Focus: Turn to page 403 in your textbook. Read the biography section on Samuel F. B. Morse and then answer the question. Student Objectives



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7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 109— Communication Revolution

March 14, 2016
Focus: Turn to page 403 in your textbook. Read the biography section on Samuel F. B. Morse and then answer the question.

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze how the Communication Revolution transformed America through the new technology of the telegraph.

2. I will analyze how technology improved life on the farm and in the home.
Homework:

-Chapter 12 Test Tuesday 3/15


Handouts:

none
I. Telegraph

II. Help on the farm

III. Help at home


Key terms/ideas/ people/places (24) :

Telegraph “What hath God wrought!” Samuel F. B. Morse Morse Code

John Deere Steel Plow Cyrus McCormick Mechanical Reaper Elias Howe

Isaac Singer


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Whose invention did Singer improve upon?

What impact did the telegraph have on other businesses?

Notes

Class 109— Communication Revolution

March 14, 2016

Telegraph: Samuel F. B. Morse


  • Instant long distant communication was a reality

  • Commercial application

    • News of distant prices and markets

  • Helped complete Manifest Destiny by integrating the continental empire

  • 1866-Cyrus Field connects U.S. to Europe via telegraph

  • Telegraph:

  • The only part of Morse’s system that was original was his Morse Code

John Deere:

  • Light weight Steel Plow


Cyrus McCormick

  • Mechanical Reaper

    • With the scythe and cradle, a man could only harvest about 1 acre of wheat per day

    • One man could now harvest 8 acres of wheat a day


Isaac Singer:

  • Improves Elias Howe’s sewing machine

  • Before the sewing machine, a shirt sewn by hand required more than 14 hours to manufacture. With the new sewing machine, a seamstress could make one in a little over an hour

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7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 110— Test

March 15, 2016
Homework:

-Read and outline Chapter 13, Section 1 pgs. 414-419 (due 3/16)

-Read and outline Chapter 13, Section 2 pgs. 420-423 (due 3/17)

-Read and outline Chapter 13, Section 3 pgs. 424-429 (due 3/18)

-Chapter 13 Test Wednesday 3/23

-In class DBQ on Chapter 13 begins Monday 3/28

-Current Events Due 3/28

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 111— King Cotton

March 16, 2016


Focus: What man made this statement in 1816: “I have no hesitation in saying let us separate.”

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Student Objectives:

1. I will recognize the importance of cotton to the Southern Economy.


Homework:

-Read and outline Chapter 13, Section 2 pgs. 420-423 (due 3/17)

-Read and outline Chapter 13, Section 3 pgs. 424-429 (due 3/18)

-Chapter 13 Test Wednesday 3/23

-In class DBQ on Chapter 13 begins Monday 3/28

-Current Events Due 3/28


Handouts:

none
I. King Cotton

A. Cotton Kingdom

II. Other Crops of the South

III. Southern Manufacturing
Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Eli Whitney Cotton Gin Virginia Short-staple cotton

Slavery Cotton Kingdom


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

What states make-up the Cotton Kingdom?

How did the cotton gin impact cotton production and slavery?

Notes

Class 111— King Cotton

March 16, 2016

Impact of the Cotton Gin:


  • Cotton is to the South what oil is to the Middle East today

  • Need more slaves

    • Interstate slave trade=big business

    • Slavery spreads West

    • 1793-slave sells for $300

    • 1860-slave sells for $2,000


Other Crops of the South:

  • Corn

  • Tobacco

  • Rice

  • Flax

  • Hemp

  • Indigo



The Cotton Kingdom:

  • South Carolina

  • Georgia

  • Alabama

  • Mississippi

  • Louisiana

  • Texas

  • produce ¾ of the cotton grown in the U.S

  • This “Cotton Kingdom” was the driving force in expanding and transforming the economy of the entire world

States like Virginia become big in the slave trade as they will sell excess slaves to the Cotton Kingdom. Slaves are “sold down the river.”


Why not as much industry in the South?

  • Wealthy southerners put their money into slaves and agriculture-cotton = big business

  • Culture

    • “The ideal good life, for a Virginian, meant not work or the maximization of time but rather leisure and enjoyment.”

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 112— Southern Society

March 17, 2016


Focus: Explain how slavery and industrialization are linked.

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Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze Southern society.


Homework:

-Read and outline Chapter 13, Section 3 pgs. 424-429 (due 3/18)

-Chapter 13 Test Wednesday 3/23

-In class DBQ on Chapter 13 begins Monday 3/28

-Current Events Due 3/28
Handouts:

none
I. Southern Society

A. Hierarchy
Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

Cottonocracy/Planters Yeoman Slaves Free African Americans

Poor Whites Honor System


By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

Who was at the top of Southern society? Who was at the bottom?

What were the limits on free African Americans in both the North and South?

How many families were actually in the Cottonocracy? The yeoman category?

How can southern society be characterized as “classless?”

