History 2017 Canadian Pre-Confed. Sept 11, 2009



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History 2017 Canadian Pre-Confed.
Sept 11, 2009
the widely accepted theory is that the first natives followed herds across the Beringia land bridge and then followed the coast south.

there is a crushing lack of documentable history of early north american indians and thus we rely on the accounts of traders, missionaries, and explorers. These people all have their own biases and so the history they recorded may be shaped by their expectations and traditions thus making their conclusions problematic for modern historians.

some european goods, and diseases made it into Native communities before the europeans themselves made contact b/c of the natives vast trading networks.

Eastern Woodland natives were:

hunters and farmers

had a more constant food supply

had a more settled population

a more complex political structure

made up of the Hurons, Iroquois, Mi’kmaq and others

Canadian Shield natives

nomadic hunters (moose, forest animals) with small select groups of farmers

loose political organizations with a sparse populations

included the Algonquin and the Ojibwa

Sub-Arctic

hunters

sparse pop loose political org



Chipewyan, Dogrib and Gwich’in

Plains Natives

nomadic Buffalo hunters with a loose political org

relatively sparse pop

includes Blackfoot, Cree, Assiniboine

West Coast Natives

oldest groups of natives

Hunters and fishers - heavily reliant on salmon and cedar

Most complex political and social structure of all natives

includes the Haida, Nuu’ch’nulth, Bella Coola in rather dense population groups

Arctic

hunters and fishers living in one of the worlds harshest climates



very sparse pop with loose political structures

includes the Inuit, and Aleut


Sept 14 2009
native americans had a complex and extended trading networks. items such as shells, flint, obsidian, copper and other types of stone and shells were traded from one end of the country to the other.

trade for natives was based on prestige and alliances not just economic considerations. Many items had spiritual relevance as well and thus couldn’t be traded away for just anything.

natives often accumulated goods to give it away and that was a way to gain prestige. The Potlach was a very common way to gift away goods on the west coast

gifts were used as diplomatic tools as well. they were used to open negotiations and to seal treaties. they were used to buy back prisoners of war and to sue for peace.


there is example of so called trading languages that were a mixture of many local languages that could be used for trading. on the plains it is thought that a form of sign language was used for the same purpose
independence and self-subsistence were important values to many native cultures as was humour and hospitality. Many religions were linked by the ideas of harmony and of spirits living in plants animals and some inanimate objects.

Many males had to go on puberty quests to find their spirit guides that would protect them and give them a special power.

Many native cultures believed that all living things could be regarded as alive in some way and a part of a more complex nature.
Natives fought wars as well but not for the same reasons as Europeans. they didn’t fight for land but for a blood revenge, personal prestige, or new slaves.
Norse Vikings were the first people to make contact with Native americans in about 1000CE. Leif Eriksson, Erik the Red and Thorvald Eriksson are thought to be some of the first europeans to make it to North America.

Vikings used their settlements on Greenland as jumping points to what is now Newfoundland. Bjarni Herjolffson first sighted labrador in 986CE after being blown off course

Leif Eriksson landed in “Vinland” in 1001CE he was Erik the Reds son. he sailed down the coast of Baffin Island and Labrador and landed on Newfoundland. They stayed for about a year and didn’t encounter any natives

Leif’s Brother Thorvald came the next year with a crew of 30 and settled into the old abandoned settlement. They had first contact with the natives and their relationship soured quickly. the Norse called them Skraelings and then the Norse murdered a group of Natives while they were sleeping. This lead to a small war with the natives and Thorvald died.


Sept 16 2009
John Cabot was born Giovani Caboto and born in Venice. He is a mysterious man and not a lot is known about him.

in 1497 he landed in Nfld or Cape Breton and declared possession of the land for England in the name of Henry VII

John new that b/c of Columbus’s success he would not receive the support of the Spanish Crown so he went north to the Port of Bristol. He also believed that by traveling from a northern port it would be a shorter trip.

Set off in the Matthew with a crew of 18 Men. He spent about a month sailing around Nfld and the maritimes. He thought he had reached the north east coast of Asia.

