Former site of Scotts Flat, a small gold rush settlement of Scottish immigrants



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Former site of Scotts Flat, a small gold rush settlement of Scottish immigrants


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http://www.nid.dst.ca.us/history.cfm

Then and Now
In 1917, Munson B. “Bert” Church and his wife, Kate, drove their cattle from parched dry pasture in western Nevada County eastward and up to the green mountain meadows of the Sierra Nevada.

On this cattle drive, Bert and Kate first envisioned a water system where the tumbling and abundant waters of the high mountains could be carried to the fertile but dry farms and ranches of the Sierra foothills.


NID’s first board meeting, Aug. 15, 1921
Groundbreaking, Rollins Reservoir, 1963
Building Scotts Flat Dam, 1964
Soon, the Churches joined with other Nevada County residents to pursue this dream. The Nevada County Farm Bureau and visionary leaders such as Aubrey L. Wisker, Herman Graser and Guy N. Robinson Jr. set out to convince Nevada County residents and voters they should form their own irrigation district.

Building a Better Community


These men knew that a reliable, year-around water supply was a key to building a better community.... They envisioned a true partnership of people, land and water.
Through the early 1900s, many of the old reservoir and canal systems built during the California Gold Rush had become under-utilized and were falling into disrepair. Community leaders were determined to acquire these invaluable assets, make improvements, and recreate them as the backbone of a new public water system.
From 1917-1921, engineering studies were completed, new water rights were negotiated and a local campaign was mounted to build support for this dream of a new irrigation district.

NID is Formed by Voters


On March 15, 1921 local organizers presented petitions carrying 800 signatures of irrigation district supporters to the Nevada County Board of Supervisors. On August 5, 1921 a public election was held with voters favoring the new district by a margin of 536-163.
Nevada County Supervisors authorized the new district and 10 days following the election, on August 15, 1921, NID was officially formed. The district’s first board meeting was held that day in Grass Valley’s Bret Harte Hotel.

Placer County Joins in 1926


At its formation, NID included 202,000 acres in Nevada County. Five years later, in 1926, residents of Placer County chose to join the district and another 66,500 acres were added. Today, NID includes more than 287,000 acres.
Following its formation, the district achieved rapid progress in laying the groundwork for the new public irrigation system. During the 1920s, many important water rights were obtained, key water rights the district retains to this day. The acquisition of land to store and deliver water was a very important step in the district’s development.

Irrigation Water: 10 Cents a Day


NID began to deliver irrigation water to local farms in 1927. At that time, irrigation water was priced at about 10 cents per day.
By the late 1950s and early 1960s it had become apparent that the future would bring more demand for water in NID service areas. Demand for NID water was beginning to transition from canal water to piped and treated drinking water. At the same time, California was embracing development of hydroelectric power to meet the state’s growing energy needs.

NID Builds Yuba-Bear Project


District leaders once again took their campaign to the electorate and in a 1962 election, 97 percent of NID voters supported a $65 million bond issue to construct the Yuba-Bear River Power Project.
The major project, completed from 1963-66, remains very important milestone in NID history. It brought not only power generation capability, but new reservoirs and canal systems and, most importantly,created an additional 145,000 acre-feet of water storage for district residents.

No longer would foothill reservoirs run dry in the long hot summers. Bert and Kate Church would be proud.


Today, as NID has grown and matured into a multi-faceted water and power agency, the district continues to take great pride in its Gold Rush roots and important place in California water history.
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http://www.ncgold.com/Museums_Parks/syrp/hydrohis.html
Early Mining Ditches

The first major mining ditch was the nine mile long Rock Creek Ditch, constructed in 1850 to take water from Rock Creek to Coyote Hill in Nevada City. The Rock Creek Ditch Co. is considered to be the oldest entity on the PG&E corporate family tree, and was ultimately used to deliver water to the first hydro-powerhouse in Nevada County.


