Inland waterways research guide



Download 103.84 Kb.
Date14.05.2016
Size103.84 Kb.
#45105

INLAND WATERWAYS RESEARCH GUIDE

Herman T. Pott National Inland Waterways Library

St. Louis Mercantile Library-University of Missouri-St. Louis

http://www.umsl.edu/pott

Libraries with inland river collections include:

G.W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport, Mystic, CT, http://www.mysticseaport.org/research ;

The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Rare Books and Special Collections, Inland Rivers Collection, Third Floor – Bridge, Main Library/North Building, 800 Vine St., Cincinnati, OH 45202-2071, 513-369-6957;

Tulane University Library, New Orleans, LA http://www.tulane.edu/~lmiller/Transportation.html ; and Murphy Library, 1613 Pine St., La Crosse, WI 54601, http://www.uwlax.edu/MarlyLibrary/archome.html

Fred A. Bill. Photographs and pictures of river steamers, ca. 1860-1920. 5 vol. Also one box of photographs of river steam boats. http://www.slpl.lib.mo.us/libsrc/phocol.htm


http://steamboats.org A steamboat information resource that has a glossary of steamboat terms, interactive steamboat model, books and message board.
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/lc American Memory from the Library of Congress collections provides free internet access to historical images, maps, newspapers, periodicals, sheet music, narratives of early travel, and steamboat photographs. Other Library of Congress images are included in:

Selected Library of Congress Steamboat Photographs and Pictures

Microfilm



http://levysheetmusic.mse.jhu.edu/ The Johns Hopkins University has the Lester S. Levy Collection of Sheet Music of over 29.000 pieces focusing on popular American music from 1780 to 1960: The
www.waterwaysjournal.net The Waterways Journal is a weekly trade publication covering news of the inland rivers and Gulf Intracoastal Waterway.
http://www.boatnerd.com Great Lakes and Seaway Shipping website.
http://ntl.bts.gov/ref/biblio/inland_water/inlandwater_references.html Sources of Information in Transportation. Inland Water Transportation. (Washington, D.C.): U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Library, [2001]-
Sullivan, Margaret L. “Inland Waterways,” pp. 199–234 in Sources of Information in Transportation. (Evanston, IL): Published for the Transportation Center at Northwestern University by the Northwestern University Press, 1964.

HE 191 .A3x

Bar NCIR Z 7164 .T8 A3



BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY

Government Records


http://tris Largest and most comprehensive source of information of published transportation research on the Web, was a joint project between the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the Transportation Research Board.
www.nara.gov National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408, 1-800-234-8861. The regional (NARA) that includes St. Louis is the National Archives Kansas City Branch, 2312 East Bannister Rd., Kansas City, MO 64131-3011. At the regional archives there are licenses for various positions within their regional jurisdiction.
On August 30, 1852, licenses were required of pilots and engineers, and the 1871 Act added masters, chief mates, engineers and pilots of all steam vessels. April 17, 1874 Act licenses required of alien engineers and pilot who declared their intention of becoming citizens. In the May 28, 1896 Act steam vessel officer's licenses were issued for five years, and renewal at any time before expiration. March 23, 1898 Act, extended licensing of steam vessel chief mates to include ocean or coastwise steam vessels' chief mates, and second or third mates in charge of a watch, and mates of river steamers. The 1871 Act was amended by the December 21, 1898 Act to include licensing of masters and chief mates of sail vessels over 700 tons, and all other vessels or barges of over 100 tons carrying passengers.
The Steamboat Inspection Service of the Commerce Department administered the acts by creating districts where the licenses were obtained. First Supervising District - Local port: St. Michael, AK Second Supervising District - Local port: Albany, NY Fourth Supervising District - Local ports: St. Louis, MO; Dubuque, IA Sixth Supervising District - Local ports: Louisville, KY; Evansville, IN; Nashville, TN; Memphis, TN Seventh Supervising District - Local ports: Pittsburgh, PA; Cincinnati, OH; Point Pleasant, WVA Eighth Supervising District - Local port: Chicago, IL Tenth Supervising District - Local ports: New Orleans, LA; Mobile, AL. Licenses and records can also be found in State Historical Societies, State Archives, or other collections.
Copies of these licenses were not kept by the government, but the names were listed by supervising districts in:
Steamboat-Inspection Service.  Proceedings of the … Annual Meeting of the Board of Supervising Inspectors of Steam Vessels. Washington: G.P.O.

