Hist 490: History of Medieval and Renaissance Science and Medicine



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Prof. Philip Gavitt

HU 215


phone (314) 977-2904

cell: (314) 566-2869

Office Hours: T, Th 3:45-4:45 or by appointment

email: prg1950@yahoo.com


HIST 490: History of Medieval and Renaissance Science and Medicine. This course will focus on the History of Science and Medicine Medicine from Antiquity until the Scientific Revolution. We will read various scientific and medical treatises concerning and both primary and secondary sources concerning scientific, medical and social practices. The course is divided into two main parts. The first five weeks will be devoted to a chronological survey of the history of science and medicine. The second six weeks will be devoted to special topics. In general the format of this course will be entirely discussion. Every week I will ask you to write short papers or reviews of about 750 words each, but the majority of your grade (about 80 percent) will be the result of the research paper of about 9000 words you will complete over the course of the semester using, whenever feasible, the rich collections in the history of science and medicine available in the St. Louis area. We will also make as many “field trips” as possible to such places as the Vatican Film Library, the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Archives and Rare Books section of the Washington University School of Medicine, and if time and money allow, to the “Body Worlds” exhibition at the St. Louis Science Center, which ends March 2.

Don’t be intimidated by the size of the syllabus. It is a list of resources, not of required readings. The required readings will be assigned as we go along. Please have Plato’s dialogue, Timaeus, read for the class on Thursday, January 24.




  1. Science, Medicine and the Classical Tradition (January 24 and 29)

  2. Science and Medicine in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (January 31).

  3. Arabic Science and Medicine (February 5 and 7)

  4. Western Medieval Science and Medicine (February 12 and 14)

  5. Renaissance and Early Modern Science and Medicine (February 19 and 21)

  6. The Hermetic Tradition and Science (February 26 and 28)

  7. Paradigm Shifts and Scientific Revolutions (March 4)

  8. The Galileo Case (March 11 and 13)

  9. Moral and social implications of disease (March 25 and 27)

  10. Doctors, hospitals, barbers, and surgeons (April 1)

  11. Herbs and pharmaceuticals(April 8 and 10)

  12. Plagues and Peoples (April 15 and 17)

  13. Madness and civilization (April 22 and 24)

  14. Sexuality and gender (April 29 and May 1)


Some history of science and medicine internet sites


I. Science, Medicine, and the Classical Tradition (January 24 and 29)

David C. Lindberg The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450, pp. 1-131.


Conrad et al, The Western Medical Tradition, pp. 1-70
Lynn Thorndike, The History of Magic and Experimental Science, volume 1, pp. 39-336
Primary sources:


Corpus Medicorum Graecorum

G. E. R. Lloyd, ed., The HippocraticWritings


Aristotle, The History of Animals
Aristotle, Posterior Analytics
Celsus, On Medicine

Epicurus. Epicurus, the Extant Remains. Translated by Cyril Bailey. Hildesheim, New York: G. Olms, 1970.

Galen, On the Natural Faculties
Galen, De locis affectis
Hippocrates, On Airs, Waters, and Places
Hippocrates, On Ancient Medicine
Hippocrates, Aphorisms
Hippocrates, On the Articulations
Hippocrates, The Book of Prognostics
Hippocrates, On Fistulae
Hippocrates, On Fractures
Hippocrates, On Hemorrhoids
Hippocrates, On Injuries of the Head
Hippocrates, Instruments of Reduction
Hippocrates, The Law
Hippocrates, The Oath
Hippocrates, Of the Epidemics
Hippocrates, On Regimen in Acute Diseases
Hippocrates, On the Sacred Disease
Hippocrates, On the Surgery
Hippocrates, On Ulcers
Lucretius, De rerum natura
Plato, Timaeus
Pliny the Elder, Natural History

Ptolemy. Ptolemy's Almagest. Translated by G. J. Toomer. London: Duckworth; New York: Springer Verlag, 1984.

Secondary Sources:
Jonathan Barnes, Aristotle's Posterior Analytics. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975; revised edition, 1996?.)
-----, with Malcolm Schofield and Richard Sorabji, Articles on Aristotle I: Science. (London: Duckworth, 1975).
Enrico Berti, ed. Aristotle on Science: The Posterior Analytics. (Padua, 1981).
Michael Ferejohn, The Origins of Aristotelian Science. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991).
Mary Louise Gill and James G. Lennox, eds., Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Allan Gotthelf and James G. Lennox, eds., Philosophical Issues in Aristotle's Biology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

Richard D. McKirahan, Jr., Principles and Proofs: Aristotle's Theory of Demonstrative Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Martha Nussbaum, Aristotle's De Motu Animalium: Text with Translation, Commentary, and Interpretive Essays. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978).

Pierre Pellegrin, Aristotle's Classification of Animals: Biology and the Conceptual Unity of the Aristotelian Corpus (tr. Anthony Preus). (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).

Pierre Pellegrin and Daniel Devereux, eds., Biologie, Logique, et Metaphysique chez Aristote. (Paris: Editions du C.N.R.S., 1990).

William Wians, ed., Aristotle's Philosophical Development: Problems and Prospects. (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996).

David Balme (1), "The place of biology in Aristotle's Philosophy," in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 9-20.

----- (2) "Aristotle's Biology Was Not Essentialist," in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 291-312.

Jonathan Barnes, "Aristotle's theory of demonstration," in Barnes, Schofield, and Sorabji 1975, pp. 65-87.

Robert Bolton (1), "Definition and Scientific Method in Aristotle's Posterior Analytics and Generation of Animals," in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 69-89.

----- (2) "Essentialism and Semantic Theory in Aristotle: Posterior Analytics II.7-10," Philosophical Review LXXXV (1976), 515-44.

Sarah Broadie, "Nature and Craft in Aristotelian Teleology," in Biologie, Logique, et Metaphysique..., pp. 389-403.

Myles Burnyeat, "Aristotle on Understanding Knowledge," in Berti 1981, pp. 97-139.

David Charles (1), "Aristotle on Meaning, Natural Kids and Natural History," in Biologie, Logique, et Metaphysique..., pp. 145-167.

(2) -----, "Teleological Causation in the Physics, in Judson, ed., Aristotle's Physics: A Collection of Essays, pp. 101-28.

Alan Code, "The Priority of Final Causes Over Efficient Causes in Aristotle's PA" (Manuscript, n.d.)

Andrew Coles (1), "Biomedical Models of Reproduction in the Fifth Century BC and Aristotle's Generation of Animals," Phronesis, Vol. XL, No. 1, 1995, p. 63)

----- (2), "Demonstrative Explanation in Aristotle's Analytics and his Biology: the Final Cause Syllogistic in A Po II, 11 and Hypothetical Necessity in the Zoology, Manuscript, 1996.