Charles Marsh, a pioneer in water development in Nevada County, and his partners built the Rock Creek Ditch for $10,000 and recovered it’s cost in 6 weeks from the water-hungry miners. The ditch business then became very competitive! Rivals built ditches from Deer Creek to Nevada City. Lawsuits about water rights led to consolidations and the Deer Creek and Coyote Water Co. in late 1851. Ground sluicing soon gave way to hydraulic mining which was first used on Buckeye Hill by Anthony Chabot. One major company emerged in the Nevada City area, the Rock Creek, Deer Creek, and South Yuba Canal Co., in 1854. The company name was shortened to South Yuba Canal Company, in 1870 and their office was located in the historic building now occupied by the Nevada City Chamber of Commerce on the low end of Commercial Street.
This company built the first major water project ever in California---the South Yuba Canal, from 1854 to 1858. It was 16 miles long, of which 9 mi. was ditch and 7 mi. was flume, and cost $500,000. It included two tunnels totalling over two miles long. The project took so long to build because of the construction challenges, which included 1.5 miles of cliff-side construction, requiring men to work in slings hanging over the cliff!!!
This canal took water out of the South Yuba River at what is now Lake Spaulding, diverting it into the Bear River valley. Ultimately, much of the water was delivered back into the Yuba River basin at Deer Creek, near the current Scotts Flat Reservoir.
This company developed storage in the upper Yuba basin at Lake Fordyce, Meadow Lake and other locations. It became the major water company in the upper Yuba region.with over 450 miles of ditches and 20 storage reservoirs. It was the “wholesale” provider to numerous smaller ditch owners and hydraulic mining operations.
AND...The first PG&E project was the Deer Creek Power House at Scotts Flat, in 1908.

^^^^^^^^
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http://www.nid.dst.ca.us/water-facts.cfm&usg=__SGOHTpYbl_rXjPF2rT28IcvCbkQ=&h=250&w=550&sz=34&hl=en&start=3&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=C3-GX6lSXO15nM:&tbnh=60&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522south%2Byuba%2Bcanal%2522%2B%252B%2522scotts%2Bflat%2522%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26tbs%3Disch:1

From Mountain Top to Your Tap


From Mountain Division reservoirs, NID water flows through the Bowman-Spaulding Canal, via Fuller Lake, to PG&E’s Lake Spaulding. It is then routed down either the South Yuba Canal to Upper Deer Creek, Scotts Flat and the Nevada City-Grass Valley area, or down the PG&E Drum System along the Bear River where the water is used to generate power for NID and PG&E before supplying NID customers in southern Nevada County and Placer County.
=========================================
http://www.fishsniffer.com/forums/content.php?r=129-Scotts-Flat-Reservoir-Offers-Barrier-Free-Fishing-Access-For-Browns-Rainbows
The lake is located at 3100 feet in elevation on Deer Creek, a tributary of the Yuba River, 9 miles east of Nevada City. Scotts Flat is in the “Northern Mines” region of the California Gold County where hydraulic mining scoured hillsides during the late Nineteenth Century.

====================================================


From Web_NID_WaterWays_Spring_2010.pfd:

NID directors awarded $4.9 million contract to replace 8 old flumes. They are the last of 31 original flumes on the DS Canal, constructed by NID in 1926-28 to carry water from Scotts Flat Reservoir into the Grass Valley-Nevada City area.


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http://www.friendsofdeercreek.org/documents/Deer%2520Creek%2520Watershed%2520Mercury%2520Survey.pdf+%2B%22scotts+flat%27+%2B%22hydraulic+mining%22&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjQaVgGturduX5TSgUM1Qct1_cvwVWvlFjZnJThLpHfJcb_as_xfh3H-jnlncL1yIUoj_YeHgQyZOzjcj_G4RS8Neut3nrr1yrTHRpOwusYF1AsqXzagFyAZpE0mjIW6O6Kjsr4&sig=AHIEtbSXe9j2Gl6eUIxubth-3kleyVOccg
Today, NID uses some of the original canal system in conjunction with an extensive system of dams and diversions to supply water to western Nevada County and Placer County.