Notes

Class 112— Southern Society

March 17, 2016

Cottonocracy/Planters:


  • Own at least 20 slaves

  • 1/30 white families

  • Wealthy

  • Politics

  • Honor system

  • Leisure

  • “No other occupation conferred as much social status as the ownership of land and slaves. Most planters found little incentive to pursue industrial innovation when large-scale staple production brought them not only profits but prestige and political leadership as well.”

Yeoman:

  • ¾ of South

  • Own land

  • Few slaves-work with


Poor Whites:

  • Don’t own land-rent

  • Hilly areas

  • “At least not a slave”


Free African Americans:

  • Mostly in Delaware/Maryland

  • No vote/travel

  • Hated by whites for the example they set, antislavery whites feared them as incendiaries


Slaves:

  • 1/3 of southern population

  • Worked in fields/some learned a skill

____________________________________

7th Grade Social Studies

Canada, Mexico, & U.S. History from the Revolution to Reconstruction

Class 113—The Southern Slave System

March 18, 2016


Focus: Read the following excerpt on the back of this focus.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -



Student Objectives:

1. I will analyze Southern slave system.


Homework:

-Chapter 13 Test Wednesday 3/23

-In class DBQ on Chapter 13 begins Monday 3/28

-Current Events Due 3/28


Handouts:

1. Walker's Appeal to the [African American] Citizens of the World


I. David Walker’s Appeal

II. Duality of Slaves

III. Slave Codes

IV. Why South doesn’t use white labor

V. Slave Religion

VI. Slave Revolt


Key terms/ideas/ people/places:

David Walker Slave Codes Denmark Vesey invisible institution

Nat Turner Property or Person?
By the end of class today, I will be able to answer the following:

What is a slave owner’s biggest fear?

When are slaves considered a person by southerners?

How many people died as a result of Nat Turner’s revolt?

What is the invisible institution?
Walker's Appeal, in Four Articles; Together with a Preamble, to the [African American] Citizens of the World, but in Particular, and Very Expressly, to Those of the United States of America,
Written in Boston, State of Massachusetts, September 28, 1829.

PREAMBLE.



My dearly beloved Brethren and Fellow Citizens.

HAVING travelled over a considerable portion of these United States, and having, in the course of my travels, taken the most accurate observations of things as they exist--the result of my observations has warranted the full and unshaken conviction, that we, (African American people of these United States,) are the most degraded, wretched, and abject set of beings that ever lived since the world began; and I pray God that none like us ever may live again until time shall be no more. They tell us of the Israelites in Egypt, the Helots in Sparta, and of the Roman Slaves, which last were made up from almost every nation under heaven, whose sufferings under those ancient and heathen nations, were, in comparison with ours, under this enlightened and Christian


nation, no more than a cypher--or, in other words, those heathen nations of antiquity, had but little more among them than the name and form of slavery; while wretchedness and endless miseries were reserved, apparently in a phial, to be poured out upon our fathers, ourselves and our children, by Christian Americans!....

Has Mr. Jefferson declared to the world, that we are inferior to the whites, both in the endowments of our bodies and of minds? It is indeed surprising, that a man of such great learning, combined with such excellent natural parts, should speak so of a set of men in chains. I do not know what to compare it to, unless, like putting one wild deer in an iron cage, where it will be secured, and hold another by the side of the same, then let it go, and expect


the one in the cage to run as fast as the one at liberty.
Notes

Class 113—The Southern Slave System

March 18, 2016
For Walker, unless America changed its ways, the country was doomed to the wrath of avenging God….Link this to Nat Turner and his faith/religion later

Slave Codes:


  • No groups more than 3

  • Can’t leave owners land w/out pass

  • No guns

  • Not allowed to read or write

  • Can’t testify, no charges

Slave marriages were not legal and it was uncommon for a loved one to be sold down the river


Slaves as property or people?

  • Property

    • Sold

    • Bequeathed

    • Insured

    • Hired out

    • “Professional slave traders commanded little respect in southern society, perhaps reflecting moral embarrassment at their occupation….”

  • Under the law, slaves had a duel character as both property and person

    • People

      • Slaves tried in court for crimes

      • Unjustified killing of slave was legally murder-hardly ever enforced


Why not use white labor?

  • No white laboring class

  • If white men worked for other white men, would dispel the illusion that all whites were equal

  • White working class could make demands that would disrupt southern social system


Slave Religion “invisible institution:”

  • African Americans found their churches a source of mutual strength and spiritual fulfillment

  • Where a large mass of participants could be assembled-plantations, slaves often worshipped on their own-makes whites nervous

  • Biracial services in the cities-whites on one side African Americans on other


Slave Revolts:

  • Denmark Vesey 1822-never gets off the ground-executed

  • Nat Turner 1831

    • Preacher/prophet-inspired by signs of the Holy Ghost

  • 2 days

    • Murdered and decapitated whites

      • 57 in all

        • 46 were women and children

  • 100 slaves were killed

  • “rather than admit that slaves inevitable resented their oppression, white southerners usually blamed insurrection on outside agitators.”

  • Did Turner read David Walker

  • Southerners further haunted because Turner confessed that his own masters had been kind


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