Returned to Britstol on the 6th of August and reported that he had found a new shorter way to get to Asia, and he became a hero and called “ The Great Admiral”

In feb 1498 John received royal charter to take 6 ships and go back. All but one of the ships were lost at sea. Henry VII died and english interest in exploration waned b/c of internal political struggles

Cabot did discover the grand banks and described the vast amounts of cod available there in ways that the King almost didn’t believe. Soon after his voyage international fishermen from many european nations were fishing the grand banks.

Fishing huts were the 1st european settlements but they were only seasonal.

Wet or green fishing was when fish was caught and then packed into salt barrels. the english developed a method called dry fishing. they would dry the fish on land and then lightly dust it with salt.

dry fishing brought the fishermen ashore and started a settlement system in North America


Humphrey Gilbert first put forth the idea of the Northwest Passage as a possibility of a short cut to the Indies.

The Hunt for the Northwest Passage became one of histories great white elephant costing millions of dollars, hundreds of lives and eventually achieving very little

Martin Frobisher and English privateer who was captivated by the idea of the Northwest Passage. He set out with three smaller boats one was lost at greenland and one turned back but Frobisher pushed on. on his first voyage he sailed up a large bay on Baffin Island and thought he had found Asia.

Frobisher brought back some stones that he believed that contained gold. Frobisher was sent back and he brought home Tons of worthless stones.


Beothuk

First nations group that lived in Nfld and among the first to come in contact with Europeans

they were a shy group of people that mostly stayed to themselves. the Beothuks withdrew into the interior of Nfld and this moved them away from some of there traditional food sources. Starvation became common and this made them more vulnerable to european diseases.

when the europeans did encounter the beothuk violence usually was the result

there were some sympathetic efforts from europeans to help the Beothuk. Well meaning politicians decided to capture a Beothuk and teach them the benefits of European civilization, this however, only encouraged the violence b/w the europeans and beothuks.

the violence continued as there weren’t many efforts to prosecute.

Shawnadithit was a young women who was captured and most of what we know about the Beothuk comes from here. She spent the last few years of her life in St. Johns teaching europeans about the beothuk. She seems to be the last of the Beothuk.
Sept 18 2009
in 1534 the french King Fancis 1 sent Jacques Cartier on the first of three western voyages to discover certain isles and countries were it is said that gold and other precious metals are found.

on the first voyage in 1534 he did a maritime tour. his journal also records the first european contact with natives. Takes two young men as captives and proof of his visit.

Cartier convinced the king to provide the funds for a follow up voyage the next year.

in 1535 he returns to Canada with the two captives as translators and guides. and sailed up the St. Lawrence river (he named it the St. Lawrence as he landed on the feast of St. Lawrence) the two guides told him about the fresh water seas. in early sept the french anchored off of present day Montreal and Ottawa spending the winter at Montreal.

26 men during the winter mostly from scurvy but some from the cold as well. he returned to France reporting that he had found a water route to the interior of Canada. he took Donoccanna back to France (Donoccanna was the father of the two captives that Cartier had taken the previous voyage and had been his guides) Donoccanna died without ever returning but he did convince the King of a fabulous land of gold and silver to the west.

Sieur de Roberval was charged to lead the search for the golden kingdom and Cartier was only the guide. Roberval was charged to find the kingdom of gold and to colonize the area as well as bringing missionaries to the land.

The King decided that the missionaries were needed to placate the Church.

The expedition split into two groups with Cartier going first and a few months later Roberval followed. Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence and started to set up a settlement but they had a rough go of things. by the spring cartier gave up and went back to france with a load of fake gold and quartz.

Roberval arrived after Cartier left but he and his settlers also had a terrible winter (50 died of scurvy) and he also returned the next spring.

the cost and problems associated with this trip and internal political issues combined with european wars meant that france didn’t attempt to colonize North America until the start of the next century.


Why sail to Canada

people sailed to Canada as a way to get to Asia and the silk, spices, and gold there

for Cod and whaling

Furs


Glory

and the Christianization of the natives


If cod brought europeans to the shores of Canada it was the beaver that brought them to the interior of Canada. Beaver fur was very warm and soft and there was a massive demand for their pelts in europe.