Library has 1874 and 1881. A complete set (1853 - 1893) with the list of vessels and officers licensed is available at the University of Chicago Library: Microforms, microfc J83.U13 1990:T3810-1 to T3810-, and SLU Law Library.

Rare VM 600 .U5
Steamboat-Inspection Service. List of Masters, Mates, Pilots, and Engineers of Merchant Steam, Motor, and Sail Vessels, Licensed During the Year Ended December - for a Period of Five Years.

Library has 1897 - 1905. Annual publication (1894-1905) that has lists of licenses granted for a five-year period and status of licenses. Publication dates cover the previous year, example, 1894 is for people “licensed during the year ended December 31, 1893”.



Merc Ref HE 589 .U5 A25
Steamboat-Inspection Service. List of Officers of Merchant Steam, Motor, and Sail Vessels, Licensed During the Year … for a Period of Five Years.

Library has 1906 - 1915. Annual publication continues Steamboat-Inspection Service. List of Masters, Mates, Pilots, and Engineers … (previous entry).



Merc Ref HE 589 .U5 A25
http://www.gpoaccess.gov/gmanual/index.html The United States Government Manual. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1973-

Lists of government employees

Other Sources


Evidence of early steamboat travelers can be found in newspapers of time, for instance travelers placed notices thanking the captain and crew for a particular steamboat trip. 19th Century newspapers carried lists of people with letters waiting to be picked up at the post office, and also list of people staying at different lodgings.
Morris, Jean S. Western Migrations by River and Canal from PA & NY: A Bibliography. 2005
Peterson, Ann H. “Finding River People on Western Waters,” National Genealogical Society Quarterly, December 1990, 245-261.
Radloff, Herman and Alexander Coyle. "Your ancestor a river captain?" St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Genealogical Society, 1973.

Includes references to primary sources and lists of licensed officers from the 1857, 1859 and 1915 St. Louis City Directories

Merc Ref F474 .S2 Y68 1973
CIVIL WAR

Government Records

Names of Civil War masters of vessels contracted by the U.S. Army can sometimes be found in the NARA “vessel papers” in Record Group 92, Records of the Office of Quartermaster General. These “vessel papers” are arranged by vessel name.


Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. Washington: GPO, 1894.

Wtr Wys E 591 .U58 1987 (reprint)
Silverstone, Paul H., Warships of the Civil War Navies. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1989

Authoritative and illustrated

Wtr Wys VA 61 .S573 1989




Other Sources


Gibson, Charles Dana and E. Kay Gibson. Assault and Logistics: Union Army Coastal and River Operations 1861-1866. Camden, ME: Ensign Press, 1995.

Role of contracted vessels in the Civil War.


Wtr Wys E 591 .G53 1995

Gibson, Charles Dana and E. Kay Gibson. Dictionary of Transports and Combatant Vessels Steam and Sail Employed by the Union Army, 1861-1868. Camden, ME: Ensign Press, 1995.


Lists contracted vessels and their role in the Civil War.

Wtr Wys VA 61 .G53 1995

Gosnell, H. Allen. Guns on the Western Waters: The Story of River Gunboats in the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1949.



Civil War gunboats

Wtr Wys E 591 .G67

Greene, F.V. The Mississippi. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1882



Campaigns of the Civil War, Vol. VIII

Rare E 470.8 .G81 1882, 1892

Porter, Admiral David D. The Naval History of the Civil War. New York: Sherman Publishing Co., 1886.



