22. The Dual Monarchy gave Austria and ____________________ their own parliaments.
23. Russia’s occupation of the ____________________ led to European concern about Russian influence.
24. Explain how each of the following wars helped Prussia to unite Germany: war with Denmark, the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War.
25. List five factors that helped German industry grow in the late 1800s.
26. In one sentence, explain the objective of Bismarck’s domestic policy regarding Catholics and socialists.
27. Describe the tension between regionalism and nationalism in Italy.
28. Explain how the weakening of the Ottoman empire led to conflict in the Balkans.
29. Describe Russia’s social structure and explain how the social structure made it difficult to achieve economic and social progress.
30. List three reforms that resulted from the revolution of 1905.
31. What advantages did Germany have when it industrialized?
32. What was Russification? Why did Czar Nicolas I felt it was necessary?
24. War with Denmark—Prussia and Austria divided Schleswig and Holstein between themselves; Austro-Prussian War—Prussia gained control of several other German states; and Franco-Prussian War—victory finally convinced the German princes to unite into a single empire under William I.
25. Answers should include five of the following: large deposits of coal and iron; a disciplined and educated work force; a huge home market; earlier progress in industries that had been established in the mid-1800s; scientific research and development; government support including organized banking, the development of a transportation infrastructure, and tariffs to protect home trade from foreign competition.
26. He wanted to ensure that citizens’ primary allegiance was to the state.
27. Most Italians felt stronger ties to their regions than they did to Italy as a nation. Therefore, it was often hard for them to move beyond regional loyalties to solve critical national issues.
28. As Ottoman control over the Balkans weakened, nationalist groups grew bolder in making their demands for independent nations. At the same time, European countries began to assert their ambitions in the area. The interests of these various groups often clashed.
29. Landowning nobles dominated society. Although the czar was at the top of the social structure, his power was dependent on support from the nobles. The middle class was too small to have much influence. The majority of the people were serfs. The czar could not make any reforms that affected the power of the nobles or he would lose their support. Landowning nobles had no reason to improve agriculture and took little interest in industry.
30. The czar promised personal freedoms, including freedom of person, speech, and assembly, and the establishment of an elected national legislature. The prime minister enacted moderate land reforms. In the end, however, there was relatively little positive change for the peasants and the workers. Russia was still an autocracy.
31. Germany had rich natural resources and a strong transportation network. Coming to industrialization after other countries provided technical advantages, because Germany began with already perfected basic machines and a knowledge of the best methods; the Germans themselves could then take those methods to the next level. In addition, the German government promoted the idea of cartels, and instituted high tariffs to give domestic products the advantage. Money and banking laws were also standardized.
32. Russia was made up of people from many different ethnicities, languages, and religions. Russification was a plan to bring the whole country together by forcing Russian language, customs, and religion on all people. Czar Nicolas I felt it was necessary to counteract liberalism and to prevent uprisings of different groups.
33. Revolts in Hungary led Austria to create the Dual Monarchy. Hungary and Austria shared a common ruler, but each country had its own parliament.