Cartier was unimpressed with the natives he met, he was hoping that he would find wealthy asian traders. European explorers thought they were superior to the Natives. Natives also believed that they were superior to the europeans

physical differences were quite large - europeans were shorter men and had beards and many different hair and eye colours. Natives were taller and all had black hair and dark eyes. Culturally the two were also very different Native did not do women’s work and showed very little emotion where as the europeans had no women so they did all their own work and were highly animated and showed much emotion

Natives were very vulnerable to european disease’s some estimates believe that 90% of the native pop died from european disease’s

Europeans had desirable technologies like metal tools and weapons. Natives would gladly trade many furs for european trade goods

Cartier called the the area surrounding his first landings the land God gave to Cain. he was more complimentary about PEI and the St. Lawrence

Conflict over land b/w the Natives and Europeans was rarer than in the states b/c the land was as not as high of quality.
Sept 21 09
by 1604 there were still no permanent settlements in north america north of Mexico.

Du Mont came to start a permanent settlement with Champlain. He arrived at the Bay of Fundy and he started a settlement on the island of St Croix. The buildings of the settlement were placed within a protective wall w/ cannons

Du Mont and his men suffered through one of the coldest winters in 100 years. 36 of the original colonists were dead when the supply ships arrived in the spring. Du Mont and the rest didn’t give up and he decided to move his settlement across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal.

Port Royal worked, it is usually taken to be the first permanent european presence in North America. he got an extension on his trading monopoly conditional on founding another colony.

Champlain made 12 voyages to New France and is credited with starting the first permanent colony at Quebec City. He is called the “Father of New France”

Champlain’s first settlement was built his first settlement at Quebec (Quebec City) he did this b/c he didn’t want to build near Tadoussac which was the principle fur trading center on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. He did this b/c he thought if he was to close his settlers would be drawn away to Tadoussac.

Only 9 colonists survived to the spring b/c of weather, scurvy and also the Natives (Iroquois). Still they stayed on

Champlain decided to form an alliance with the Huron even accompanied the Hurons down into modern day Vermont and fought with them against the Iroquois.

The alliance is a successful one and the French not only get military protection but also economic advantages in increased trade.

to try and encourage trade Champlain began to send out French men out to live with the Hurons. they were called the Coureurs de Bois. they were to map the land and chart the geography of the fur trade and to learn native language and culture.

one of the first the Coureurs de Bois, Etienne Brule lived among the huron from 1612-1633 and really integrated himself into their culture. It was men like these that helped seal the Huron-French relationship.
another important aspect of New France was the religious part of the mission to settle New France.

He encouraged different Catholic groups to come with him to New France and convert the Natives. this would save their souls and also create closer ties with the French


in 1618 he returned to France and argues to the Crown and investors to make New France a strong Permanent settlement. He argued that New france held the possibility of a route to the Orient, a vast fur and fish economy and other advantages. he asked for 300 families and 300 soldiers to be sent to his colonies.

in 1627 the Company du Cent Associate and they had a monopoly over all of New France and it backed Champlain up

in 1628 4 ships and 400 people were sent to New France along with all of the needed supplies. However, the Kirke Brothers (scottish privateers) captured quebec in 1628.

The 4 ships were captured by the Kirke brothers and none of the supplies made it to the settlements. New France and Acadia were captured by the Kirke bros and were English were in Charge of for 4 years until the english sold it back to the french.

At the time of his death in 1635 Champlain had not fulfilled his dream of a large permanent settlement in New France.
Sept 23, 2009
Father Paul Le Jeuen - Superior-General of jesuit Missions in New France. He published annual reports that are now known as the Jesuit Relations. The first report was nothing more than a letter but his superiors decided to publish the letters as a public relations program. from then on the missionaries knew the public would be reading it and tailored it for them.

the Jesuits weren’t the first missionaries to north america. Champlain had brought some Recollets brothers to come to his first colonies. the Recollet were unsuccessful as they tried to convert the natives into Europeans.

The jesuits were more successful because they went and lived among the natives and didn’t try to turn them into europeans

The Huron were the main group that the Jesuits and other missionaries worked with and the natives allowed them to live with them.

Christian natives got perks like preferential trading rates and guns that non-christianized didn’t receive.