Written and illustrated by people with first-hand knowledge of the events

Rare E 591 .P84 1886
MACHINERY, MODELS & PLANS

http://pc-78-120.udac.se:8001/WWW/Transport/Transport.html Different sections: Air; Rail; Road; Sea Transport, contains Maritime History and Pointers to Other Sites of Nautical Interest.
Ashley, Clifford. The Ashley Book of Knots. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Comprehensive book about knots that rivermen used.



Wtr Wys VM 533 .A8 1993
Bates, Alan L. The Western Rivers Engineroom Cyclopaedium. Louisville, Ky.: Cyclopaedium Press, 1996.

Steamboat machinery

Merc Ref VM 343 .B27 1996

Bates, Alan L. The Western Rivers Steamboat Cyclopaedium or American Riverboat Structure & Detail, Salted with Lore With A Nod To The Modelmaker. Leonia, N.J.: Hustle Press, 1968.

Steamboat structure

Wtr Wys VM 461 .B3 1968
James Rees & Sons Company. Sewickley, Pa: Capt. Frederick Way, Jr., G.W. Sutphin, 1972, 1913.

Illustrated catalog of this large steamboat yard



Wtr Wys VM301 .J35 J35 1972
"The Machinery of Western River Steamboats", from the International Correspondence School Textbook on Marine Engineering, Vol. II.

Steamboat machinery


Paddlewheels and Props Catalog, John Fryant, 7672 Crystal Cove Pointe, Maineville, Ohio 45039-7008

Model plans and supplies


St. Louis Admirals R/C Model Boat Club. Contact: Thomas P. O'Dell, 417 Valley View Drive, East Alton, IL 62024, Telephone: 618-259-3052
Ship Plan List / National Museum of American History. Washington, D.C.: The Museum, 1998.

Vessel plans



Wtr Wys VN 297 .N3 S5 1998
TERMS

Eyden, Pamela. The Little Tow-Watcher’s Guide to Towboats & Barges on the Upper Mississippi. Winona, MN: Big River, 2002.

Towboat terms
http://www.marad.dot.gov/publications/glossary/Glossary.html Glossary of Shipping Terms. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration.
Hahn. Thomas Swiftwater and Emory L. Kemp. Canal Terminology of the United States. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Press, 1999.

Wtr Wys TC 623 .H24 1999

Noel, John V. The VNR Dictionary of Ships & the Sea. New York: Van Nostrant Reinhold Co., 1981.



Wtr Wys V23 .N63 1981
The Oxford Companion to Ships & the Sea. Edited by Peter Kemp. London: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Wtr Wys V 23 .O96 1976
Woollam, W.G. Shipping Terms and Abbreviations: Maritime--Insurance--International Trade. Cambridge: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc., 1963.

Wtr Wys HE 567 .W6 1963
VESSELS

Government Records


www.nara.gov National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-000. The regional (NARA) that includes St. Louis is the National Archives Kansas City Branch, 2312 East Bannister Rd., Kansas City, MO 64131-3011.
Marine Inspection and Navigation, Bureau of (Record Group 41) Steamboat Inspection Service, was created July 7, 1838. Inspectors listed the dates of their first inspections. Local newspapers and The Waterways Journal (1891-present) would likely carry descriptions of these new vessels. Vessels had to be measured before being registered, enrolled, or licensed, and after licensing they were numbered and named. Vessels were required to have a license showing hulls inspected every twelve months, and boilers every six months and to provide safety equipment. The 1871 Act made ferryboats, canal boats, yachts and other small craft subject to vessel inspection. The August 7, 1882 Act provided foreign private passenger vessels between any U.S. port and elsewhere subject to the laws.
The Steamboat Inspection Service of the Commerce Department administered the acts by creating districts where the inspections were done. First Supervising District - Local port: St. Michael, AK Second Supervising District - Local port: Albany, NY Fourth Supervising District - Local ports: St. Louis, MO; Dubuque, IA Sixth Supervising District - Local ports: Louisville, KY; Evansville, IN; Nashville, TN; Memphis, TN Seventh Supervising District - Local ports: Pittsburgh, PA; Cincinnati, OH; Point Pleasant, WVA Eighth Supervising District - Local port: Chicago, IL Tenth Supervising District - Local ports: New Orleans, LA; Mobile, AL. Licenses and records can also be found in State Historical Societies, State Archives, or other collections.
Steamboat-Inspection Service.  Proceedings of the … Annual Meeting of the Board of Supervising Inspectors of Steam Vessels. Washington: G.P.O.