John Cooper (1), "Aristotle on Natural Teleology," pp. 197-222 in Language and Logos, ed. Malcolm Schofield and Martha Nussbaum (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

----- (2) "Hypothetical Necessity," in Gotthelf 1985, pp. 151-67.

----- (3) "Hypothetical Necessity and Natural Teleology," in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 243-74.

David J. Depew (1), "Humans and Other Political Animals in Aristotle's History of Animals," Phronesis 1995, Vol. XL/2, pp. 156-181.

----- (2), "The Natural History of the Polis: A Reply to Keyt and Miller" (Manuscript, 1997).

Marguerite Deslauriers, "Sex and Essence in Aristotle's Metaphysics and Biology." Forthcoming in Freeland 1998.

Sophia M. Elliott, "The Female Principle in Aristotle's de Generatione Animalium, Book Four, chapter three" (Manuscript, 1996).

Cynthia A. Freeland (1), "Accidental Causes and Real Explanations in Aristotle," in Aristotle's Physics, ed. Lindsay Judson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. .

-----(2) "Explanation and Teleology in Aristotle's De Incessu Animalium (Manuscript, 1996).

----- (3) "Hypotheses, Definitions, and Scientific Method in Aristotle's Meteorology" (Manuscript, 1990).

----- (4) "Scientific Explanation and Empirical Data in Aristotle's Meteorology," in Biologie, Logique, et Metaphysique..., pp. 287-299.

David Furley, "Self-Movers," in Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, ed. Gill and Lennox, pp. 3-14.

Mary Louise Gill, "Aristotle on Self-Motion," in Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, ed. Gill and Lennox, pp. 15-34.

Allan Gotthelf (1), "Aristotle's Conception of Final Causality," Review of Metaphysics XXX (1976), pp. 226-54. Reprinted with Postscript in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 204-42.

----- (2) "Data-Organization, Classification, and Natural Kinds: The Place of the History of Animals in Aristotle's Biological Enterprise" (Manuscript from Tokyo semiar, 1994)

----- (3) "The Elephant's Nose: further reflections on the axiomatic structure of biological explanation in Aristotle" (manuscript., n.d.)

----- (4) "First Principles in Aristotle's Parts of Animals, in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 167-198.

Lindsay Judson, "Heavenly Motion and the Unmoved Mover," in Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, ed. Gill and Lennox, pp. 155-71.

Charles Kahn, "The Place of the Prime Mover in Aristotle's Teleology," in Aristotle on Nature and Living Things,, edited by A. Gotthelf (Pittsburgh: Mathesis Publications, 1985), pp. 183-205.

Aryeh Kosman, "Aristotle's Prime Mover," in Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, ed. Gill and Lennox, pp. 135-54.

Wolfgang Kullmann, "Man as a Political Animal in Aristotle," in A Companion to Aristotle's Politics, ed. David Keyt and Fred D. Miller, Jr. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991), pp. 94-117.

James G. Lennox (1), "Aristotle's Biological Development: The Balme Hypothesis," in Aristotle's Philosophical Development, pp. 229-247.

----- (2) "Aristotle' Biology: Plain, but not Simple,² Stud. Hist. Phil. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 5 (1994), pp. 817-823.

-----(3) "The Disappearance of Aristotle's Biology: A Hellenistic Mystery," Apeiron Vol. 17 No. 4 (1994), pp. 7-24.

-----(4) "Divide and Explain: The Posterior Analytics in Practice, in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 90-119.

-----(5) "Material and Formal Natures in Aristotle's De Partibus Animalium," (proof, forthcoming ??).

-----(6) "Nature does nothing in vain..." (manuscript., n.d.)

-----(7) "Notes on David Charles on HA," in Biologie, Logique, et Metaphysique..., pp. 169-183.

G.E.R. Lloyd, "The Development of Aristotle's Theory of the Classification of Animals," Phronesis 1961; reprinted in Methods and Problems in Greek Science, pp. 1-26.

Gareth Matthews, "Gender and Essence in Aristotle",Australasian Journal of Philosophy Supplement to Vol. 64; June 1986, 16-25.

Susan Sauve Meyer, "Self-Movement and External Causation," in Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, ed. Gill and Lennox, pp. 65-80.

Pierre Pellegrin, "Logical Difference and Biological Difference: The Unity of Aristotle's Thought," in Gotthelf and Lennox 1987, pp. 313-38.

Anthony Preus, "Man and Cosmos in Aristotle: Metaphysics Lambda and the Biological Works," in Pellegrin and Devereux, 1990, pp. 471-90.

Christopher Shields, "Mind and Motion in Aristotle," in Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, ed. Gill and Lennox, pp. 117-34.

Daryl McGowan Tress, "The Metaphysical Science of Aristotle's Generation of Animals and its Feminist Critics," Review of Metaphysics 46 (December 1992), pp. 307-41.

Nancy Tuana, "Aristotle and the Politics of Reproduction" in Engendering Origins: Critical Feminist Readings in Plato and Aristotle, ed. Bat-Ami Bar On. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Michael Wedin, "Aristotle on the Mind's Self-Motion," in Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton, ed. Gill and Lennox, pp. 81-116.

Amundsen, D. W., “Images of the physician in classical times” Journal of Popular Culture 11 (1977), 643-655
H. G. Benz, The Greek Magical Papyri (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985)
Glenn W. Bowersock, Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969
Dean-Jones, L. A. Women’s Bodies in Classical Greek Science (Oxford: Carendon Press, 1994).
Ludwig Edelstein, “The Hippocratic Physician” in Owsei Temkin and C. Lillian Temkin (eds.), Ancient Medicine (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967) , pp. 87-110.
A. Gotthelf, Aristotle on Nature and Living Things, (Bristol: Bristol University Press, 1992)
R. Jackson, Doctors and Diseases in the Roman Empire (London: British Museum, 1988)
Helen King, Greek and Roman Medicine (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2002)
G. E. R. Lloyd, Science, Folklore, and Ideology
G. E. R. Lloyd, Early Greek Science: Thales to Aristotle
G. E. R. Lloyd, Greek Science after Aristotle
J. N. Longrigg, “The Great Plague of Athens,” History of Science, 18 (1980): 209-15
J. N. Longrigg, Greek Rational Medicine (London: Routledge, 1993)
Robert Parker, Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983)
Paul Potter, “Some Principles of Hippocratic Nosology” in Paul Potter, Gilles Maloney et Jacques Desautels (éds.), La maladie et les maladies dans la collection Hippocratique, Actes du Vie Colloque International Hippocratique (Québec: Éditions du Sphinx, 1990), pp. 237-53.
Paul Potter, A Short Handbook of Hippocratic Medicine (Quebec, Les editions du Sphinx, 1988)
Julius Rocca , Galen on the brain : anatomical knowledge and physiological speculation in the second century AD. (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003).
Heinrich von Staden: Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)
Heinrich von Staden, “The Discovery of the Body: Human Dissection and Its Cultural Contexts in Ancient Greece”, The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 1992; 65: 223-41
Owsei Temkin, Galenism: Rise and Decline of a Medical Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1973.
L. Toledo-Pereyra, “Galen’s contribution to surgery” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 28 (1973): 357-75.
Pedersen, Olaf. A Survey of the Almagest. (Odense: Odense University Press, 1974)