Leading the mission to the Hurons was Jean de Brebeuf. he wrote the first english huron dictionary and he helped to build a jesuit settlement in the heart of Huronia called Ste-Marie-Among-the-Hurons. it was meant to be a sanctuary and base of operations among the Hurons. it had a hospital and church in later years and was very important in jesuit activities


being in close contact with the french did result in more exposer to disease and thus were weaker when the Iroquois attacked.
in 1648 the Iroquois launched a full scale attack on the Hurons. the Hurons were unable to mount an effective defence and the Huron nation was virtually wiped out.

the Jesuits abandoned their missions in Huronia and by 1649 had retreated back into New France settlements.

New France was vulnerable to Iroquois attacks as they weren’t very large or strong and had little defensive options.
we see a change in Jesuit relations after the Iroquois attack they were afraid of the Iroquois and were pleading for more people and more of a military presence.

in 1643 the Iroquois attacked french outposts and this seriously disrupted the fur trade and agricultural production.

French survival in North America was in serious doubt at this time. the fur trade was basically shut down and this stopped the inflow of new settlers.

in 1661 the PM of france died and he had always been indifferent about New France and the colonists sent an advocate for the Colony. King Louis the 14th was crowned King that year and he wanted a global empire.

Louis appointed a Royal Government in 1663. John Baptiste-Colbert was appointed Minister of the Marine which meant he was minister of the colonies and John Talon was named First Intendant of New France.

Colbert followed an economic policy called mercantilism and Colbert wanted to increase the import of raw materials from the New France.

the company that had the monopoly over new france was abolished and New France became a Royal Colony.

Louis also sent troops and they were desperately needed. they brought with them a sense among the settlers that they were no longer forgotten.


These new immigrants to New France brought with them the seigneurial system - a medieval system of duties and responsibilities b/w lords and commoners. This system would last until 1854-long after the French revolution had abolished it in France

the Seigneur had to provide some sort of infrastructure like a mill, church, court, blacksmith. he also had to build and maintain a manor and clear some of the land. The Censitaires had to clear their plot of land, make payments called Cens to the Seigneur and they had to do a certain amount of public work for the Seigneur.

there are not the same social distinctions in New France as there is in France. the lines are far more blurred. they Censitaires changed their name to the Habitants and even had the chance for upward social mobility that was unable to them in France.

Farms in New France were long narrow farm that as oft as possible had access to the river.


there was one glaring problem that Talon had to solve to turn New France into a actual colony, there were not enough women in New France and thus there weren’t very many families in New France. Talon sent 100s of women to New France called them Les Filles Du Roi. in all over a few years 800 were sent. they were often girls from orphanages and from poorer families.

The women first went to the Nuns and were looked after there. the men then went to the nuns and declared his possessions and his ability to care for the women. the women then had some ability to choose their own husband.

some men didn’t want to get married and Talon actually passed laws forcing men to get married.
Sept 28 2009
many of the women married soldiers and this encouraged the soldiers to stay in New France. Talon also encouraged early marriage by giving a “gift from the King” and also encouraged large families by giving away Canada’s first baby payments

people who didn’t get married often saw fines or restrictions in their abilities to hunt, trap and fish.

the birth rate tripled in the colony and by 1672 the number of people doubled to 6700.

the King also sent engages which were indentured workers to New France. they received free passage to Canada and then were bound to a three year contract to work for a settler, church, merchant. the engages made up the bulk of the new immigrants in the late 17th C. about half decided to stay.

in the early years of the colony it was the engages that preformed much of the heavy labour. building docks, clearing land, building roads and buildings.

nearly 4000 men and women were sent to Canada by the French government.

there was small amounts of slavery in New France. not as big in the states mainly b/c it didn’t make as much economic sense to own slaves. some were of african descent and some were of native descent. NAtive slaves were often captured by other natives and then traded to the habitants.
New France faced a problem attracting and keeping people in New France. by the time of the British conquest of new france, there were 70,000 people in New France and 1.5 million in New England.

not only was the climate much harsher but there were fewer economic opportunities in New France

the government of New France was supposed to be governed just like any province in France.
1604 - first expedition to Acadia

1609 - settlement abandoned

1632 - first permanent settlement at Port Royal

1713 - Treaty of Utrecht - Acadia becomes a British possession


Under French rule Acadia and Canada were two separate colonies within New France although the boundary b/w the two is fuzzy

France largely ignored Acadia and there is also very little contact b/w the Acadians and the Canadians.

