Industrial Revolution Matching

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Industrial Revolution


Match the terms to the descriptions.




Robert Owen










James Watt






Jeremy Bentham

____ 1. those who manage and assume the financial risk of new businesses

____ 2. utopian socialist who set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland

____ 3. British philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianism

____ 4. the working class

____ 5. the movement of people to cities

____ 6. a business organization in areas such as shipping, mining, or factories

____ 7. a private toll road

____ 8. a drug that prevents pain during surgery, patented by a dentist

____ 9. an apartment building for the working class

____ 10. improved the steam engine in the late 1700s

Short Answer

“While the engine runs, people must work—men, women, and children are yoked together with iron and steam. The animal machine is chained fast to the iron machine, which knows no suffering and weariness.”

—James Kay-Shuttleworth, 1832

11. Identify Point of View Read the quotation. Pay attention to the words the writer uses to describe the workers. What comparison is the writer making in the quotation? What point is he making about factory work during the Industrial Revolution?

12. Make Generalizations Explain why Adam Smith thought that laissez-faire economics would benefit everyone in society. Do you think his theory was correct as applied to Britain during the Industrial Revolution?

13. Synthesize Information Discuss how technological change and population growth launched the Industrial Revolution in Britain.

14. Demonstrate Reasoned Judgment Do you think the results of the Industrial Revolution were worth the human cost? Explain your reasoning.

15. Determine Relevance What was the significance of the development of steam power to industrialization?

“In a higher phase of communist society . . . only then can the narrow horizon of bourgeois right be fully left behind and society inscribe on its banners: from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”

—Karl Marx

16. Identify Central Issues What did Karl Marx mean in this quotation?

“. . . the power of population is [far] greater than the power in the Earth to produce subsistence for man.”

–Thomas Malthus

17. Test Conclusions What conclusion is the writer expressing in the quotation? Was his conclusion correct? Explain.

18. Recognize Cause and Effect Explain how the invention of machines such as the spinning jenny and water frame changed the location where people worked.

19. Make Generalizations Describe some of the harsh living and working conditions the working class endured in cities. How did industrial workers cope with these conditions?

20. Synthesize Information Explain how the agricultural revolution helped to bring about the Industrial Revolution.

Industrial Revolution

Answer Section


1. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 613

OBJ: 19.2.1 Understand why Britain was the starting point for the Industrial Revolution.

TOP: Industrial Revolution

2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 625

OBJ: 19.4.3 Summarize the theories of socialism. TOP: socialism

3. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 623

OBJ: 19.4.2 Describe the doctrine of utilitarianism. TOP: utilitarianism

4. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 625

OBJ: 19.4.4 Explain Marx's views of the working class and the response to Marxism.

STA: 6.01 TOP: Marxism

5. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 616

OBJ: 19.3.1 Explain what caused urbanization and what life was like in the new industrial cities.

TOP: urbanization

6. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 613

OBJ: 19.2.1 Understand why Britain was the starting point for the Industrial Revolution.

TOP: Industrial Revolution

7. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: pp. 614-615

OBJ: 19.2.3 Explain the significance of the transportation revolution.

TOP: transportation revolution

8. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 609

OBJ: 19.1.1 Analyze why life changed as industry spread. TOP: invention

9. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 618

OBJ: 19.3.2 Compare and contrast the industrial working class and the new middle class.

STA: 6.01 TOP: social class

10. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 611

OBJ: 19.1.3 Outline the new technologies that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution.

STA: 1.04 TOP: technology


11. ANS:

Possible response: The writer is comparing workers to animals and to machines. He describes the workers as “yoked together,” an expression which is typically used to refer to a team of oxen. The demanding “iron machine” of the factory turns the workers into an “animal machine.” Based on the comparison he makes, the writer is making the point that the pace and general conditions of factory work are inhumane. He points out that workers are expected to work at the same pace as the machine to which they are “chained,” as if they could feel no more suffering or weariness than could the machine.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp. 618-619

OBJ: 19.3.3 Understand how the factory system and mines changed the way people worked.

TOP: factory system

12. ANS:

Possible response: Smith thought the laissez-faire or hands-off approach in regard to government regulation of the economy would eventually benefit everyone in society because the free market would produce more goods at lower prices, making them affordable to everyone. Consumption of goods would help the economy grow, create jobs and greater demand, and encourage capitalists to reinvest in businesses. Smith was correct in his fundamental assumptions. However, his theories could not have taken into account the practical social and political forces that would be at work during the transition to an industrial economy. Industrialists could not conduct business long ignoring the demand for better wages and working conditions. The growth of unions, socialism, and Marxism show that the pace of economic improvement for workers in Britain was obviously too slow for most and would likely take generations to achieve.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 548 | pp. 622-623

OBJ: 19.4.1 Understand laissez-faire economics and the beliefs of those who supported it.