II. Science and Medicine in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (January 31)


Conrad, et al. 71-87

Lindberg, 134-159


Primary Sources:
Macrobius, Commentary on the Dream of Scipio
William H. Stahl, et al: Martianus Capella and the Seven Liberal Arts two volumes, with a translation and commentary of Martianus Capella, The Marriage of Philology and Mercury
William D. Sharpe (tr.), Isidore of Seville: The Medical Writings in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 54, Part 2 (Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1964)
Isidore of Seville, On the Nature of Things
Isidore of Seville Etymologies
Bede, On the Nature of Things
John of Philoponus Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World tr. Christian Wildberg
Secondary sources:

Darrel Amundsen, “Medicine and Faith in Early Christianity” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 56: 326-350


Peter Brown, The Body and Society (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988)
Gerhard Baader, “Early Medieval Latin Adaptations of Byzantine Medicine in Western Europe” in John Scarborough (ed.), Symposium on Byzantine Medicine, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, No. 38 (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1985), pp. 251-9.
M. L. Cameron. Anglo-Saxon Medicine (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1993)

Flint, Valerie J., "The Early Medieval 'Medicus', the Saint -- and the Enchanter", Society for the Social History of Medicine, 1989, 2: 127-45.


Jesse L. Byock, “Egil’s Bones”, Scientific American, 1995,272:82-7.
Marshall Claggett, Greek Science in Antiquity
Roger French and Frank Grennaway, eds. Science in the Early Roman Empire: Pliny the Elder, His Sources and Influence
Stpehen Gersh, Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism
David C. Lindberg, “Science and the Early Church” in David Linberg and Ronald Numbers, God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science
McCluskey, Stephen C. "Gregory of Tours, Monastic Timekeeping, and Early Christian Attitudes to Astronomy." Isis 81 (1990): 8-22.

Frederick S. Paxton, “Curing Bodies – Curing Souls: Hrabanus Maurus, Medical Education, and the Clergy in Ninth-Century Francia”, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1995;50:230-52.


Wesley Stevens, Bede’s Scientific Achievement
Oswei Temkin, Hippocrates in a World of Pagans and Christians (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Universiy Press, 1991)
Linda E. Voigts, “Anglo-Saxon Plant Remedies and the Anglo-Saxons”, ISIS, 1979;70:250

III. Arabic Science and Medicine (February 5 and February 7)


Conrad, et al, The Western Medical Tradition, 89-138

Lindberg, The Origins of Western Science 161-182

Primary Sources:

Avicenna, “Canon" as excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974), pp. 715-20


Bos, Querit, tr. Qusta Ibn Luqa’s Medical Regime for the Pilgrims to Mecca (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992)
Gohlman, William E. (tr.) The Life of Ibn Sima (Albany: SUNY Press, 1974)
Dols, Michael (tr.) Medieval Islamic Medicine: Ibn Ridwan’s Essay ‘On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984)
Elgood, Cyril (tr): “Tibb-ul-Nabbi or medicine of the prophet, being a translation of tow works of the same name.” Osiris 14 (1962): 33-192
William Alexander Greenhill, Rhazes on the small-pox and measles / [by Abú Becr Mohammed ibn Zacaríyá ar-Rází (commonly called Rhazes) (London: Sydenham Society, 1848) NB available only at University of Missouri Columbia HSC rare-book library
O. Cameron Gruner. A Treatise on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna. Incorporating a Translation of the First book (London: Luzac, 1930)
Johannitius, “Isagoge” as excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974), pp. 705-715.
Haven C. Krueger, (tr.) Avicenna's Poem on Medicine Springfield, Ill., Thomas [c1963]

Rhazes, “A Treatise on the Small-Pox and Measles” in Logan Clendening (ed.), Source Boook of Medical History (New York: Dover, 1942), pp. 72-75


Secondary Sources:
Michael W. Dols, “The Origins of the Islamic Hospital: Myth and Reality”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1987;61:367-90.
De Lacy O’Leary, How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs
F. E. Peters, Aristotle and the Arabs: The Aristotelian Tradition in Islam
George Saliba, “The Development of Astronomy in Medieval Islamic Society” Arab Studies Quarterly 4 (1982): 211-25.
Nancy G. Siraisi, “The Canon of Avicenna” in Avicenna in Renaissance Italy. (Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1987), pp. 19-40;
IV. Western Medieval Science and Medicine (February 12 and 14)

Conrad, et al, pp. 139-205

Lindberg 183-368

Elizabeth A. Brown, “Death and the Human Body in the Later Middle Ages: The Legislation of Boniface VII on the Division of the Corpse” Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies 12 (1981): 221-70.


Charles Homer Haskins, “Chapter 1: The Historical Background” in his The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955), pp. 3-29.
Kristeller, Paul Oskar, "The School of Salerno: Its Development and Contribution to the History of Learing", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1945, 17: 138-94.
Dronke, Peter, “New Approaches to the School of Chartres”, Annuario de Estudios Medievales, 1969;6:117-140.
Jordan, Mark D., "The Construction of a Philosophical Medicine: Exegesis in Salernitan Teaching on the Soul" in Michael R. McVaugh and Nancy G. Siraisi, Renaissance Medical Learning: Evolution of a Tradition, Osiris, 1990, 6: 42-61.
Maurus of Salerno, “Commentary on the Prognostics of Hippocrates” in Morris Harold Saffron, Maurus of Salerno: Twelfth-century ‘Optimus Physicus’ with his Commentary on the Prognostics of Hippocrates (Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1972), pp. 54-8 (through the end of section 3).
Matthaeus Platearius, “The Rationalization of Pharmacy” excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974), p. 787.
Gilles de Corbeil, “On Urines” excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974), pp. 748-50.
Charles Burnett, "The Contents and Affiliation of the Scientific Manuscripts Written at, or Brought to, Chartres in the Time of John of Salisbury" in Michael Wilks (ed.), The World of John of Salisbury (Oxford: Basil Brackwell, 1984): 127-137 (160).
Pearl Kibre, "The Faculty of Medicine at Paris, Charlatanism, and Unlicensed Medical Practices in the Later Middle Ages", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 27, 1953: 1-20.
John W. Baldwin, "Masters at Paris from 1179 to 1215" in Robert L. Benson and Giles Constable (eds.), Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982): 138-72.
Micheloni, Placido, La medicina nei primi tremila codici del fondo vaticano latino Roma: Tip. Guerra & Belli, 1950
O’Boyle, Cornelius, “Chapter One: Medical Studies in Paris” in his The Art of Medicine: Medical Teaching at the University of Paris, 1250-1400 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1998), pp. 9-32.
García-Ballester, Luis, Ferre Lola and Feliu Eduard, “Jewish Appreciation of Fourteenth-century Scholastic Medicine” in Michael R. McVaugh and Nancy G. Siraisi, Renaissance Medical Learning: Evolution of a Tradition, Osiris 6, 1990: 85-117.
Ludwig Schuba, Die medizinischen Handschriften der Codices Palatini Latini in der Vatikanischen Bibliothek Wiesbaden : Ludwig Reichert, 1981 (Vatican Film Library reference only)