The Acadians built a system of ditches and dykes that were able to reclaim the fertile marshlands in and around the Bay of Fundy

this dyke system required people to work together and fostered a sense of community which was very important as they were so isolated and lived sandwiched b/w the French and the British.

the Acadians also had large families with 10 or 11 children. Acadia had a small population but a high growth rate.

The Acadians developed there own some what distinct culture with their own slang and working in native words.


Acadians were fairly free from gov control and there was no seigneurial system. The gov was weak and the Family and the Church were the strong groups. it was a fairly egalitarian society, and even though the Church was the most powerful group there was no one group that controlled the Church

Most of Acadia’s trade took place with New England. The Acadians even called the New Englanders “our friends, the enemy”

Acadians had a fairly good relationship with the Natives and the Mikmac were important allies of the acadians.
in 1690 New Englanders attacked Port Royal as part of the war of Spanish Succession and the warfare would continue until 1713 when France gave Acadia to Britain in the Treaty of Utrecht.

this treaty ended the on again off again war b/w France and Britain in the colonies. Acadia was renamed Nova Scotia.


Sept 30, 2009
France lost much of its maritime possessions but not all of it and thus it built the Garrison at Louisbourg. It became a large fortification with elaborate defences.

The English administrators had a problem in their new territory of Acadia. they decided that the Acadians should become British Subjects by swearing an oath of allegiance. the Acadians refused hoping that they could remain neutral. they feared reprisal from the Local natives who were fiercely loyal to the French and were also worried that some day they may be re-conquered by the French.

The two sides compromised and the Acadians recognized the British King but didn’t have to swear to take up arms for him. They were allowed to keep their Roman Catholic religion. After the oath the acadians are looked upon as the Neutral French.

Neither the English nor the French really trusted the Acadians b/c they didn’t seem to consider themselves part of any nation but rather as acadians.

the Acadians enjoyed a small golden era as they are no longer plagued with war and they have freer and easier trade. that is until King George’s war broke out and France and Britain were once again fighting.

in 1749 after the war the status quo was returned, attitudes did change. The New Gov Edward Cornwallis decided that there needed to be more English people in Nova Scotia and they were moved to and founded Halifax. More British institutions and British laws was set up by Cornwallis and a strong British Garrison was moved into Halifax.

The french tried to maintain their alliance with the Mik Mac and supported them in fighting against the English. The Mik Mac declared war on the English in 1749 and Cornwallis thought that the acadians were helping or encouraging the Mik Mac.

More than anything the Acadians had been allowed to stay in Acadia from 1713 to 1750 out of a position of weakness. the British didn’t have the strength to do anything about them.

a New Gov arrived in 1753 and he was worried about the large french pop in his colony. He insisted on an Iron Clad oath that stated that the Acadians must support the British in case of a war.

in 1755 all acadians who refused to take the New oath were deported. Acadians home were burnt and they themselves were dispersed to England, France and all of the 13 Colonies.

b/c of the haste of the deportation it was poorly planned and many people died in transit b/c there wasn’t enough food or water.

the deportation lasted for about 8 years until 1762. Acadian society was destroyed in the deportation.

Acadian mortality rate in the 13 colonies was quite high as they had a low tolerance to disease. they often wandered from town to town looking for relatives.

about 1/3 of the surviving Acadians settled in Louisiana b/c of similar farming practices and this is where the Cajuns came from.

in 1764 it was declared that the Acadians could returned and many of them came home but had to move to New Brunswick as their lands in Nova Scotia was already settled.
Oct 2, 2009
Radisson and Des Grosseilliers - two french voyagers who wanted to go farther northwest in search of furs, past the Iroquois blockade in 1654

the Quebec governor refused to give them permission on terms they could handle so they went on their own

by the winter of 1654 they had made it to Lake Superior and they over wintered there and in the Spring they were part of a large native festival. the natives told the traders that there were better furs on a northern bay north of Lake Superior

they returned to Montreal thinking they would receive a hero’s welcome but they weren’t. in fact Des Grosseilliers was thrown in jail.

they decided to go again but again the Governor said that they couldn’t go. They Travelled to France to get permission but didn’t receive support their either so they went to England and there received the support they needed

King Charles the 2nd agreed to finance Radisson and Des Grosseilliers. They were given the Nonsuch and returned to England after the winter with a boat load of very high quality furs

King Charles II seeing the profits that were available so he gave them Royal Charter and formed the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1670. the company was given monopoly over all territories that drained into the Hudson’s Bay. called Rupert’s Land

The HBC set up fur trading posts not colonies. the intermediaries b/w native trappers and european buyers were all natives. This way each fort was often protected by a group of natives that settled outside the fort.