Library has 1874 and 1881. A complete set (1853 - 1893) with the list of vessels and officers licensed is available at the University of Chicago Library: Microforms, microfc J83.U13 1990:T3810-1 to T3810--, and SLU Law Library.

Rare VM 600 .U5
http://www.cr.nps.gov/maritime/vesnhl.htm List of vessels that have been designated National Historic Landmarks. The full text of many of the nominations is available at this site. For copies of nominations not online robert_sandoval@nps.gov
http://psix.uscg.mil The Port State Information Exchange (PSIX) system contains vessel specific information derived from the United States Coast Guard's Marine Safety Information system (MSIS).
Annual Report of the Supervising Inspector General, Steamboat Inspection Service to the Secretary of Commerce. Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Title varies slightly. Library has 1870-1912. Coverage is for example for 1912 is “fiscal year ended June 30, 1912”.


Merc Ref HE 589 .U5 A15



Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Washington, D.C.: Navy Dept., Office of the Chief of Naval operations, Naval History Division, 1969-1991. Vol. 1-VIII

Comprehensive American naval history with illustrations

Gov Docs D207.10:1/pt.A/991-
Merchant Vessels of the United States / United States Department of Transportation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Coast Guard

Annual publication, some issues available on microfiche



Wtr Wys HE 565 .U5 A27
Appendix to Merchant Vessels of the United States Containing a Complete List of the Vessels of the United States Navy, From 1797 to 1874. Washington, DC: GPO, 1874.
Dubuque

Permanent Enrollments by Dubuque Steamboat Inspectors, 1870-1888, Steamboats, Steam Ferryboats, Flatboats, and Barges (Record Groups 26)

Microfilm



New Orleans

Ship Registers and Enrollments of New Orleans, Louisiana. University, La.: Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana State University, 1941- Vol. I-VI, 1804-1870

Merc Ref HE 565 .U73
New York

List of American-Flag Merchant Vessels that Received Certificates of Enrollment or Registry at the Port of New York, 1789-1867. Vol. I-II. Washington: National Archives, 1968.

Merc Ref HE 565 .U5 A43 1968 v. 1 & 2



St. Louis

General Index, Grantor-Grantee, 1867 – 1913


Index of Enrollments, and Enrollments at St. Louis (1835, 1844)

Steamboats Bill of Sale, Transfers, Power of Attorney, Deeds of Trust, Mortgages, Releases,

Shares (Record Group 26)

Microfilm



Vessel Documentation Records from the Port of St. Louis, Mo., 1835 – 1944.

Copies of Licenses of Vessels Over 20 Tons (1844 – July 1912) Rolls 1 – 17

Copies of Licenses of Vessels under 20 Tons (September 1893 – May 1931) Rolls 18 - 20

Copies of Licenses of Yachts (April 1902 – June 1911); Enrollments, Volumes B90-B92 (May 1835 – December 1901) Roll 21

Enrollments, Volume B93 (January 1902 – July 1911) Roll 22

Combined Certificates of Enrollment and License (August 1911 – June 1918) Roll 23

Accident Reports (May 1884 – 1942) Roll 24

Reports of Vessel Construction, Destruction, and Legal or Physical Alteration (June 1900 – June 1914) Roll 25

Quarterly Abstracts of the Status of Vessels (July 1900 – June 1914); Annual Listings of Vessels (July – June 1911); Annual Vessel Recapitulations (July 1900 – June 1911); Licenses of Vessels Over 20 Tons: Cairo, IL (1867 – 1870) Roll 26

Microfilm

City of St. Louis. Index to Steamboat Arrivals and Departures, 1878 to 1881 and 1888 to 1918. (Roll H-379)