Water from the South Yuba is diverted into the south fork of Deer Creek, stored in Scotts Flat Reservoir and Deer Creek Reservoir (Lower Scotts FLat), and diverted into 5 major water supply canals before reaching Lake Wildwood Reservoir.


=================================================
http://www.e-goldprospecting.com/html/other_gold_districts_in_nevada.html

Scotts Flat

As all of the places the Chinese miners were at, Scotts Flat was worked really well by the Chinese miners as well. The lower gravels in the Scotts Flat area used to be very rich in gold. The district of Scotts Flat is located in the area of the Scotts Flat reservoir.

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http://www.fishsniffer.com/ckellogg/060828scottsflat.html&usg=__i7jZpQNjYvwBrMYHi2FQ2mAjQw4=&h=200&w=300&sz=29&hl=en&start=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=yVM_3_sktlS6_M:&tbnh=77&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522scotts%2Bflat%2522%2B%252B%2522hydraulic%2Bmining%2522%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26tbs%3Disch:1
Scotts primary tributary is Deer Creek. Legend has it that during the first year of the gold rush the 49ers pulled an estimated 100,000 ounces of gold from the creek making it one of the richest placer gold strikes in the history of the world. On the lake's southern shoreline there is still much visible evidence of the hydraulic mining, in which high pressure water cannons were used to wash away hillsides in the 1850's and 1860's.
=================================
http://www.westernmininghistory.com/articles/380/page1/
This district is in west-central Nevada County about seven miles due east of Nevada City. It includes the Tertiary placer "diggings" at Scotts Flat, Quaker Hill, Hunts Hill, Buckeye Hill, and Burrington Hill. The You Bet-Red Dog district lies immediately to the south and the Nevada City district to the west. The various mines were extensively hydraulicked from the 1850s through the 1880s, and later the tailings were reworked by Chinese miners. Also there was drift mining in the district. The area was prospected during the 1930s.
Geology

These deposits are in the north-northwest trending Tertiary gravel channel that extends from You Bet-Red Dog to North Columbia. A southwest-trending tributary comes into the area from Burrington Hill and joins this channel at Hunts Hill. At Hunts Hill and Quaker Hill the main channel is nearly 600 feet deep with bench gravels up to 300 feet in depth. The deep gravels are well-cemented and quartz-rich and, in places, were very rich in gold. The upper gravels usually are fine and contain abundant sand. The deep channel is believed to be continuous all the way from Hunts Hill to the Blue Tent district, a distance of seven miles. Bedrock in the east portion is slate and in the west, phyllite and greenstone. On the major ridges the gravels are capped by Tertiary andesite and rhyolite.


In 1911 Lindgren estimated that 12 million cubic yards of gravel had been removed from Scotts Flat and 35 million from Quaker Hill. He also estimated that a vast amount (140 million cubic yards) remained at Quaker Hill. The U. S. Army Engineers (jarman, 1927) estimated 50 million to 90 million cubic yards remained at Quaker Hill. They also estimated that 6.75 million cubic yards had been removed, and 4 million to 5 million remained at Hunts Hill.
======================
http://www.nidwater.com/water-facts.cfm

From Mountain Top to Your Tap


From Mountain Division reservoirs, NID water flows through the Bowman-Spaulding Canal, via Fuller Lake, to PG&E’s Lake Spaulding. It is then routed down either the South Yuba Canal to Upper Deer Creek, Scotts Flat and the Nevada City-Grass Valley area, or down the PG&E Drum System along the Bear River where the water is used to generate power for NID and PG&E before supplying NID customers in southern Nevada County and Placer County.
==============================
http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/waterrights/water_issues/programs/applications/petitions/2009/1270etal_envinfo.pdf+%22scotts+flat+dam%22+-road&cd=30&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Scotts Flat Dam (Map Index # 17)

Scotts Flat Dam was originally constructed in 1948, and

enlarged to its current capacity in 1964.

