Grade/Content Area English Literature/Grade 10 Lesson Title



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Grade/Content Area

English Literature/Grade 10


Lesson Title

Introduction: Building Background Information


GLEs/GSEs


R–10–13

Uses Comprehension strategies (flexibly and as needed) before, during, and after reading literary and informational text. (Local)
EXAMPLES of reading comprehension strategies might include: using prior knowledge; summarizing; predicting and making text based inferences; determining importance; generating literal, clarifying, inferential, analysis, synthesis, and evaluative questions; constructing sensory images (e.g., making pictures in one’s mind); making connections (text to self, text to text, and text to world); taking notes; locating and using text discourse features and elements to support inferences and generalizations about information (e.g. vocabulary, text structure, evidence, format, use of language, arguments used); or using cues for text structures (e.g., chronological, cause/effect, compare/contrast, proposition and support, description, classification, logical/sequential)




Context of Lesson

The lesson will be introduced at the beginning of the unit on Julius Caesar. Students will activate prior knowledge and develop new knowledge in regards to the political history of Rome. The lesson itself will be used as a springboard in which students will begin to think about the unit themes and will build enough background knowledge in which to understand the context of Julius Caesar before beginning to read.


Opportunities to Learn

Diverse Learning:

The teacher will hand out William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Unit Plan and Essential Questions to the class. The unit themes and essential questions will be posted on the wall on a poster size sheet of paper for the duration of the unit. The teacher will also orally go over the unit plan and essential questions explaining the expectations and requirements of the unit.


The lesson incorporates two modalities: visual, auditory and kinesthetic. The students complete and anticipation guide to activate and build background knowledge (kinesthetic). The class goes over the anticipation guide and the teacher engages the students in an active class discussion that prompts students to think about new concepts that are presented by the statements on the anticipation guide (auditory). During the whole class discussion, the teacher also writes notes that have been generated by the class discussion.
Materials:
William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Unit Plan Introduction and Essential Questions
Pre-reading Activity: Anticipation Guide The Political History of Rome

Objectives

The students will activate background knowledge and build new knowledge in regards to the power structure of the Roman Republic and the US government by completing an anticipation guide, taking notes, and engaging in classroom discussion the students will make at least one connection to one of the themes listed on the Unit Introduction before beginning to read.


Instructional Procedures

Opening:

The teacher hands out the Julius Caesar Unit Introduction and Essential Questions and goes over the handout explaining the requirements for the unit. Today we are starting a new unit on Julius Caesar in which we will be focusing on the themes of morality, power and corruption. As a highly charged political play, Julius Caesar revolves around the idea of two government structures: the danger and fear of having one perhaps tyrannical ruler and the idealized Roman Republic. This is material that is relevant to what is going on in the world today. What connections can you make to our government? What is a Republic? What is a tyranny?


Today we are going to work on building background knowledge about the political history of Rome before and during the time of the play by completing an anticipation guide. This is important information that will get you thinking about the play. It is also crucial to your understanding of the context of Julius Caesar.
Engagement:

The students begin the lesson by individually completing an anticipation guide that will help to assess and build their background knowledge about the political history of Rome. As a class we will go over the anticipation guide, simultaneously engaging in a whole class discussion in which the teacher will prompt students to answer questions and make connections between the Roman Republic and the United States government. Concurrently, the teacher will write notes on the white board that is based off of the classroom discussion. The students will be instructed to copy the notes into their binders. The teacher will guide the students thinking with the following question/prompts: What is a Republic? Think about the pledge of allegiance, is the word “republic” mentioned? How does this help you to determine the definition of the word “republic?” Think about the division of power of our government, how is our government structured? Lets redirect our attention back to the anticipation guide. We are currently on number three. The teacher asks a student to explain to the class if the statement is true or false. The key word that you should take notice of for number three is the word “successfully.” Even though the Roman Republic was divided into three separate branches for the purpose of maintaining the balance of power, the Roman Republic never operated as it was designed to. Instead of dividing power equally between the three sections of government, the Roman Republic cultivated the division of the upper classes. The upper class elite broke into separate groups with different political goals, which in turn gave rise to military leaders with loyal armies that did not pay attention to the rules of the Republic. The teacher also writes notes on the white board that corresponds with the explanation to number three of the anticipation guide. We go over the last two statements on the anticipation guide keeping to the same class format of discussion/questioning students with the use of prompting and concurrent note taking.


Now that we know about some of the political structure and history of Rome, lets see if we can make a connection to one of the themes of the unit? The teacher asks the students to define the meaning of the words: morality, power and corruption. Although we do not yet know what message Shakespeare is trying to communicate in regards to these terms, I would like you to write one paragraph about how you think the political history of Rome relates to one of these themes.