Microfilm




Other Sources


The Steamship Historical Society Archives (SSHSA) http://www.sshsa.org consists of over 200,000 steamship photographs including WWII, cargo and inland. Collection is currently unavailable.
University of Wisconsin - La Crosse - Murphy Library, Special Collections Department, La Crosse, WI 54601 Tel. 608-785-8511 Extensive collection of photographs of inland river steamboats and river scenes. http://perth.uwlax.edu/murphylibrary/Departments/archome.html
Dick’s Towboat Gallery has Mississippi and Ohio River Towboats and links.

http://www.towboatgallery.com

Baldwin, Leland Dewitt. The Keelboat Age on Western Waters. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1941.



Wtr Wys F 351 .B18 1941
Barkhau, Roy L. A History of the Eagle Packet Company. Cincinnati, OH: Young and Klein, 1951.

Merc Ref HE 633 .E35 B7 1951

Branch, Alan E. Elements of Shipping. Fifth Edition. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1981.

Shipping industry, especially ship management

Wtr Wys HE 571 .B67 1981
Classified Index for the Harold Brown Adkinson Collection of Mississippi and Ohio River Steamboats, Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, IN

Microfilm

Custer, Jack E. An Investigation of Submerged Historic Properties in the Upper Mississippi River and the Illinois Waterway. Louisville, KY: Steamboat Masters & Associates, 1997



Merc Ref CC 77 .U5 C97 1997
Donovan, Frank. River Boats of America. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966.

Entire history of steamboating


Wtr Wys VM 461 .D6 1966

Eskew, Garnett Laidlaw. The Pageant of the Packets. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1929



Steamboat history from the opening of the west to towboats

Merc Ref VK 23 .E7 1929

Flexner, James Thomas. Steamboats Come True: American Inventors in Action. New York: Viking Press, 1944.

Early steamboat development

Wtr Wys VM 615 .F63 1944
Gibson, Charles Dana and E. Kay Gibson. Marine Transportation in War: The U.S. Army Experience 1775-1860. Camden, ME: Ensign Press, 1992.

Wtr Wys UC 323 .G53 1992

Haites, Erik F., James Mak, and Gary M. Walton. Western River Transportation: The Era of Early Internal Development, 1810-1860. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.



Wtr Wys HE 631 .W4 H35 1975
Hall, James. Notes on the Western States. Philadelphia: Harrison Hall, 1838.

Western Steamboats listed on p. 213-263, 290-304



Rare F 353 .H19 1838
Hall, James. Statistics of the West, at the Close of the Year 1836. Cincinnati: J.A. James & Co., 1836.

Western Steamboats listed on p. 213-263



Rare F 353 .H17 1836
Heyl, Erik. Early American Steamers. Buffalo, NY: Erik Heyl, 1953 -

Merc Ref VM 23 .H4 1964 v.3

Hilton, G.W, R. Plummer, J. Jobe. The Illustrated History of Paddle Steamers. Lausanne: Edita; New York: Two Continents, 1976



Many drawings and photos of world steamers

Wtr Wys VM 615 .H54 1976
Houseboats and Houseboating. Edited by Albert Bradlee Hunt. New York: Forest and Stream Publishing Co., 1905

Wtr Wys GV 836 .H93 1905 (ovr)
Hunter, Louis C. Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1949.

Authoritative overall history of the steamboat age



Merc Ref HE 627.H8 1949
Inland River Guide. St. Louis, Mo: The Waterways Journal, Inc.

Annual publication of barge and towing companies, terminals, services, shipyards on Midwestern and southern rivers, professionals and agencies

Wtr Wys HE 627 .I54, current year in Merc Ref
Inland River Record. St. Louis, Mo.: The Waterways Journal, Inc.

Annual publication of stack logos, pertinent information about river boats and their owners on Midwestern and southern rivers

Wtr Wys VM 23 .I5, current year in Merc Ref
Kane, Adam I. The Western River Steamboat. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004.

