed the arch and the dome. They built the Colosseum for entertainment and aqueducts to transport fresh water to the city.