Closing:

Lets all return to a whole class discussion to wrap up our class. What have you learned about the political history of Rome? Can you make any connections between the government of Rome and the government of the United States? How do you think the information that you have learned today will help you when we begin to read the play Julius Caesar? Do you think this information will help you to think about the essential questions?
Assessment

I will collect the homework assignment to formally assess individually the student’s ability to comprehend the new knowledge in regards to the background information and the student’s ability to make one connection to the United States government.



William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Unit Introduction and Essential Questions
Get ready to embark on reading one of the great plays of Shakespearian literature! For this unit, we will be reading William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. The Essential Questions for this unit will help you to comprehend the play’s broad themes of morality, power and corruption.
Essential Questions
What is the relationship between morality, idealism and power?
Is morality based on a universal understanding or is morality based on the expectations of a culture?
What happens when an individual’s personal system of morality comes into conflict with societies definition of morality?
Why is the combination of power and ambition possibly dangerous?
Does Honor have a place in politics?

Character Study: Analyzing Characters as we Read
Julius Caesar “has often been treated as a set of individual character studies.” By analyzing individually several of the major characters in the play we may be able to gain insight about the message Shakespeare is trying to get across in regards to morality, power and corruption. Remember, characterization is one of the elements that can help you to determine the theme in a piece of literature. You must make a character map for the following characters: Caesar, Brutus, Cassius and Antony. The attached page demonstrates how you should set up your character map.
Culminating Task: The Persuasive Essay
The persuasive essay will serve as the final assignment for this course. You will be writing a persuasive essay on a writing prompt that is related to the essential questions. This assignment should demonstrate the information and skills that you have learned during this unit.
Character Map



Character Name


Describe the Event or Situation


Cite textual evidence from the book.


What does this tell you about this character?
Some questions to think about when you are trying to determine what the event tells about the character:
What character beliefs and ideals does this event demonstrate?
What is the character’s motivation, why the character does what they do, does the event demonstrate?
Does the character change?

Name____________________________



Julius Caesar: Pre-reading Activity

The Corruptive influence of Power



Directions: Before we begin reading Julius Caesar, it is important that you understand the political power structure of Rome before and during the time in which the play takes place. Read each sentence carefully and identify which statements you believe to be true and which statements you believe to be false.



  1. _______ Rome began as a kingship that lasted approximately 150 years until Lucius Junius Brutus led an uprising in 510 B.C. that abolished Kingship and established the Roman Republic.



  1. _______ The government of the United States is modeled after the Roman Republic.



  1. _______ The Republic of Rome functioned successfully as a combination of the monarchy, oligarchy (in the senate), and democracy. Each section of government was able to keep the three forms of power in check so that no one power could become too great.



  1. _______ Julius Caesar defeats Pompey, the uncrowned ruler of Rome’s Eastern provinces.



  1. _______ After the Assassination of Julius Caesar, Octavius Caesar becomes the sole emperor of Rome by defeating the conspirators at the final battle at Philippi.


Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

What Makes a Good Leader?

GLEs/GSEs

R–10–8

Analyze and interpret informational text, citing evidence as appropriate by…

R–10–8.3 Drawing inferences about text, including author’s purpose (e.g., to inform, explain, entertain, persuade) or message; or explaining how purpose may affect the interpretation of the text; or using supporting evidence to form or evaluate opinions/judgments and assertions about central ideas that are relevant (State)




Context of Lesson




Opportunities to Learn




Objectives

The students will analyze and interpret Act I of the play Julius Caesar, meeting the standards of the attached scoring rubric, they will complete a writing assignment and cite evidence to evaluate their argument that Julius Caesar might or might not be a threat to Roman liberty.


Instructional Procedures

Opening:

Today we are going to discuss the qualities of a good leader. For our warm up activity today I want you to answer the following questions: What is a leader? Leaders can be in our school, community or in the world. What are some leaders that you know about?
Engagement:
The students work in a cooperative learning group to discuss the qualities of a good leader. Each group should assemble a list of the 5 qualities that they believe to be the most important for a good leader. Each group should compare their list with those of other groups.
Using the list of qualities that make up a good leader to guide your thinking, write about whether or not you think Caesar is a good leader? Students must respond to the following writing prompt:

  1. Is Julius Caesar a good leader?

  2. Do you believe that Caesar may possibly be a threat to Roman liberty?

The students receive a handout explaining the requirements of their writing response assignment.
Closing:

OK Lets return to a whole class discussion to wrap things up. Can someone summarize what we have done today? Why is it important to talk about what makes a good leader? Why is it important to read between the lines when you are determining if someone is a good leader? Can prompt students by giving a real word example.

As we continue to read, you should be thinking about which characters encompass the traits of leadership that you have identified. Perhaps your idea of what qualities make up a good leader will change as the play develops.