Lower Scotts Flat Diversion Dam (D-S Canal) (Map Index # 18)

The Lower Scotts Fiat Diversion Dam was constructed by NID

in 1928.

Scotts Flat Powerhouse (Map Index #41)

Scotts Flat Powerhouse was constructed in 1984.


=====================================
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placer_mining

The simplest technique to extract gold from placer ore is panning.


The same principle may be employed on a larger scale by constructing a short sluice box, with barriers along the bottom to trap the heavier gold particles as water washes them and the other material along the box. This method better suits excavation with shovels or similar implements to feed ore into the device.
In California, from 1853 to 1884, "hydraulicking" of placers removed an enormous amount of material from the gold fields, material that was carried downstream and raised the level of the Central Valley by some seven feet in some areas and settled in long bars up to 20 feet thick in parts of San Francisco Bay. The process raised an opposition calling themselves the "Anti-Debris Association". In January 1884, a United States District Court banned the flushing of debris into streams, and the hydraulic mining mania in California's gold country came to an end.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_mining

The modern form of hydraulicking, using jets of water directed under very high pressure through hoses and nozzles at gold-bearing upland paleogravels, was first used by Edward Matteson near Nevada City, California in 1853.


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http://boards.ancestry.co.uk/localities.northam.usa.states.california.counties.nevada/460/mb.ashx?pnt=1

A. A. BLOSS & E. A. WETMORE placer mining claim at Scott's Flat 21 Oct 1879

REDHEAD37 (View posts) Posted: 26 Sep 1999 12:00PM GMT

Classification: Deed

Surnames: BLOSS, WETMORE

Transcription by Alvy K. FLYNN (grandson of Alvy A. Bloss), re-copied by Diane Wilson Flynn who tried to retain the spelling and capitalization as written by Mr. FLYNN:


Taken from

Nevada County Hall of Records

Grantee Book No. 8, page 107

Notice
Mining Location}

of.............}

A.A.BLOSS,et.al.} Notice is hereby given that we the undersigned, citizens of the United States have this 21st day of October, A.D. 1879, located for placer mining, two claims of twenty acres each, in accordance with Act of Congress of May 10th 1872, and described according to the United States system of Surveys, as the North East quarter of the South West quarter of Section 1, T. 16. N. R. 96 M. D. M. containing fourty acres, and known as the General Grant Location. Dated on the ground at Scott's Flat, Scotts Flat Mining District, Nevada County, State of California, October 21, 1879

....................................... A. A. BLOSS
....................................... E. A. WETMORE

Recorded at the request of P. SHINGLE, November 1, 1879 at 55 min. past 11 oclock A.M.


John A. RAPP
========================
http://www.archive.org/stream/golddistrictsofc00clarrich/golddistrictsofc00clarrich_djvu.txt
Blue Tent
Blue Tent is northeast of the Nevada City district

in western Nevada County. The area was mined years

ago by hydraulicking, but little or no mining has been

done since. The gravels are part of the Tertiary chan-

nel that e.xtends north-northwest from You Bet

through Scotts Flat and Quaker Hill to North Co-

lumbia. Although the gravels here are extensive, they

were reported not to have been very remunerative.

Lindgren (1911) estimated that 15 million cubic yards

had been removed and 90 million yards remain, much

of it barren clay and sand. The gravel next to bedrock

was reported to have yielded about 50 cents in gold

per yard. To the east and south the gravels are over-

lain by andesite. Bedrock is phyllite and slate.


Bibliography
Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary grovels of the Sierra Nevodo:

U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 143.


Scotts Flat

Location and History. This district is in west-cen-

tral Nevada County about seven miles due east of

Nevada Grv. It includes the Tertiary placer "dig-

gings" at Scotts Flat, Quaker Hill, Hunts Hill, Buck-

eye Hill, and Burrington Hill. The You Bet-Red Dog

district lies immediately to the south and the Nevada

City district to the west. The various mines were

extensively hydraulicked from the 1850s through the

1880s, and later the tailings were reworked by Chinese

miners. Also there was drift mining in the district.

