c. Louis Philippe (r. 1830-1848) of Orleans family
became the new king under a constitutional
monarchy; known as the “Bourgeoisie King”
d. France was now controlled by upper-middle class
bourgeoisie bankers and businessmen (in effect, a
return to narrow liberalism of 1815)
e. Impact of July Revolution: sparked a wave of
revolutions throughout Europe.
· “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe
catches a cold”
3. Italy (1831-32)
a. Northern Italy—Modena, Parma, and Papal
States—saw outbreaks of liberal discontent.
b. Italian nationalists called for unification: led by
Guiseppe Mazzini and his secret revolutionary
c. The Carbonari: secret nationalist societies
advocated force to achieve national unification.
d. Austrian troops under Metternich’s enforcement of
the Concert of Europe’s philosophy crushed the
e. Italian Risorgimento (“resurgence” of the Italian
spirit) continued—Mazzini’s dream.
4. The German states (1830-1833)
a. Carlsbad Decrees of 1819 had effectively
restricted freedom throughout Germany.
b. The July Revolution inspired German university
students and professors to lead street
demonstrations that forced temporary granting of
constitutions in several minor German states.
c. Yet, liberal and nationalistic desires for German
unification were easily crushed by Metternich’s
domination of the German Confederation (Bund),
and his influence on Prussia.
5. Belgium (1830)
a. Belgium had been merged with Holland in 1815,
but the upper classes of Belgium resisted rule by
the Dutch who had a different language, religion
and economic life.
b. July Revolution inspired a revolt against Dutch
rule in Brussels, led by students and industrial
c. Dutch army defeated and forced to withdraw from
Belgium by Franco-British fleet.
d. A national congress wrote a liberal Belgian
e. In 1839, the Great Powers declared the neutrality
6. Poland (1830-31)
a. Nicholas I crushed a nationalist uprising that
challenged Russia’s historic domination of Poland.
b. The Organic Statute of 1832 declared Poland to be
an integral part of the Russian empire.
7. Prussia established the Zollverein in 1834
a. Established an economic union of 17 German
states which eliminated internal tariffs and set the
tone for greater union.
b. Free-trade idea was quite liberal
c. Austria excluded; the issue became a major point
of contention between Prussia & Austria
VII. Liberal Reform in England
1. Young reform-minded Tories such as George Canning
and Robert Peel gained influence in the 1820s
· Allied with liberal Whig reformers
a. Britain abandoned the Congress System in 1822,
reformed prisons and the criminal code, allowed
membership in labor unions, and established
efficient metropolitan police force (“Bobbies”)
b. Religious Reform
· 1673 Test Act was repealed (had banned non-Anglicans from office)
· Catholic Emancipation Act (1829) granted full civil rights to Roman Catholics.
B. Earl Grey, Whigs’ leader, was asked by the new king,
George IV, to form a new government (1830)
1. Whigs were heavily supported by the middle class
2. Reform Bill of 1832
a. Considered a milestone in British history
b. Spurred by the recent cholera epidemic
· People demanded a more responsive gov’t
c. Increased number of voters from 6% of population to 12%.
d. Eliminated under populated rural electoral districts (“rotten boroughs”) that supported the House of Lords and replaced them with representation from new manufacturing districts and cities that rose upfrom the industrial revolution.
e. Resulted in the supremacy of the House of
Commons over the House of Lords in Parliament.
3. Labor Reform:
a. Factory Act of 1833: no child labor under age 9
b. Slavery abolished in British West Indies, 1833
· Inspired by the work of William Wilberforce, an evangelical Christian who saw slavery as a sin in the eyes of God.
c. Poor Law, 1834: required healthy unemployed
workers to live in workhouses.
d. Mines Act, 1842: Prohibited child labor in mines
e. 10 Hour Act, 1847: limited work hours for women and children to 10 hours per day
4. Chartists: sought universal suffrage
a. The People’s Charter also demanded secret
balloting, no property qualifications for members
of Parliament, salaries for members of Parliament,
equal electoral districts (end to “rotten
boroughs”), and annual elections for Parliament.
b. Significance: although movement failed initially,
all its ideas were adopted in the late 19th and
early 20th centuries.
5. Corn Laws repealed, 1846
a. Anti-Corn Law League, led by Richard Cobden
and John Bright, argued for lower food prices.
b. Partly a reaction to the 1840s Irish Potato Famine
6. Navigation Laws repealed, 1849
a. Officially ended official policy of mercantilism
b. Laws had been in effect since the days of Oliver
Cromwell in the 1650s
7. Internal unrest in England was relatively small
compared to other countries in Europe during the rest
of the 19th century.
People saw reform was possible without revolution
b. Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901): her relatively
peaceful reign was known as the “Victorian Era”
VIII. Revolutions of 1848
1. Watershed political event of the 19th century.
2. 1848 revolutions influenced by nationalism,
liberalism, and romanticism as well as economic
dislocation and instability.
3. Only Britain and Russia avoided significant upheaval
· Liberal reforms in Britain prevented serious
· Conservative oppression in Russia prevented
liberal revolution from taking hold
4. Neither liberals nor conservatives could gain a
permanent upper hand.
5. Resulted in end of serfdom in Austria and Germany,
universal male suffrage in France, parliaments
established in German states (although controlled by