Honors World Civilizations Imperialism

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Honors World Civilizations
1. Imperialism- The ambition of a powerful nation to dominate the political, economic, and cultural affairs of another nation or region – to create an empire.
2. Mercantilism-, economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that national strength is increased by a dominance of exports over imports. The use of colonies as supply depots for the home economies, and the exclusion of colonies from trade with other nations produced such reactions as the American Revolution, in which the colonists asserted their desire for freedom to seek economic advantage wherever it could be found.
3. Industrialized nations did not want to depend on other nations for raw materials in case of the breakout of war. Imperialism created bitter rivalries between nations to become more militaristic and capitalistic. Large navies became more important to the overall strength of a country. (To protect trade entities)

4. Economic imperialism was first criticized severely by John A. Hobson, who viewed it as the attempt of the capitalist classes in industrial nations to achieve economic gain.
5. Industrial Capitalism- Is an economic system created by material innovation and based on four things:

1) Growth

2) Extraction of resources from, and pollution into, natural ecosystems

3) Technological innovations

4) The exchange of material goods in markets

6. Finance Capitalism-Finance capitalism is a term in defined as the subordination of processes of production to the accumulation of money profits in a financial system. It is characterized by the pursuit of profit from the purchase and sale of, or investment in, currencies and financial products such as bonds, stocks, futures and other derivatives. It also includes the lending of capital at interest. Finance capitalism is seen by Marxists as being exploitative by supplying income to non-laborers.
7. Marxist theory maintained that imperialism leading to war was the inevitable and final result of economic competition.
8. Industrialized nations looked for new markets in the non-industrialized regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America—The Colonies they would add setup in these countries would add to a nation’s military strength and prestige as a world power
9. Rudyard Kipling- “The White Man’s Burden,” (To spread western ideas of religion, culture and civilization) American’s and Europeans felt they were helping the people of the colonies
10. Social Darwinism- Theory that persons, groups, and "races" are subject to the same laws of natural selection as Charles Darwin had proposed for plants and animals in nature. The life of humans in society was a struggle for existence ruled by "survival of the fittest."

11. Colony- An area in which a foreign nation gained complete control over a given region and its local population-Colonies in Asia and Africa supplied cheap labor, raw materials, and ready markets for European manufacturing, spurred on by the Industrial Revolution
12. Loans were made to poorer nations from richer nations, (loans the lesser could not pay back), provided a wedge to take over a country both economically and politically
13. Protectorate- The local ruler kept his title, but officials of foreign powers actually controlled the region
14. Sphere of Influence- A region in which one nation had exclusive economic and political privileges that were recognized by other nations
15. Assimilation- People of the colonies abandoned their local cultures and adopted all aspects of the colonial power.

Imperialism in Africa

21. In 1875, after centuries of contact, Europe had no more than 10% of African land--Twenty-five years later, seven European nations controlled over 90% of the continent. Many African tribes wanted the manufactured goods brought by the Europeans, so they borrowed money to buy them.
British aggressiveness into southern Africa was fuelled by three prime factors:
1. The desire to control the trade routes to India that passed around the Cape.
2. The discovery, in 1868, of huge mineral deposits of diamonds around Kimberley on the joint borders of the South African Republic, Orange Free State and Cape Colony, and thereafter in 1886 in the Transvaal of a major gold find, all of which offered enormous wealth and power
3. Finally the race against other European colonial powers, as part of a general colonial expansion in Africa.

22. The Boer Wars - were two wars fought between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics, the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic).---Boers were certain groups of Dutch-speaking settler farmers who lived and resented British rule

23. Initially the Boers defeated the British in major engagements and besieged key cities. However British reinforcements relieved the besieged towns and dispersed the Boer armies. When Boer commando attacks continued, The British implemented a scorched-earth policy: Boer farms were destroyed and Boer civilians were herded into concentration camps. More than 20,000 men, women, and children (including black Africans) died as a result, causing international outrage. The Boers finally accepted defeat.
24. In 1854- A French and English company built the Suez Canal. To avoid the debt the Egyptians would have to pay, Great Britain buys the Suez Canal (Trade route from India, Australia, and New Zealand)