TOP: laissez-faire economics

13. ANS:

Possible response: In the 1700s in Britain, new agricultural methods contributed to exploding population growth. These new efficient farming methods caused many farmers to become unemployed which, in turn, drove them to the cities seeking work. The result was a ready workforce for coal mines and factories as well as an increase in demand for goods.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: pp. 613-614

OBJ: 19.2.1 Understand why Britain was the starting point for the Industrial Revolution.

TOP: Industrial Revolution

14. ANS:

Possible response: The early years of the Industrial Revolution brought a harsh life and difficult working conditions for many workers. However, eventually the Industrial Revolution led to a higher standard of living for most people. Reform and labor movements improved working conditions, increased wages, and shortened work hours. Workers gained the power to vote and influenced government to pass labor laws. Workers began to have enough money to buy many of the new mass-produced products, with enough left over to enjoy leisure activities. Increased demand for products led to the opening of new factories, creating jobs for more workers. Reduced railroad costs enabled people to travel. Overall, the Industrial Revolution broadened horizons and increased opportunities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 616 | p. 620

OBJ: 19.3.4 Analyze the benefits and challenges of industrialization.

TOP: Industrial Revolution

15. ANS:

Possible response: Steam was a key factor in bringing about industrialization. The development of efficient steam power made factories possible because steam could power the machines. Steam could also power locomotives and steamships, triggering the transportation revolution. Improved transportation was vital to industrialization. As production increased, entrepreneurs needed faster and cheaper methods of moving goods from place to place. The invention of steam locomotives enabled the growth of railroads. Railroads revolutionized land transportation in that they did not have to follow the course of a river to transport goods.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 611 | p. 615

OBJ: 19.1.3 Outline the new technologies that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution.

STA: 1.04 TOP: Industrial Revolution

16. ANS:

Possible response: In this quote, Marx explains how economies will work after they become communist. He says that when the change to a communist society happens, the ownership of resources (that is, wealth and the means of production) by the middle class will give way to a classless society. In that new society, wealth and power will be equally shared. In this ideal society, people would receive resources (for example, food or housing) according to their need for them. People would contribute to society (for example, in their job) based on their ability to do so.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp. 625-626

OBJ: 19.4.4 Explain Marx's views of the working class and the response to Marxism.

STA: 6.01 TOP: Marxism

17. ANS:

Possible response: Malthus studied British society in the late 1700s at the beginning of the industrial age. At that time, Britain was undergoing a population explosion. This contributed to hunger, unemployment, and general misery. In this quotation Malthus expresses his idea that population growth would continue to outpace the food supply because humans were beginning to overcome many of the natural checks on population growth such as war, disease, and famine. Therefore, he concluded that continued poverty was unavoidable. The conclusion was incorrect. The population continued to increase, but the food supply increased even faster due to advances in agricultural methods. Eventually, as living conditions improved in the Western world, people began having fewer children, which slowed the population growth rate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 622 | p. 623

OBJ: 19.4.1 Understand laissez-faire economics and the beliefs of those who supported it.

TOP: laissez-faire

18. ANS:

Possible response: Before the invention of these textile machines, people spun thread and wove cloth in their own homes. These machines made textile production faster and more efficient. However, the machines were too large and expensive to be operated by individuals in their own homes. As a result, manufacturers housed the machines in sheds near a source of water power. These were the first factories. Instead of working at home, people now came to these factories to work each day.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 614

OBJ: 19.2.2 Describe the changes that transformed the textile industry.

TOP: textile industry

19. ANS:

Possible response: Rapid urbanization and population growth helped to create the harsh living conditions in cities. Cities grew up around factories that polluted the air. As people poured into cities, housing and city services were not sufficient to support the growing population. Working-class people crowded into tiny tenement rooms without running water in foul-smelling slums. Workers labored long hours for low wages in work environments that were often dangerous. Workers had different ways of coping with this harsh life. Many workers joined labor unions and tried to start reforms. The Luddites reacted violently to new technology by destroying machines that challenged their jobs. However, many from the working class created their own sense of community. Some found comfort in Methodism which discouraged violence but encouraged social reform.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp. 616-618

OBJ: 19.3.1 Explain what caused urbanization and what life was like in the new industrial cities.

TOP: urbanization

20. ANS:

Possible response: The Industrial Revolution was made possible by changes in agriculture that made farm output more efficient. The Dutch led the way in developing new farming methods, and British farmers expanded on these efforts. For example, they rotated crops and mixed soils together to increase yields. Inventions such as the seed drill also helped agriculture. In the 1700s, wealthy landowners used enclosure to consolidate land formerly worked by peasants into larger landholdings that could be farmed more efficiently. These changes increased farm output in Britain which created a surplus of food. A better diet improved the general health of the population, along with medicines and improved sanitation. These factors contributed to a population explosion throughout the 1700s. The increased population created a ready workforce for industry with a demand for goods from the newly industrialized economy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp. 609-610

OBJ: 19.1.2 Summarize how an agricultural revolution led to the growth of industry.

TOP: agricultural revolution

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