Assessment

Collect the writing assignment to formally assess individually students’ ability to analyze and interpret Act I of the play by meeting the standards on the attached scoring rubric




Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

Ambitions Ladder: The Combination of Ambition and Power

GLEs/GSEs



Analyze and interpret author’s craft, citing evidence where appropriate by…
R–10–6.1 Demonstrating knowledge of author’s style or use of literary elements and devices (i.e., imagery, repetition, flashback, foreshadowing, personification, hyperbole, symbolism, analogy, allusion, diction, syntax, or use of punctuation) to analyze literary works (State)
R–10–5

Analyze and interpret elements of literary texts, citing evidence where appropriate by…

R–10–4

R–10–5.5 Explaining how the author’s purpose (e.g., to entertain, inform or persuade), message or theme (which may include universal themes) is supported within the text (State)




Context of Lesson




Opportunities to Learn




Objectives

The students will analyze and interpret the author’s message, by citing evidence from the text, students will explain the author’s use of two literary elements in Brutus’ soliloquy in Act II, scene I of Julius Caesar.
The students will explore the possible danger of combining the theme of power with ambition by explaining how the author’s message is supported within the text.

Instructional Procedures

Opening:

OK everyone lets settle down and take our seats. We have just finished reading Act I. I would like to start class by having you all write down what you remember from your previous reading. All right, everyone finished? Could someone summarize what has happened so far in the reading? Very good! Before we begin reading Act II, does anyone have a question that you could ask about the text? The teacher asks student to individually write down a question in their notebooks. OK. Would somebody like to share his or her question with the class?

We are going to begin reading Act II.

Engagement:

  1. Read

  2. Check for student comprehension of Brutus’ Soliloquy.

  3. Ask students to write down one question that they can ask about Brutus’ Soliloquy.

  4. In groups of two, students reread Brutus’ speech and identify examples of figurative language. Students will probably identify the following as figurative language: the “ladder” (metaphor), the “adder” (metaphor) or “a serpents egg” (simile).

  5. Students answer the following questions: What is the affect of this comparison? What concept or belief is being described by this comparison?

Closure:

  1. For homework, respond to the following writing prompt: In Brutus’ soliloquy, what prediction does he make about Caesar’s rise to power? Do you think that his prediction holds true for all people who try to obtain power?



Assessment

Collect the homework assignment to formally assess individually the students ability to examine the danger of combining ambition and power.



Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

Exploring the Power of Persuasion

GLEs/GSEs

R–10–8

Analyze and interpret informational text, citing evidence as appropriate by…

  • R–10–8.1 Explaining connections about information within a text, across texts, or to related ideas (State)




Context of Lesson

The Students will develop new knowledge about the modes of persuasion ethos, pathos and repetition, by identifying one example of each term, the students will explain each terms impact in regards to Dr. Martin Luther King’s I have a Dream Speech.


Opportunities to Learn




Objectives




Instructional Procedures

Opening:

Warm up Activity: How can the repetition of words affect the impact of a speech.


Engagement:

1. Explain the meaning of ethos, pathos and repetition.

2. Watch the video of Dr. Marin Luther King’s I have a Dream speech.

3. Students receive a copy of the speech and are instructed to identify one example of each of the new terms: ethos, pathos and repetition (the teacher models).

4. Why is the power of persuasion important in Julius Caesar?
Closure:

As we continue to read I want you to think about what we have learned about the power of persuasion.
***Connect this to a similar activity with Brutus’ and Anthony’s speeches.


Assessment

I will formally assess individually the students ability to identify one example of ethos, pathos and repetition and to explain each terms impact on Dr. Martin Luther King’s I Have a Dream Speech.









Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

Character Study

GLEs/GSEs

R–10–5

Analyze and interpret elements of literary texts, citing evidence where appropriate by…

R–10–5.2 Examining characterization (e.g., stereotype, antagonist, protagonist), motivation, or interactions (including relationships), citing thoughts, words, or actions that reveal character traits, motivations, or changes over time (State)

R–10–5.1 Explaining and supporting logical predictions or logical outcomes (e.g., drawing conclusions based on interactions between characters or evolving plot) (State)

R–10–5.3 Making inferences about cause/effect, internal or external conflicts (e.g., person versus self, person versus person, person versus nature/society/fate), or the relationship among elements within text (e.g., describing the interaction among plot/subplots) (State)



Context of Lesson




Opportunities to Learn




Objectives

Students will examine characterization, motivation and interactions by citing textual evidence that reveals character traits, motivations or changes over time.