Joseph Shatzmiller, Jews, medicine, and medieval society. (Berkeley : University of California Press, 1994)
Nancy Siraisi, Taddeo Alderotti and His Pupils: Two Generations of Italian Medical Learning Pricenton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981).

Arano, Luisa Cogliati. The Medieval Health Handbook, Tacuinum sanitatis. Translated by Oscar Ratti and Adele Westbrook. New York, 1976.

Bechmann, Roland. Trees and Man: The Forest in the Middle Ages. Translated by Katharyn Dunham. New York, 1990.

Boyer, Marjorie Nice, "Rebuilding the Bridge at Albi, 1408-1410." Technology and Culture 10 (1969): 24-37.

Boyer, Marjorie Nice, "Roads and Rivers: Their Use and Disuse in Late Medieval France." Medievalia et Humanistica 13 (1960): 68-80.

Duby, Georges. The Early Growth of European Economy: Warriors and Peasants from the Seventh to the Twelfth Century. Translated by Howard B. Clarke. Ithaca, New York, 1974.

Long, Pamela O., ed. Science and Technology in Medieval Society. New York, 1985.

Martini, Francesco di Giorgio. Trattati di architettura, ingegneria, e arte militare. 2 vols. Milan, 1967.

Mundy, John H., and Peter Riesenberg. The Medieval Town. Princeton, New Jersey, 1958.

Neckam, Alexander. De naturis rerum. Translated by Thomas Wright. London, 1863.

North, J.D. "The Astrolabe." Scientific American 230 (1974): 96-106.

North, J. D., ed. and trans. Richard of Wallingford, Tractatus horologii astronomici. 3 vols. Oxford, 1976.

K. Park, "Medicine and Society in Medieval Europe, 500-1500," in Andrew Wear, ed., Medicine in Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, 59-90.

K. Park, “The Meanings of Natural Diversity: Marco Polo on the ‘Division‘ of the World,” in Edith Sylla and Michael R. McVaugh, eds., Texts and Contexts in Medieval Science: Studies on the Occasion of John E. Murdoch’s Seventieth Birthday, Leiden: Brill, 1997, 134-47.

Smith, A. Mark. "Knowing Things Inside Out: The Scientific Revolution from a Medieval Perspective." American Historical Review 95 (1990): 726-44.

Smith, R. A. L. "The Benedictine Contribution to Medieval Agriculture." In Smith, Collected Papers, 103-16. London, 1947.

Swetz, Frank J. Capitalism and Arithmetic: The New Math of the 15th Century. La Salle, Illinois, 1987.

Turner, A. J. Astrolabes; Astrolabe-Related Instruments. Rockford Illinois, 1985.

Pedersen, Olaf. Early physics and astronomy : a historical introduction. London : MacDonald and Janes ; New York : American Elsevier, 1974; 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

V. Renaissance and Early Modern Science and Medicine (Fenruary 19 and 21)

Conrad, et al. 207-361


Primary sources:
Marsilio Ficino, Three Books on Life
Secondary sources:

Gerhild Scholz Williams & Charles D. Gunnoe, Jr Paracelsian moments : science, medicine, & astrology in early modern Europe
Carlo M. Cipolla, Public Health and the Medical Profession in the Renaissance
Allen Debus, The chemical philosophy : Paracelsian science and medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (New York, Science History Publications, 1977)
Allen Debus, Man and Nature in the Renaissance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978)
David Gentilcore, Medical Charlatans in Early Modern Italy (Oxford: Oxford Univesity Press, 2006)
David Ruderman, “Padua and the Formation of a Jewish Medical Community in Italy,” chapter 3 in Jewish Thought and Scientific Discovery in Early Modern Europe (New Haven: Yale University Press 1995), pp. 100-117
W. Schliener Medical Ethics in the Renaissance (Washington D.C., Georgetown University Press, 1995)
Nancy Siraisi “Life Sciences and Medicine in the Renaissance World,” in Anthony Grafton, ed., Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library and Renaissance Culture (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1993), pp. 169-198.
Katherine Park, “Medical Profession and Medical Practice in the Italian Renaissance” in A. C. Crombie and Nancy Siraisi (eds.), The Rational Arts of Living (Northampton, MA: Smith College, 1987), pp. 137-57.
K. Park, "The Sensitive Corpse: Body and Self in Renaissance Medicine," Fenway Court, 1990-91, Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 1992, 77-87.

Katherine Park,, Doctors and Medicine in Early Renaissance Florence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 47-84 (chapter II, "The Doctors").


Socino Benzi, "Life of Ugo Benzi", and Ugo Benzi, "Consilium No. 51" in Dean P. Lockwood, Ugo Benzi, Medieval Philosopher and Physician, 1376-1439 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1951): 20-32 and 58-60
Vivan Nutton, “The Reception of Fracastoro’s Theory of Contagion: The Seed that Fell among Thorns?” in Michael R. McVaugh and Nancy G. Siraisi, Renaissance Medical Learning: Evolution of a Tradition, Osiris 6, 1990: 196-234.
Katherine Park, “The Criminal and Saintly Body: Autopsy & Dissection in Renaissance Italy,” Renaissance Quarterly, 1994, 1-33.

________. “Masaccio’s Skeleton: Art and Anatomy in Renaissance Italy,” in Rona Goffen, ed., Masaccio’s Trinity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 119-40.

________. “Eyes, Bones, and Hernias: Surgical Specialists in Fourteenth- and Fifteenth-Century Italy,” in Jon Arrizabalaga, ed.,  Medicine from the Black Death to the French Disease, London: Ashgate Press, 1998, 110-30.

________. “Magic and Medicine: The Healing Arts,” in Judith C. Brown and Robert C. Davis, eds., Gender and Society in Renaissance Italy, London: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998.

________. “Impressed Images: Reproducing Wonders,” in Caroline A. Jones and Peter Galison, eds., Picturing Science, Producing Art, New York: Routledge, 1998, 254-71.