After the treaty of Utrecht there is a period of peace b/w England and France. this ended with the break out of the Seven years war in 1754.

the 7 years war started in the colonies and then moved to Europe. It lasted 9 years in North America

the war started as both England and France were trying to expand on in North America and both wanted to continue to expand and this is where they ran into each other and this caused conflict

both sides were trying to expand their fur trade. France was caught in b/w the British from the South (13 colonies) and from the North West (HBC). so the French spread south west down the Mississippi river system and around the great Lakes.

the French built a series of trading posts along the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes.

France in North America during the 7 years war

Weakness’ Strength’s

small pop effective leadership

precarious economy natural defences

dependent on subsidized Guerilla Warriors

fur trade native allies

Small scale Ag and food Division among English colonists

supply
France was governed by Pierre de Vaudreuil and he was the first Canadian born governor of France. Montcalm was from France

Vaudreuil favored a guerilla warfare that they had been successful with early in the war. Montcalm wanted a more european style of set piece warfare. Montcalm was declared by the French ministry as in complete charge.

French fortunes changed when William Pitt the Elder was elected as PM in Britain. he decided that winning the war in NA was very important to him and Britain.

Pitt sent more soldiers, more ships and more money. Britain fortunes in the war Shift significantly. the Navy was able to blockade the French ports and the experienced soldiers he sent led to changes on the battlefield

the first objective of the new British offensive was the Fort of Louisburg. the defenders although outnumbered 3-1 held out for 7 weeks.

the british Navy came through in spades and the British had huge numerical and financial superiority. French forces were pushed out of the forts in the ohio valley and the great lakes and fell back towards Montreal and Quebec.

the conflict in NA was an extension of the european conflict. France was winning early b/c of their style of warfare and their native allies. But British Money, troops and most importantly navy overpowered the french defenders.

Oct 5, 2009


two battles of the Plains of Abraham the first with Montcalm and Wolfe that the British won and the second the french won but were forced to retreat as British re-enforcements arrived at Quebec from Britain

French Surrender at Montreal but the British allow the French to maintain their Roman Catholic religion


Oct 7, 2009
- Gov de Vaudreuil capitulates to Gen. Jeffrey Amherst on sept 22, 1760

under the terms of the capitulation the British were very lenient and it seemed they wanted French Canadians to become loyal British servants

colonists wishing to return to France were free to do so. most of the leaders and the richest people of Canadian society returned to France.

the conquest placed the Roman Catholic Church in a difficult position. Many of the leaders of the Church returned to France as well. the Church owned lots of land in Quebec and much of it had been destroyed in the war. The Bishop of Quebec had died w/o a successor and that meant that no knew priests could be ordained. this worried the canadians b/c they knew that the British didn’t exactly want any more ordinations

the treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 and France ceded New France to Britain.
in 1764 civil rule was established and a new governor James Murray was placed in charge of Canada. Britain hoped to assimilate the French pop into the expected large arrival of English speaking protestants.

first nations peoples actually posed a greater threat to the British than the Canadians and this lead to Pontiac’s rebellion

Pontiac lead a pan-native confederacy against the British. it was a large and effective rebellion that gave the British many problems. Natives were angry b/c whites were encroaching on their lands and not giving the appropriate gifts

may 1763 the native confederacy attacked the British capturing every fort west of the Niagara and had an est 2000 settlers imprisoned.

several factors lead to the natives making peace

the british still had their fort at detroit a very important fort

the natives had to resume their fall hunting to get enough food for the winter

word arrives that France had officially surrendered

the confederacy started to fall apart

in the proclamation of 1763 - the British promised to set aside a certain amount of territory for the natives. The British agreed not to colonize native territories w/o negotiating with the natives and buying the territories from the natives for the crown.

this was the first recognition of natives rights by the British gov.

this policy was largely unenforceable w/o a large military presence in the interior which was to expensive.

the proclamation also dealt with many legal and political stipulations in Quebec by changing many of the laws to be more in line with British Laws.