British Rule in India
26. The East India Company- An early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China.
27. The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpeter, tea, and opium. The Company also came to rule large areas of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits. Company rule in India, which effectively began in 1757 lasted until 1858, when, following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and under the Government of India Act 1858, the British Crown assumed direct administration of India in the new British Raj.
28. British India- British Raj-- The British government ruled India’s political and economic systems completely from (1858-1947)
29. The British improved Indian roads, bridges, railroads, factories, hospitals, schools (Agricultural methods, public health, and sanitation)
30. Gandhi believed in a philosophy of non-violent resistance to create Indian Independence
31. August 15, 1947- India and Pakistan separate from the British Empire
32. The Kashmir Region- Widely disputed area between India and Pakistan that could cause Nuclear War


Reasons British Imperialism Did Not Work in India
1. Both Hinduism and Islam stressed age-old customs and respect for tradition.
2. Western Culture emphasized material progress and political change.
3. Indians’ felt that religion had to be a part of their everyday lives.
4. Many Indians yearned for a sense of Nationalism
5. Muslims and Hindus wanted a separate state for religious freedom

The Opium Wars

(1839-42, 1856-60)

33. The first major military clashes between China and the West, ended the long Chinese isolation from other civilizations. For China, defeated in both conflicts, these wars represented the beginning of a century of humiliation by foreign powers through the imposition of unequal treaties that extracted commercial privileges, territory, and other benefits from the Chinese government.
34. The First Opium War stemmed from China’s efforts to bar the illegal importation of opium by British merchants. Britain scored an easy military victory. By several treaties China opened several ports to British trade. They also ceded Hong Kong to Britain, and granted Britain Extraterritoriality, that is, the right to try British citizens in China in British courts. The other Western powers soon received similar privileges.
35. The Second Opium War, or Anglo-French War, in China also resulted from China’s objections to the opium trade. A joint offensive by Britain and France secured another victory. The Treaty of Tianjin (Tientsin) was signed in 1858, but the Chinese refused to ratify it. Hostilities resumed, and Beijing (Peking) was captured by the Western allies.
36. In 1860, China agreed to the provisions of the treaty, which opened 11 more ports, allowed foreign envoys to reside in Beijing, admitted missionaries to China, permitted foreigners to travel in the Chinese interior, and legalized the importation of opium.
37. The Boxer Rebellion- A nationalist movement in China against Western Imperialism and Christianity-- The uprising took place in response to European "spheres of influence" in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, to missionary evangelism
38. Eventually the rebellion was stopped and foreign nations would commit many atrocities to the population of Bejing-- The "Boxer Protocol"- The protocol ordered the execution of 10 high-ranking officials linked to the outbreak and other officials who were found guilty for the slaughter of Westerners in China.
39. China would not be colonized by any one nation, but there was an “Open-Door Policy,” which meant most imperialistic nations could trade with China, without making it a colony.

Imperialism in Latin America
40. Imperialism in Latin America involved the United States and European nations seeking to strengthen their political and economic influence over the region.
41. The United States had become a growing economic force in Latin America by the late 1800s. Economic power and political power grew together, and the United States exerted its influence and control in many ways.
42. Cuba began a revolution against Spain in the 1860’s. Many Americans felt the need to help the Cubans in the struggle for independence.
43. The United States declared war on Spain following the explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor—The Spanish American War. The war was disastrous for Spain as the Spanish army was defeated in Cuba and navy fleets were destroyed in Philippines and Cuba-- U.S. won war within three months and received Philippines, Cuba, and Guam.
44. Platt Amendment- Forbade any transfer of Cuban land except to the United States- Right to intervene in Cuban Affairs—also created United States Presence in Guantanamo Bay.
45. Monroe Doctrine-- A policy that stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention.
46. American Isolationism- The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries but that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries
47. Roosevelt Corollary- Any situation threatening the independence of any country in the Western Hemisphere, the United States would act as police force

Reasons for Imperialism

1. The need for power and prestige- Ex: Different European countries would take over colonies for positioning and to disallow another European country from establishing a colony. White Man’s Burden-Western pride= Spanish Influence on Mexico
2. Many colonies were rich in natural resources- that could be brought to Europe and changed into manufactured goods. Ex: American Cotton=British Textiles
3. The colonies became a market for manufactured goods- Ex: India/Africa/America became markets for British Goods
4. The colonies provided strategic points for armed forces and navy Ex: British- Strait of Gibraltar, Suez Canal- Naval
5. Labor- The people of the colony could be used for slave labor and military causes- British-India, South Africa, Native American in America

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