________. “Natural Particulars: Epistemology, Practice, and the Literature of Healing Springs,” in Anthony Grafton and Nancy G. Siraisi, eds., Natural Particulars: Nature and the Disciplines in Renaissance Europe, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1999, 347-67.

________.  (with Eckhart Kessler) "The Concept of Psychology," in Charles B. Schmitt et al., eds., The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, ch. 13.

________. “Was There a Renaissance Body?” in Walter Kaiser and Michael Rocke, eds., The Italian Renaissance in the Twentieth Century = I Tatti Studies, vol. 19, Florence: Olschki 2002, 21-35.

________. “Nature in Person: Renaissance Allegories and Emblems,” in Lorraine Daston and Fernando Vidal, eds., The Moral Authority of Nature, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003, 50-73.

Nancy Sirasi, Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987)

Homann, Frederick A. "Christopher Clavius and the Renaissance of Euclidean Geometry." Archivum Historicum Societatis Jesu,52 (1983): 233-246.

Ilardi, Vincent. "Eyeglasses and Concave Lenses in Fifteenth-Century Florence and Milan: New Documents." Renaissance Quarterly, 29 (1976): 341-360

Part I: Vatican Library Rome Reborn Exhibit
Part II: Vatican Library Rome Reborn Exhibit
Part III: Vatican Library Rome Robern Exhibit
VI. The Hermetic Tradition and Science (February 26 and 28)
Primary Sources:
Marsilio Ficino, On the Nuptial Number
Giordano Bruno, The Ash Wednesday Supper
Giordano Bruno, The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast
Secondary Sources:
Hillary Gatti, Giordano Bruno and the New Science
D. P. Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magic from Ficino to Campanella
Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic tradition

Armitage, Angus. "The Cosmology of Giordano Bruno, Annals of Science 6 (1948):24-31.

Greenberg, Sidney. The Infinite in Giordano Bruno, with a Translation of his Dialogue Concerning the Cause, Principle, and One. New York: King's Crown Press, 1950.

Pagel, Walter. "Giordano Bruno: The Philosophy of Circles and the Circular Movement of the Blood," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 6 (1951)): 116-125.


VII. Paradigm Shifts and Scientific Revolutions (March 4)

Baldini, Ugo. "Christopher Clavius and the Scientific Scene in Rome" in Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary, ed. G. V. Coyne, M. A. Hoskin, and O. Pedersen, pp. 137-170. Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Specolo Vaticano, 1983.

Blair, Ann. "Tycho Brahe's Critique of Copernicus and the Copernican System." Journal for the History of Ideas, 51 (1990): 355-77.

C. Doris Hellman, “Was Tycho Brahe as Influential as He Thought?" British Journal for the History of Science, 1 (1963): 295-324

Copernicus, Nicholas. On the Revolutions. Translation and commentary by Edward Rosen. Nicholas Copernicus Complete Works, vol. 2. London: Macmillan, 1972-. Issued separately, Baltimore: John s Hopkins Press , 1978.

Coyne, G. V., Hoskin, M. A. and Pedersen, O., eds.Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary, 1582-1992. Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences, S pecolo Vaticano, 1983.

Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
J, Heilbron, The Sun in the Church
Owen Gingrich, The Book Nobody Read
Anthony Grafton, Cardano’s Cosmos
Paula Findlen, Possessing Nature
Paula Findlen, “Between Carnival and Lent: the sceintific Revolution at the Margins of Culture.” Configurations 6.2 (1998) 243-267
Jardine, Nicholas. The Birth of History and Philosophy of Science: Kepler's A Defence of Tycho against Ursus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984

"The Forging of Modern Realism: Clavius and Kepler against the Skeptics." Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 10 (1979): 141-173.

.Kepler, Johannes. Joannis Kepleri Astronomi Opera Omnia. 8 vols. Edited by C. Frisch. Frankfurt and Erlangen, 1858-1871.

_______ Johannes Kepler Gesammelte Werke. Edited by Max Caspar et al. Munich: Beck, 1937--.

_______ Mysterium Cosmographicum--The Secret of the Universe. Translated by A. M. Duncan. New York: Abaris Books, 1981.

_______ New Astronomy. Translated by William H. Donahue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

_______ Kepler's Conversation with Galileo's Sidereal Messenger. Translated by Edward Rosen. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1965.

_______ The Six-Cornered Snowflake. Translated by Colin Hardie. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

_______ Somnium: the Dream, or Posthumous Work on Lunar Astronomy. Translated by Edward Rosen. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

_______ Epitome of Copernican Astronomy [books IV and V]; The Harmonies of the World [Book V]. Translated by Charles Glenn Wallis. In Great Books of the Western World. Vol. 16. Chicago: Encyclop aedia Britannica,1955.

Lattis, James M. Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christoph Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Astronomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994

McColly, Grant. "Christoph Scheiner and the Decline of neo-Aristotelianism." Isis, 32 (1940): 63-69.

Moss, Jean Dietz. Novelties in the Heavens: Rhetoric and Science in the Copernican Controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Rosen, Edward. Copernicus and the Scientific Revolution. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1984.

Stephenson, Bruce. Kepler's Physical Astronomy. New York: Springer Verlag, 1987.

Thoren, Victor E. The Lord of Uraniborg: A Biography of Tycho Brahe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

_______ "The Comet of 1577 and Tycho Brahe's System of the World." Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, 29 (1979): 53-67.

VIII. The Galileo Case (March 11 and 13)
Mario Biagioli, Galileo, Courtier
Richard Blackwell, Galileo, Bellarmine and the Bible
Brendan Dooley, Morandi’s Last Prophecy and the End of Renaissance Politics
Pietro Redondi, Galileo, Heretic

Aiton, Eric J. "Galileo and the Theory of the Tides," Isis 56 (1965): 56-61.

_______ "Galileo's Theory of the Tides" Annals of Science, 10 (1954): 44-57.

_______ "On Galileo and the Earth-Moon System" Isis, 54 (1963): 265-66.

Ariew, Roger. "Galileo's Lunar Observations in the Context of Medieval Lunar Theory" Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 15 (1984): 213-226.

Bedini, Silvio A. The Pulse of Time: Galileo Galilei, the Determination of Longitude, and the Pendulum Clock. Florence: Olschki, 1991.

_____ Galileo and the Measure of Time. Florence: Olschki, 1967.

Mario Biagioli"Galileo's System of Patronage," History of Science 28 (1990):1-61.

_______ "Galileo the Emblem Maker." Isis, 81 (1990): 230-258.

_______ "Galileo's System of Patronage." History of Science, 28 (1990): 1-62.

Brown, Harold. "Galileo, the Elements, and the Tides." Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 7 (1976): 337-51.