Catholics were excluded from all offices, new gov institutions were created and there was a promise of an elected assembly being formed. Many other limitations were placed on the Catholic Church and Canadians were encouraged by the gov to become protestant.

Gov Murray did need someone to talk to to get his message out to the people and he found that the church was the best way to do this. he rewarded loyal priests and attempted to gain the church’s support
The Church itself was in a bad spot as there was no Bishop and many of the priests had departed. Murray chose a new Bishop Jean-Olivier Briand in 1766, even though he wasn’t supposed to. the two had a good working relationship and the two supported each other.

Briand helped to mitigate anti-Catholic provision in the proclamation of 1763 and also to mitigate Catholic anger towards the British.

a small but vocal english minority were calling for a British system of political representation, recognizing that as Catholics couldn’t hold office that they would hold great power.

The Quebec act was passed in 1774 and it combined the use of French civil law and British criminal law. the Quebec act

Gave Canadians the right to practice Roman Catholicism

preserved the seigneurial system

allowed governor and appointed counselors to make laws, but not an elected assembly and Catholics could be appointed

gave Quebec control over much of what is now Quebec, Ontario and the Midwestern US

was of the “Intolerable Acts”, which contributed to the outbreak of the American Revolution

had secret instructions to subordinate the Church to state control.


Oct 9, 2009
the costs of the 7 years war and British attempts to recoup those costs from the colonies was one of the reasons of the American Revolution

the Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act of 1774 were acts that the Americans saw as hemming them in along the coast and not allowing them to move into the interior of North America.

April 1775 British troops were fired upon by American militia men as they tried to seize arms at Lexington and Concord. this turned a long festering political feud into a military action

American militia men attacked and captured Fort Ticonderoga and then raided up into Canada without much opposition. The American Continental Congress then decided to invade Quebec for it’s military and strategic objectives. they thought that Canadians would rise up and fight with them

Gen. Montgomery was to attack Montreal and Gen. Arnold was to attack Quebec City.

Gov. Carlton felt that this was a worse case scenario as he had no real defenders and he was governing a conquered people.

It took the Americans longer to get to Canada than they thought it would and it was late november before they were able to take fort St. John by montreal. There were insubordination issues among the American Army. many men deserted

Montgomery took Montreal without a fight but men continued to desert as there enlistment period was up. he pushed on to Quebec and met up with Arnold in December.

The two generals decided to try and storm Quebec City as they didn’t have enough men to lay siege.

they attacked on the night of dec 31 in a snow storm. They didn’t know the city and many of their troops were lost in the lower city. The Canadians held the city Montgomery died and Arnold was wounded. about 300 Americans taken captive

the american troops moved into the country side and forced the local Quebecer’s to feed and shelter them for the winter. By june of 1776 the Americans retreated from Quebec and never return
there was little support for revolutionaries or efforts by Governor Carlton to organize against the Americans.

Once the Revolution started and invasion was threatened Carlton looked to the French Elite and the Church to help raise support against the Americans. The Elites and the Church encouraged the habitants to join the army and fight against the Americans. pro-american priests were fired and american sympathizers were denied access to the Church. still though the Habitants didn’t want to fight


Directory: userfile -> file
userfile -> Introduction
userfile -> President George Washington
userfile -> Unit 11: political developments in the early republic setting the stage: launching the new republic
file -> In the lead up to the second world war we see a fairly strong isolationist attitude in Canada. People were focused inwards as they tried to overcome the great depression
file -> ? Recurrent Greek themes ? Rise of the Roman Empire
file -> The principal aim of regional geography is to understand the unique characteristics of a given region. Regions can be defined according to human and/or physical attributes
file -> Jan 13, 2011 Background Context
file -> The world of ideas believed that the material world of the senses was like seeing shadows on the walls of a cave
file -> Geography is the study of spaces and places as well as the study of spacial aspects of human existence
file -> East-West confrontations dominated ir during the cold war

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