Scholarly combination of historical sources and steamboat archaeology



Wtr Wys VM 461 .K35 2004
Klein, Eugene. United States Waterway Packetmarks: Handstamped and Printed Names of Mail Carrying Steamboats on the United States of America Inland and Coastal Waters 1832-1899. Federalsburg, Md: J.W. Stowell Printing Co., 1940.

Merc Ref HE 6185 .U5 K54 1940
Lane, Carl D. American Paddle Steamboats. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1943

Many images of steamboats


Wtr Wys VM 623 .L3 1943

Lyford, W.G. The Western Address Directory. Baltimore: Printed by J. Robinson, 1837.

Alphabetical List of Steamboats on the Western Waters, pp. 461-468

Rare E 165 .L984 1837
Lytle, William M. Merchant Steam Vessels of the United States 1807-1868 "The Lytle List". Mystic, Conn.: The Steamship Historical Society of America, 1952.

"The Lytle List", "The Lytle-Holdcamper List and Supplement" combined form a standard steamboat listing

Merc Ref HE 745 .L97 1952
Lytle, William M. Merchant Steam Vessels of the United States 1790-1868 "The Lytle-Holdcamper List". Staten Island, NY: The Steamship Historical Society of America, 1975.

Merc Ref HE 745 .L97 1975, (Supplement Number 1, HE/745/.L97/1975/ Suppl no. 1 - Suppl no. 2, no. 3)
Mace, Capt. Ellis C. River Steamboats and Steamboat Men: A History. Cynthiana, KY: Hobson Book Press, 1944.

Merc Ref VM 461 .M3 1944

McCall, Edith. Conquering the Rivers: Henry Miller Shreve and the Navigation of America’s Inland Waterways. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984

History of early steamboats

VM 140 .S57 M35 1984, Pott VM 140 .S57 M35 1984


Milgram, James W. Vessel-Named Markings on United States Inland and Ocean Waterways, 1810-1890. Collectors Club of Chicago, 1984.



19th century mail steamers and postmarks

Merc Ref HE 6185 .U5 M48 1984

Mills, John M. Canadian Coastal and Inland Steam Vessels, 1809-1930 and Supplement No. 1. Providence, RI: Steamship Historical Society of America, 1979 and 1981.



Merc Ref HE 565 .C2 M54 and Suppl. 1
Morris, Ann. An Inventory of the Federal Barge Lines Collection. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Mercantile Library Association, 1988.

http://www.umsl.edu/pott/pmore/fblcoll/fblcoll.htm

Merc Ref and TJ Ref Z 881 .S85 S82 1988

Morrison, John H. History of American Steam Navigation. New York: Stephen Daye Press, 1958.



Merc Ref VM 623 .M87 1958

Naval & Maritime History: An Annotated Bibliography and A Supplement to Naval & Maritime History: An Annotated Bibliography.

Wtr Wys Z 6834 .H5 A4 1972, 1988
Peel, Bruce Braden. Steamboats on the Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Western Producer, 1972.

Saskatchewan River steamboats



F 1071 .P3x
Preble, George Henry. A Complete List of Vessels of the United States Navy, from 1797 to 1874 … Philadelphia?: For private Distribution, 1874

Merc Ref VA 61 P69 1874

Rhodes, Thomas G. and Harley E. Scott. Steamboats Today: A Pictorial Directory of North American Vessels. Cayuga Creek Historical Press, 1986.



Merc Ref VM 461 .R48 1986
Steamboat History of Lee Line, Illustrated 1832-1930; The Great Steamboat Race, A History of the Eagle Company, Capt. Roy Barkhau; Doxology of Anchor Line, Capt. William H. Tippitt

Microfilm



Way's Packet Directory 1848-1983. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1983.

http://www.steamboats.org/cgi-bin/database.pl includes photos

Merc Ref HE 565 .U5 W39 1994

Wtr Wys HE 565 .U5 W39 1983
Way's Steam Towboat Directory. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1990.

Wtr Wys HE 565 .U71 W3 1954

Merc Ref HE 565 .U71 W33 1990






Download 103.84 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©www.essaydocs.org 2023
send message

    Main page