Burstyn, Harold. "Galileo and the Earth-Moon System." Isis, 54 (1963): 400-401.

_______ "Galileo and the Theory of the Tides." Isis, 56 (1965): 61-63.

_______ "Galileo's Attempt to Prove that the Earth Moves." Isis, 53 (1962): 161-85.

Campanella, Tommaso. A Defense of Galileo, the Mathematician from Florence. Translated by Richard J. Blackwell. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

Carugo, Adriano and Crombie, A. C. "The Jesuits and Galileo's Ideas of Science and Nature," Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza di Firenze 8, no. 2 (1983): 3-68.

Cochrane, Eric W. Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 1527-1800. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Coelho, Victor, ed. Music and Science in the Age of Galileo. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Crombie, A. C. "Sources of Galileo's Early Natural Philosophy," in Reason, Experiment, and Mysticism in the Scientific Revolution. Edited by Maria Luisa Righini Bonelli and William R. Shea, pp. 157-175. New York: Sci ence History Publications, 1975.

Débarbat, Susanne and Wilson, Curtis. "The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter from Galileo to Cassini, Rømer and Bradley." In The General History of Astronomy. 4 vols., edited by M. A. H oskin, IIA: 14 4-57. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984-.

Drake, Stillman. Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1957.

_______ Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

_______Galileo Studies: Personality, Tradition, and Revolution. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970.

_______ "Galileo's Steps to Full Copernicanism and Back Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 18 (1987): 93-105.

_______ "Galileo's Theory of the Tides." In Galileo Studies: Personality, Tradition, and Revolution, pp. 200-213. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970.

_______ "History of Science and the Tide Theories." Physis, 21 (1979): 61-69.

_______ "Renaissance Music and Experimental Science." Journal for the History of Ideas 31 (1970): 483-500.

_______ "The Role of Music in Galileos Experiments." Scientific American, 232 (Jan-June 1975): 98-104.

_______ "Sunspots, Sizzi, and Scheiner" in Galileo studies: Personality, Tradition, and Revolution, pp. 177-99. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970.

_______ Telescopes, Tides, and Tactics: A Galilean Dialogue about the Starry Messenger and Systems of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Drake, Stillman and C. D. O'Malley. The Controversey over the Comets of 1618. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,1960.

Dreyer, J. L. E. Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the Sixteenth Century. Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black, 1890; 2d ed. New York: Dover, 1963.

Fermi, Laura, and Gilberta Bernardini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961.

Finocchiaro, Maurice A. The Galileo Affair.Berkeley and LosAngeles: University of California Press, 1989.

______ Galileo and the Art of Reasoning. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980.

_______ "Galileo's Copernicanism and the Acceptability of Guiding Assumptions." In Scrutinizing Science: Empirical Studies of Scientific Change. Edited by Arthur Donovan, Larry Laudan, and Rachel L audan, pp. 49- 67. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988.

Fremantle, Richard. God and Money: Florence and the Medici in the Renaissance: Including Cosimo I's Uffizi and its Collection. Florence: L. S. Olschki, 1992.

Galilei,_Galileo.Dialogu"> Galilei, Galieo Le Opere di Galileo Galilei. Edizione Nazionale. 20 vols. Edited by Antonio Favaro. Florence: Barbera, 1890-1909; reprinted 1929-1939 and 1964-1966.

The Sidereal Messenger of Galileo Galilei: and a Part of the Preface to Kepler's Dioptrics. Translated by Edward Stafford Carlos. London: Rivingtons, 1880; reprinted, London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1960.

______ Sidereus Nuncius, or the Sidereal Messenger. Translated by Albert Van Helden. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

_______ Two New Sciences. Translated by Stillman Drake. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1974.

Goldstein, Bernard R. and Bowen, A. C. "A New View of Early Greek Astronomy." Isis, 74 (1983): 330-40.

Grant, Edward. "Cosmology," in Science in the Middle Ages. Edited by David C. Lindberg, pp. 265-302. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Hutchison, Keith. "Sunspots, Galileo, and the Orbit of the Earth." Isis, 81 (1990): 68-74.

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957.

Pasquale, D'Elia. Galileo in China: Relations through the Roman College between Galileo and the Jesuit Scientist-Missionaries (1610-1640). Translated by Rufus Suter and Matthew Sciascia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960.

Pitt, Joseph CPitt. "Galileo and Rationality: The Case of the Tides." In Rational Change in Science: Eassays on Scientific Reasoning. Edited by Joseph C. Pitt and M. Pera, pp. 235-53. Dordrecht, Boston: Reidel, 1987.

_______ "Galileo, Copernicus and the Tides." Theoria et Historia Scientiarum, 1 (1991): 83-94.

_______ "The Untrodden Road: Rationality and Galileo's Theory of the Tides." Nature and System, 4 (1982): 87-99.

Roche, John. "Harriot, Galileo, and Jupiter's Satellites." Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, 32 (1982): 9-51.

Sarton, George. "Early Observations of Sunspots?" Isis, 37 (1947): 69-71.

Settle, Thomas B. "Galileo and Early Experimentation." In Springs of Scientific Creativity: Essays on Founders of Modern Science., Edited by Rutherford Aris, H. Ted Davis, and Roger H. Stuewer, pp. 3-20. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983

_______ "Experimental Research and Galilean Mechanics." In Galileo Scientist: His Years at Padua and Venice. Edited by Milla Baldo Ceolin, pp. 39-57. Padua: Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; Venice: Istituto Venet o di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti; Padua: Dipartimento di Fisica, 1992.

Shea, William R. "Galileo, Scheiner, and the Interpretation of Sunspots." (Isis, 61 (1970):498-519.

_______ "Galileo's Claim to Fame: The Proof that the Earth Moves from the Evidence of the Tides" British Journal for the History of Science, 5 (1970): 111-27

_______ Galileo's Intellectual Revolution: Middle Period (1610-1632). New York: Science History Publications, 1972.

_______ "Scheiner, and the Interpretation of Sunspots" Isis, 61 (1970): 498-519

Smith, A. Mark. "Galileo's Proof for the Earth's Motion from the Movement of Sunspots." Isis, 76 (1985): 543-551.

Van Helden, Albert. "Annulo Cingitur: the Solution of the Problem of Saturn," Journal for the History of Astronomy, 5 (1974): 155-174.

_______ "The `Astronomical Telescope,' 1611-1650." Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza di Firenze, 1, no. 2 (1976): 13-36.

_______ "The Development of Compound Eyepieces, 1640-1670." Journal for the History of Astronomy, 8 (1977): 26-37.

_______ The Invention of the Telescope. American Philosophical Society, Transactions 67 (1977), no. 4.

_______ "Saturn and his Anses." Journal for the History of Astronomy, 5(1974):105-121.

Vanpaemel, G. "Science Disdained: Galileo and the Problem of Longitude." In Italian Scientists in the Low Countries in the XVIIth and XVIIIth Centuries. Edited by C. S. Maffeoli and L. C. Palm, pp. 111-29. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1989.