Instructional Procedures

Opening:

Today we are going to be working in groups to examine some of the main characters in Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar has often been referred to as a set of individual character studies. Remember, characterization is a literary element that can help you to determine theme. Everyone knows what a theme is right? You all know that we are always trying to look at the big picture…so by trying to determine what Shakespeare is saying about the themes of our unit, we can begin to explore the essential questions for our unit.
Engagement:

Before we get started, we need to know what elements make up a character. Take a few minutes and individually write as many elements of characterization that you can think of. All right, times up, what are some of the elements that we should be looking for in a character. The teacher writes a master list of possible answers on the board:

  1. Motivation

  2. Beliefs/Philosophy

  3. Virtues

  4. Character flaws

  5. Interactions with other characters

  6. Internal Conflicts

  7. Thoughts

  8. Feelings

The students work in groups to complete a graphic organizer. Each group is assigned a different character.
Closure:

OK. What do you think we have learned about the big picture of the novel by looking at characterization.

Assessment







Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

Honor and Politics

GLEs/GSEs

R–10–5

Analyze and interpret elements of literary texts, citing evidence where appropriate by…

R–10–5.3 Making inferences about cause/effect, internal or external conflicts (e.g., person versus self, person versus person, person versus nature/society/fate), or the relationship among elements within text (e.g., describing the interaction among plot/subplots) (State)



R–10–5

Analyze and interpret elements of literary texts, citing evidence where appropriate by…

R–10–5.5 Explaining how the author’s purpose (e.g., to entertain, inform or persuade), message or theme (which may include universal themes) is supported within the text (State)




Context of Lesson




Opportunities to Learn




Objectives

Students will analyze and interpret the play Julius Caesar by citing at least two examples of evidence to explain how the theme of honor linked to politics.

Instructional Procedures

Opening:

The teacher will write the word “Honor” on the white board. Individually, the students will write what the word “honor” means to them. The teacher will then ask students to peer share their thoughts about what this term means. As a class, a definition will be created.


Today’s warm up activity regarding the word “honor” stems from our themes for this unit. Now that we have finished reading the play, we can start looking at the big picture. What message about honor is Shakespeare trying to get across? What is he saying about honor and politics?
Engagement:

  1. The students engage in a Socratic seminar in which they discuss this topic.

  2. There is an inner circle and an outer circle.

  3. Students discuss honor and how it is linked to suicide in the novel.

  4. Students also discuss Anthony’s statement about Brutus at the end of the play.

Closure:

Assessment







Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

Writing a persuasive Essay

GLEs/GSEs

W-10-3

In response to literary of informational text, students make and support analytical judgments about text by…

W-10-3.1 Establishing an interpretive claim/assertion in the form of a thesis (purpose), when responding to a given prompt. … ***Due to the number of standards that the students are required to meet there will be an attached sheet that will also be given to students.




Context of Lesson




Opportunities to Learn




Objectives

Students will produce one interpretive claim in the form of a thesis by responding to a persuasive writing prompt in regards to the essential questions.

Instructional Procedures

Opening:

Warm up activity:


Engagement:

  1. The teacher provides students with samples of persuasive writing essays (*student work from prior years if possible).

  2. Discussion about good points and bad points of sample documents. Students also receive copies of each sample.

  3. Go over the format of a persuasive essay.

  4. Using another writing prompt the teacher and students collaborate to create shortened draft of a persuasive writing essay.

  5. Individually, students work to create a thesis statement for their essay.

Closure:

  1. Come together as a whole class and summarize what we have learned

  2. The teacher informs students that we will be working on other elements of persuasive writing during our next class.

Assessment

The teacher will check the thesis statements to assess individually students’ ability to establish and interpretive claim.




Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

Peer Revisions

GLEs/GSEs

.


Context of Lesson




Opportunities to Learn




Objectives

Students will revise drafts for the culminating task by completing a peer revision worksheet and completing a sheet of self-reflection.

Instructional Procedures

Opening: OK. Today we are going to continue working on our persuasive essays. You will be put into groups so that your paper can be revised by one of your peers. You will also be completing a worksheet in which you complete a self-evaluation of your work and reflect on revisions that you think are necessary. Why do you think self reflection and self- monitoring techniques are important skills to have?

Engagement:

  1. Students get into groups and begin the peer review process.

  2. The teacher provides students with a worksheet that guides students in their revisions.

  3. The teacher conferences with individual students.


Closure:

All right lets end with a whole class discussion…

Assessment







Grade/Content

Grade 10/English Language Arts

Lesson Title

Finding Closure

GLEs/GSEs

.


Context of Lesson




Opportunities to Learn




Objectives

Students will evaluate what they have learned during the unit and make one connection to a generalization about life that they have explored in relation to the play Julius Caesar.

Instructional Procedures

  1. Students take part in a Socratic Seminar.

  2. Using guiding questions, students discuss what they have learned during the unit.

  3. The teacher acts as the facilitator.

Assessment





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