The area was prospected during the 1930s.

Geology. These deposits are in the north-north-

west trending Tertiarj' gravel channel that extends

from You Bet-Red Dog to North Columbia. A south-

west-trending tributary comes into the area from

Burrington Hill and joins this channel at Hunts Hill.

At Hunts Hill and Quaker Hill the main channel is

nearly 600 feet deep with bench gravels up to 300

feet in depth. The deep gravels are well-cemented

and quartz-rich and, in places, were very rich in gold.

Tlie upper gravels usually are fine and contain abun-

dant sand. The deep channel is believed to be con-

tinuous all the way from Hunts Hill to the Blue Tent

district, a distance of seven miles. Bedrock in the east

portion is slate and in the west, phyllite and green-

stone. On the major ridges the gravels are capped by

Tertiary andesite and rhyolite.


In 1911 Lindgren estimated that 12 million cubic

yards of gravel had been removed from Scotts Flat

and 35 million from Quaker Hill. He also estimated

that a vast amount (140 million cubic yards) remained

at Quaker Hill. The U. S. Army Engineers (Jarman,

1927) estimated 50 million to 90 million cubic yards

remained at Quaker Hill. They also estimated that

6.75 million cubic yards had been removed, and 4

million to 5 million remained at Hunts Hill.
Bibliography
Jarman, Arthur, 1927, Hunts Hill, Quaker Hill, and Buckeye Hill:

California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, pp. 100-101.


Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada:

U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 143-144.
lindgren, Waldemor, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol.

Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp.

Hunts Hill, Scotts Flat, SN, 114.

Quaker Hill, Scotts flat, SN, 1 14.


Table 8. Major Hydraulic Mines.

Buckeye Hill Scotts Flat district, Nevada County

=================================================

http://www.cagenweb.com/nevada/data/ncminers.html


Company/claim Location Owners/Others Month- Day-Year Newspaper - Page:Column

.Hydraulic diggings .Scotts Flat .Tilton, Mulloy, Cunningham, Snell .1-20-1865 .NDT 3:1


==============================

http://www.ncgold.com/History/BecomingCA_Archive62.html


The efficiency of hydraulic mining made the single miner obsolete and turned him into an employee. Young men who had followed the call of gold around Cape Horn or across the great plains left their dreams and barren claims and went to work for the mining companies. Most of the thousands who had worked the gold-bearing gravel by hand found themselves thrown out of work by the Monitor, that powerful nozzle that washed down mountains.
Mining companies needed vast amounts of water to mine hydraulically, and at first it was costly, later dropping in the 1850s as ditches and water systems grew. Most of the canals and flumes in '50 and '51 were short-run projects, designed to carry water only a few miles. The next two years would see these projects grow to engineering marvels.
Mining companies needed vast amounts of water to mine hydraulically, and at first it was costly, later dropping in the 1850s as ditches and water systems grew. Most of the canals and flumes in '50 and '51 were short-run projects, designed to carry water only a few miles. The next two years would see these projects grow to engineering marvels.
To deliver the water a system of ditches and flumes dropped in elevation, speeding up the stream to a powerful strength. Water companies were formed and, like the merchants and shippers who supplied the gold fields with tools and supplies, owners of water companies became wealthy. More than a few of the companies acquired mining properties when large water bills couldn't be paid.
Many mining companies, seeking to avoid the high price of water for their giant nozzles, started their own water companies and discovered yet another way to get rich in the gold fields -- by selling water. Water's days as a blasting tool were numbered as debris washed down to cover farming lands near Marysville and Sacramento and the uproar rose to a shrill cry: "Stop!"
Mining then went underground after the deeply hidden gold.
In 1878 Lester Pelton brought an invention to Nevada City from his workshop in Camptonville. Pelton had a bicycle wheel with tin cups on it. He claimed to have invented a water wheel that would revolutionize the use of water for power. His secret was water-catching buckets split down the middle into two half-cups.
Mine owners saw Pelton's water wheel in operation and got the idea. They were running out of trees to burn and faced an approaching end to steam power in the mines. Pelton gave them a nearly inexhaustible supply of water power.
===================================
http://www.ncgold.com/History/BecomingCA_Archive35.html
At first the surface placers were rich and the camps along Deer Creek grew rapidly. The ravines were thick with miners and hills were crowded with tents. Brush houses and a few log cabins sprang up.
Water was vital for sluicing the dirt away from the gravel and nuggets. The Deer Creek Water Company was formed by William Folsom in 1851, bringing the water to miners' claims.
==================================