Vliegenthart, Adriaan W. "Galileo's Sunspots: Their Role in 17th-Century Allegorical Thinking." Physis, 7 (1965): 273-280.

von Braunmuehl, Anton von. Christoph Scheiner als Mathematiker, Physiker und Astronom. Bamberg, 1891.

Wallace, William A. Galileo and his Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo's Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Westman, Robert S. "Three Responses to the Copernican Theory: Johannes Praetorius, Tycho Brahe, and Michael Maestlin." In The Copernican Achievement. Edited by Robert S. Westman, pp. 285-345. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975.

Winkler, Mary G. and Van Helden, Albert. "Representing the Heavens: Galileo and Visual Astronomy" Isis, 83 (1992): 195-217.

_______ "Johannes Hevelius and the Visual Language of Astronomy." In Renaissance and Revolution: Humanists, Scholars, Craftsmen and Natural Philosophers in Early Modern Europe.Edited by. J. V. Field and Frank A. J. L. James, pp. 97-116. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).



IX. Moral and social implications of disease (March 25 and 27)

Jon Arrizabalaga, John Henderson, and Roger French The great pox : the French disease in Renaissance Europe (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997)
Quetel, Claude, History of Syphilis (London: Polity Press, 1990)
Darrel W. Amundsen, “Medical Deontology and Pestilential Disease in the Late Middle Ages” Journal of the History of Medicine 32 (1977) : 403-21
Saul N. Brody, The Disease of the Soul: Leprosy in Medieval Literature (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974)
Luke de Maitre, “The Description and Diagnosis of Leprosy by Fourteenth-CEntury Physicians” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 59 (1985): 327-344
Luke De Maitre, “Nature and the Art of Medicine in the Later Middle Ages” Medievalia, 2 (1976): 223-47
Ottavia Niccoli, “Menstruum Quasi Monstrum’: Monstrous Births in Menstrual Taboo in the Sixteenth Century” in Muir and Ruggiero, ed., Sex and Gender in Histoircal Perspective (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990)
Winfried Schliener, “Renaissance Moralizing of Syphilis and Moral Issues about Prevention” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 68 (1994): 389-410
X. Doctors, hospitals, barbers and surgeons (April 1)

Amundsen, Darrel W. “Casuistry and Professional Obligations: The Regulation of Physicians by the Court of Conscience in the Late Middle Ages” Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia.


Amundsen, Darrel W., "Medieval Canon Law on Medical and Surgical Practice by the Clergy", Bulletin of the History of Medicine , 1978, 52: 22-44.
McVaugh, Michael R., “Surgical Education in the Middle Ages,” Dynamis, 2000; 20:283-304.
Park, Katherine, “The Life of the Corpse: Division and Dissection in Late Medieval Europe”, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1995; 50: 111-32.
________ . “Country Medicine in the City Marketplace: Snakehandlers in Renaissance Italy,” Renaissance Studies, 15 (2001): 104-20.
Anatomical texts excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974), pp. 724-42
Surgical texts excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974),, pp. 791-8, 802-8

Rubin, Miri, “Imagining Medieval Hospitals: Considerations on the Cultural Meaning of Institutional Change” in Jonathan Barry and Colin Jones (eds.), Medicine and Carity Before the Welfare State (London: Routledge, 1991), pp. 14-25.


Allen, Nigel, “Hospice and Hospital in the Near East: An Instance of Continuity and Change in Late Antiquity”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1990; 64:446-62.
Dols, Michael W., “The Origins of the Islamic Hospital: Myth and Reality”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1987;61:367-90.
Rubin, Miri, “Development and Change in English Hospitals, 1100-1500” in Lindsay Granshaw and Roy Porter (eds.), The Hospital in History (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. 41-59.
Katherine Park, (with John Henderson) "'The First Hospital among Christians': The Ospedale di Santa Maria Nuova in Early Sixteenth-Century Florence," Medical History 35 (1991): 164-88.

"Healing the Poor: Hospitals and Medical Assistance in Renaissance Florence," in Jonathan Barry and Colin Jones, eds., Medicine and Charity before the Welfare State, London: Routledge, 1991, 26-45.

Horden, Peregrine, "Review Article: A Discipline of Relevance: The Historiography of the Later Medieval Hospital", Society for the Social History of Medicine, 1988;1:359-74.
XI Herbs and pharmaceuticals (April 8 and 10)

Primary sources:

Dioscorides, De Materia Medica facsimile edition in Vatican Film Library reference collection
The Greek herbal of Dioscorides; illustrated by a Byzantine, A.D. 512; Englished by John Goodyer, A.D. 1655; edited and first printed, A.D. 1933, by Robert T. Gunther. New York, Hafner Pub. Co. 1968
Secondary Sources:

John M. Riddle, Dioscorides on Pharmacy and Medicine (Austin: University of Texas, 1985).


Linda E. Voigts, “Anglo-Saxon Plant Remedies and the Anglo-Saxons”, ISIS, 1979;70:250-68
Katherine Park's Chapter Six, "Medicine and Magic: the Healing Arts," (Davis and Brown, Gender and Society)
Stannard, Jerry, “Medieval Herbals and their Development”, Clio Medica, 1974;9:23-33.
Getz, Faye Marie, “Introduction” in her Healing and Society in Medieval England: A Middle English Translation of the Pharmaceutical Writings of Gilbertus Anglicus (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), pp. xv-xli.
McVaugh, Michael R., "Quantified Medical Theory and Practice at Fourteenth-Century Montpellier", Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1969, 43: 397-413.
Welborn, Mary Catherine, “The Errors of the Doctors According to Friar Roger Bacon of the Minor Order”, ISIS, 1932;18:26-54.
Pharmaceutical texts excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974), pp. 778-786.
XII. Plagues and peoples (April 15 and 17)
Giovanni Boccaccio, Introduction to the Decameron
Norman Cantor In the wake of the plague : the Black Death and the world it made New York : Free Press, c2001
Samuel Kline Cohn The black death transformed : disease and culture in early Renaissance Europe, (London: Arnold, 2002)
Ann G. Carmichael, Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence (Cambridge: Cambridge Universiy Press, 1986)
Faye Marie Getz, "Black Death and the Silver Lining: Meaning, Continuity, and Revolutionary Change in Histories of Medieval Plague", Journal of the History of Biology, vol. 24, Summer, 1991: 265-89.
Demaitre, Luke, “The Description and Diagnosis of Leprosy by Fourteenth-century Physicians”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1985;59:327-44.
Carmichael, Ann G., “The Last Past Plague: The Uses of Memory in Renaissance Epidemics”, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 1998;53:132-60.
Guy de Chauliac on Bubonic Plague excerpted in Edward Grant (ed.), A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974), pp. 773-4.
David Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West

K. Park, "Kimberly Bergalis, AIDS, and the Plague Metaphor," in Marjorie Garber, Jann Matlock, and Rebecca Walkowitz, eds., Media Spectacles, New York: Routledge, 1993, 232-53.



XIII. Madness and civilization (April 22 and 24)
Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization
Michael MacDonald, Mystical Bedlam: Madness, Anxiety, and Healing in Seventeeth-Century England
Michael MacDonald and Terence R. Murphy Sleepless Souls: Suicide in Early Modern England (1990)
Winfried Schliener, “Renaissance Exempla of Schizophrenia: The Cure by Charity in Luther and Cervantes” Renaissance and Reformation 9 (1985) 157-176

XIV. Sexuality and gender (April 29 and May 1)
Patricia Crawford, “Attitudes to Menstruation in Seventeenth-Century England) Past and Present 91 (1981): 47-73.
Audrey Eccles, Obstetrics and Gynecology in Tudor and Stuart England (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1982))
Monica H. Green, The Trotula: A Medieval Compendium of Women’s Medicine (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001)
Danielle Jacquart and Claude Thomasset: Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages

(Princeton, NJ: Princeton UNiversity Press, 1985)


John M. Riddle and J. Worth Estes, , “Oral Contraceptives in Ancient and Medieval Times”, American Scientist, 1992;80:226-33.
Victoria Sweet, “Hildegard of Bingen and the Greening of Medieval Medicine”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1999;73:381-403.
Monica Green, "Women's Medical Practice and Health Care in Medieval Europe", Signs, vol. 14, 1989: 434-73.
Joan Cadden, "It Takes all Kinds: Sexuality and Gender Differences in Hildegard of Bingen's 'Book of Compound Medicine'", Traditio, 1984, 40: 149-74.
Helen Lemay, “Anthonius Guainerius and Medieval Gynecology” in Julius Kirshner and Suzanne Wemple, ed., Women of the Medieval World Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985)
Ian MacLean, The Renaissance Notion of Woman: A Study of the Fortunes of Scholasticism and Medieval Science in European Intellectual Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985)

Katherine Park (with Robert A. Nye), "Destiny is Anatomy," essay review of Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (1990), The New Republic (18 February 1991): 53-57.

Kaherine Park (with Lorraine J. Daston) "Unnatural Conceptions: Monsters in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century France and England," Past and Present 92 (1981): 20-54.  

Katharine Park (with Lorraine J. Daston) "Hermaphrodites in Renaissance France," Critical Matrix 1 (1985): 1-19.

________. “Dissecting the Female Body: From Women’s Secrets to the Secrets of Nature,” in Adele Seeff and Jane Donawerth, eds., Attending to Early Modern Women, Newark: University of Delaware Press; London/Toronto: Associated University Presses, 2000, 29-47.

________. “Women, Gender, and Utopia,” in Focus section, “Getting Back to The Death of Nature: Rereading Carolyn Merchant,” Isis 97 (2006): 487-95. 

K. Park,  “The Rediscovery of the Clitoris: French Medicine and the Tribade, 1570-1620,” in Carla Mazzio and David Hillman, eds., The Body in Parts: Fantasies of Corporeality  in Early Modern Europe, New York: Routledge, 1997, 171-93.

Science and Medicine in the Codices Vaticani Latini

© 2004 Vatican Film Library revised 10/19/04

The following is the list maintained on the Vatican Film Library website, and is meant as a starting point for research in primary sources.

Stefano Caroti, I codici di Bernardo Campagna: filosofia e medicina all fine del sec. xiv (Rome, 1991)

[Codices 832, 952, 2159, 2160–2163, 2177, 2182, 2185, 3019, 3020, 3066, 3097, 3144, 4445, 6768]

Pearl Kibre, Hippocrates Latinus: Repertorium of Hippocratic Writings in the Latin Middle Ages, rev. ed. (New York, 1985)

[Codices 265, 305, 1098, 1781, 2066, 2366–2370, 2375, 2378, 2381–2383, 2390–2395, 2417, 2418, 2428, 2446, 2449, 2459–2461, 2464–2466, 2468, 2471, 2483, 2487–2489, 3027, 3426, 3681, 3869, 3900, 4085, 4417–4421, 4432, 4439, 4447, 4449, 4451, 4452, 4454–4456, 4464–4466, 4472, 4477, 4490, 4594, 4788, 5881, 6241, 6280, 6337, 8177, 10281]

David C. Lindberg, A Catalogue of Medieval and Renaissance Optical Manuscripts (Toronto, 1975)

[Codices 806, 989, 2161, 2183, 2639, 2975, 3066, 3102, 3211, 4082, 4091, 4275, 4425, 4439, 4473, 4595, 5373, 5377, 5963, 6000, 10213, 11482, 11550]

P. Micheloni, La medicina nei primi tremila codici del Fondo Vaticano Latino (Rome, 1950)

[Codices 37, 108, 110, 178, 210, 265, 273, 457, 460, 510, 625, 643, 644, 682, 687, 707, 815, 822, 845, 880, 922, 924, 925, 939, 944, 955, 970, 1018, 1043, 1108, 1117, 1134, 1288, 1290, 1296, 1383, 1395, 1410, 1413, 1466, 1467, 1468, 1529, 1530, 1547, 1548, 1583, 1704, 1783, 1823, 1833, 1927, 1985, 2136, 2140, 2162, 2225, 2231, 2289, 2363, 2366–2418, 2421–2432, 2440–2490, 2517, 2623, 2627, 2640, 2690]

Lynn Thorndike, “Vatican Latin Manuscripts in the History of Science and Medicine,” Isis 13 (1929): 53–102



[Codices 822, 901, 989, 1279, 2185, 2191, 2225, 2375, 2385, 2416, 2418, 2442–2445, 2463, 2469, 2482, 2975, 3026, 3088, 3099, 3102, 3103, 3121, 3163, 3165, 3177, 3682, 3684, 3686, 3687, 3689–3691, 3714, 3897, 3898, 4082, 4084, 4085, 4091, 4092, 4275, 4422, 4425, 4426, 4428, 4437, 4440, 4456, 4462, 4476, 4482, 4572, 4593, 4606, 4864, 5004, 5321, 5328, 5373, 5376, 5377, 5698, 5733, 5806, 5963, 6253, 6266, 6267, 6863, 6867, 6887, 7180, 7273–7275, 7610, 7806A, 8174, 8759, 8951, 9018, 9369, 9402, 9412, 9414, 9420, 9941, 9952]


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