http://www.ncgold.com/History/BecomingCA_Archive27.html


Solitary gold hunters watched with dismay as the resources of engineers replaced the labor of men with picks and shovels and big companies came to dominate the gold fields. Hydraulic mining clearly was a company approach, employing men to aim the giant water nozzles and claim the washed gold from the rubble. Five or six men operating a high pressure water nozzle did the work of a hundred or more shovelers.
The efficiency of hydraulic mining made the single miner obsolete and turned him into an employee. Young men who had followed the call of gold around Cape Horn or across the great plains left their dreams and barren claims and went to work for the mining companies.
The miner population along the Yuba River dropped drastically as the labor-saving method grew in favor. The thousands who had worked the gold-bearing gravel by hand found themselves thrown out of work by the Monitor, that powerful nozzle that washed down mountains.
One observer said, "In 1851 labor pocketed all the profits of the mines. In 1858 capital pockets most of it." The Sacramento Union called the changes brought by hydraulic mining, "...a complete revolution..." Claims had fallen almost entirely into the hands of men of means, who employed a few others to work for them. The San Francisco Morning Call said, "The mines have ceased to be the poor man's friend."
Mining companies needed vast amounts of water to mine hydraulically, and at first it was costly, later dropping in the 1850s as ditches and water systems grew. Most of the canals and flumes in '50 and '51 were short-run projects, designed to carry water only a few miles. The next two years would see these projects grow to engineering marvels.
Many mining companies, seeking to avoid the high price of water for their giant nozzles, started their own water companies and discovered yet another way to get rich in the gold fields -- by selling water.

But first, they had to get it to the gold.


The Magenta Flume, made of timbers from nearby trees, carried water across a deep canyon to supply hydraulic mining in the Northern Mines. It was 160 feet high and supported a veritable wooden water ditch seven feet wide and 16 inches tall. It dropped a foot for every 100 feet of length, forcing the water to keep moving.
The Eureka Lake Company owned the Magenta Flume, built by French engineers in 1859 to move water across the gap between Cherry Hill and South Eureka, which would later become the town of Graniteville in Nevada County. The flume's completion was celebrated with band music and cannon salutes. Playing martial music the band led a small party of men and women in a walk across the still-dry waterway, followed by a fine meal and fireworks. Two hundred people danced until the wee hours and at some time during the festivities a man rode his horse across the towering flume.
The water roared in and hydraulic mining companies washed away the gravel of ancient long-dry river beds to find the gold that had nestled amid bottom gravel when the rivers were alive. It was immensely destructive to the hillsides, and the land downstream. Complaints were heard of the virtual burial of alluvial farming lands, obstruction of navigation in the Sacramento and Feather Rivers and flooding.

Miners who once depended on their own strong arms now worked at the mercy of the elements that produced the water to bombard hillsides.


"Dull times," in the gold fields meant work was halted by a scarcity of water, according to Hank Meals in his book Columbia Hill. If the water dried up, so did the work.
"Hundreds of men were out of work," reported the August, 1861 issue of Mining and Scientific Press, "sitting with chairs tilted back, their feet against the stovepipe, while they read the daily papers for the 20th time." The flumes were dry.

Grass Valley Republican of December 19th has this mining intelligence: AsUburne & Baker, of Scotch Flat, are engaged in digging a ditch from the north fork of Deer Creek to their hydraulic claims at Scotch Flat, They have completed three miles of the ditch and have about three miles more to be finished. The ditch will cost about $1,200 per mile, and will supply, duiing the best part of the rainy season, 500 inches of water. Their claims coti3i*t of about 1,400 feet front on Deer Creek and extending back 5,000 feet into the hill. They have 700 feet of 11-inch pipe, and expect to open their ground thoroughly this Winter if water should be plenty.That drought ended with a roar. In 1862 a flood greater than any in modern times poured off the mountains, choking rivers with tailings and dumping debris around what is now Marysville and in the Sacramento Valley. Owners of land near the rivers became alarmed. Their awakening concern was the first signal that the days of washing away mountains to find nuggets -- were numbered.


===========================
http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/geologic_resources/gold/CA_GoldDiscovery_files/Pages/GoldDiscovery.aspx
The crude method of pen-knife and butcher-knife mining soon gave way to more adequate methods of placer mining. The batea, or dish shaped Indian basket, the iron gold pan, and the cradle, which were used to expedite the process of separation of gold and sediment, were soon in evidence. The cradle (or rocker as it was often called) proved to be inefficient because of the loss of many of the small particles, and was soon improved. The new development was the long tom, an elongated, non-rocking cradle in which transverse cleats arrested these small gold particles. Soon, however, the long tom was superseded by sluices of various types.
Booming or gouging was the next innovation in mining technique. This consisted of merely letting water do the work of clearing away the sediment. A dam was built, and the water diverted through the area which was being mined; the water carried the lighter elements downstream, leaving the gold-bearing ore easily accessible to be worked by one of the other methods of placer mining. The success of this procedure soon brought about the introduction of hydraulic mining – the use of water under pressure. It is claimed that water was used in this manner at Yankee Jim’s in 1852. Perhaps more definite is the assertion that in the same year Anthony Cabot used the hydraulic method without a nozzle at Buckeye Hill, near Nevada City. Hydraulic mining seems to have been a California innovation, and was first employed, complete with the nozzle which is generally associated with this type of mining, in 1853.
=================================
http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~200202~3000113:Map-Of-Nevada-County,-California--C?sort=Pub_Date%2CPub_List_No%2CSeries_No&qvq=q:%22nevada+county%22;sort:Pub_Date,Pub_List_No,Series_No;lc:RUMSEY~8~1&mi=4&trs=5

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http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cdnc/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=SDU18711220.1.2&cl=CL2.1871.12&srpos=0&dliv=none&st=1&e=-------en-logical-20--1-----all---
Grass Valley Republican of December 19th has this mining intelligence: AsUburne & Baker, of Scotch Flat, are engaged in digging a ditch from the north fork of Deer Creek to their hydraulic claims at Scotch Flat, They have completed three miles of the ditch and have about three miles more to be finished. The ditch will cost about $1,200 per mile, and will supply, duiing the best part of the rainy season, 500 inches of water. Their claims coti3i*t of about 1,400 feet front on Deer Creek and extending back 5,000 feet into the hill. They have 700 feet of 11-inch pipe, and expect to open their ground thoroughly this Winter if water should be plenty.
=================================
http://www.westernmininghistory.com/articles/380/page1/
In 1911 Lindgren estimated that 12 million cubic yards of gravel had been removed from Scotts Flat
=================================
http://books.google.com/books?id=F8zAzT1juN4C&pg=PA72&lpg=PA72&dq=Amos+Laird+dam&source=bl&ots=blHia3SlQh&sig=yJBXemWzXiXFDLtJzD2hlRyl-sg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fju1T5P0KuXbiAKW77m9Ag&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Amos%20Laird%20dam&f=false
=================================
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuba_Goldfields
As the Yuba River is a tributary of the Sacramento River, much of that debris then found its way to the San Francisco Bay. In Sacramento, the I Street Bridge had to be raised twenty feet (6 m).
=================================
http://www.geocaching.com/seek/cache_details.aspx?guid=2cde4ad3-2dbd-4dd1-bc61-0b65cb9f7207
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