Lesson 6: In Service for World Peace (UN) Description



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Lesson 6: In Service for World Peace (UN)

Description:

Students will explore the scope and meaning of Canada’s involvement in UN peacekeeping operations through the examination of the Lincoln and Welland Regiment and it’s participation between 1957 and the present. By examining the role that soldiers from the Lincoln and Welland Regiment have played in the numerous peacekeeping missions since 1956, students will gain a greater appreciation of the sense of duty and volunteerism that existed in local militia units throughout the last half of the 20th century. They will also gain a greater understanding of the nature of conflict around the globe since World War 2.



Recommended Grade Range:

All provinces and territories except Quebec: Grades 10 to 12

Quebec: Secondary 1 to 5

Ontario Specific Expectations:

CGV.02D - demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which outside forces and events have shaped

Canada’s policies;

CCV.03D - explain how and why Canada’s international status and foreign policy have changed since

1914;

CGV.04D - demonstrate an understanding of Canada’s participation in war, peace, and security;



MHV.01D - ask questions, identify problems, and effectively use historical research methods to

investigate topics and issues in history;

MHV.02D - use a variety of information sources effectively when researching historical topics or issues,

accurately record relevant information, and then organize this information in a meaningful way;

MHV.04D - communicate effectively the results of research in presentations, and demonstrate ability

to apply insights from history to other situations.

CG4.08.D - describe the roles and functions carried out by the Canadian armed forces since 1945;

CH2.02D - assess the contributions of selected individuals to the development of Canadian identity since

World War I;

CC3.02D - explain the significance of Canada’s contribution to the United Nations;

MH2.01D - use school and public libraries, resource centres, museums, historic sites, and community and government resources effectively to gather information on Canadian history;

MH2.03D - record and organize information effectively.



Themes and Skills:

Critical Inquiry, primary source analysis, Research skills



Prerequisites:

This lesson should follow lessons introducing the creation of the United Nations and the role that Canada played in developing the concept of a UN Peacekeeping force to ensure that peace could be maintained in unstable regions of the world. Particular emphasis should be put on the fact that Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson (At the time he was Minister of External Affairs) lead the development of this force and won the Nobel peace prize in recognition of his efforts. The students should be familiar with the conclusion of World War 2 and the nature of global relations as a result of the advent of the Cold War.



Objectives:

  • Individually, students will define the term peacekeeping.

  • Collectively, students will create a list of reasons as to why a reservist would want to volunteer for a peacekeeping mission

  • Individually, students will complete the peacekeeping mission map

  • Individually, students will complete the UN mission sheets for 4 UN missions that soldiers from the Lincoln and Welland Regiment have participated in.

Estimated Time:

2-3 classroom periods



Materials required:

  • Computers with internet access

  • Copies of an outline map of the earth

  • Copies of the student response sheet

Electronic Resources

http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/

http://www.lwmuseum.ca/

http://www.iaw.com/~awoolley/lincweld.html

http://www.unac.org/en/index.asp

http://www.suezcrisis.ca/

http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/peacekeeping/

Print Resources:

Coulon, Jocelyn. Soldiers of diplomacy: The United Nations, Peacekeeping and the New World Order. Toronto/Buffalo/London: University of Toronto Press, 1998

Hillen, John. Blue Helmets: The Strategy of UN Military Operations. Washington/London: Brassey’s, 1998.

Peck, Connie. Sustainable Peace: The Role of the U.N. and Regional Organizations in Preventing Conflict. Lanham, NY: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc, 1998

Grant, Kurt. All Tigers, No Donkeys: A Canadian Soldier in Croatia,. St. Catharines: Vanwell, 2004

Bin, Matthew. On Guard for Thee: Canadian Peacekeeping Missions. Toronto: Bookland Press, 2007



Lesson Introduction:

In 1947 a new global organization was created to foster unity and peace among the nations of earth. The United Nations was the next great hope of the nations of the world to avoid another world war by supporting struggling governments, providing humanitarian aid to stricken regions and deploying international military peacekeeping forces as buffers between factions in national and international conflicts.

The idea for a military peacekeeping force first emerged during the Suez Crisis in 1957. Although Canada had no direct economic, military or political stake in the crisis, Canadian Foreign Minister Lester Pearson became a front line player at the United Nations. Working intensely from the end of October into early November 1956, Pearson proposed the world’s first ever peacekeeping force at the UN General Assembly. Using his vast web of connections and decades of experience, he persuaded the world assembly to make the UN force a reality. Arguably, he was the only diplomat who could have achieved this stunning result in such a short period. One year later in December 1957, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Since then the United Nations has successfully deployed peacekeeping forces to hundreds of conflicted regions around the globe. The Canadian government was routinely called on to provide forces for peacekeeping duty. Over time we developed a reputation for being a strong, resourceful, reliable and above all, impartial military force. As a result the Canadian Forces participated in no fewer than 40 peacekeeping missions.

Peacekeepers are traditionally placed between hostile forces to supervise cease-fires and the withdrawal of opposing forces. In more recent years, the role of Canadians in peace support operations has expanded to include the delivery of humanitarian aid, the supervision of elections, the repatriation of refugees, the disarming of warring factions and the restoration of shattered landscapes through the clearing of mines, etc. Tens of thousands of Canadians have served in international peace support operations, but Canada's contributions have come at a great cost. More 275 Canadians have died in such efforts in Afghanistan and around the world in the post-war years, and many more have been wounded, returning homes with injuries to body and mind that can last a lifetime.

The Lincoln and Welland Regiment has been at the forefront of sending volunteer reserve soldiers to participate in Canada’s peace support efforts. The following is a listing of the UN missions that members of the Lincoln and Welland Regiment have participated in.



  • United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) Cyprus (1965 - present)

  • United Nations Emergency Force Middle East (UNEFME) Egypt (1973 - 1979)

  • United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) Yugoslavia (1992 - 1995)

NATO Stabilization Force (SFOR) Bosnia (1996 - present)

  • United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) Cambodia (1992 - 1993)

  • UN Disengagement Observation Force (UNDOF) Golan Heights (1974 - present)

  • United Nations Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine (UNTSO)

Israel/Egypt/Jordan/Syria/Lebanon (1948 - present)

  • United Task Force (UNITAF) Somalia (1992 - 1993)

  • United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) Namibia (1989 - 1992)

  • Mission de l´Organisation des Nations Unies dans la République démocratique du Congo (MONUC)

  • Democratic Republic of Congo (1999 - present)

  • International Military Advisory Training Team (IMATT) Sierra Leone (2000 - present)

  • International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Afghanistan (2003 - present)

  • Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission/Kosovo Verification Mission (KDOM/KVM) Kosovo (1998 - 1999)

  • Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) Egypt (1982 - present)

Teaching/ Learning Strategies:

  1. Teacher writes the word ‘peacekeeping’ on the board and asks students to individually define the word in writing. At this point the teacher will distribute KWL (Know, want to know, want to learn) sheets to the class and will ask them to individually complete them based on the word on the board and definition they have created.

  2. Teacher writes their definition on the board and asks students to compare and discuss any difference between their definition and the one written on the board.

  3. Teacher leads a class discussion on the positive and negative influences that a peacekeeping force may have.



  1. Teacher introduces the concept that many of Canada’s peacekeepers have been drawn from reserve units such as the Lincoln and Welland Regiment. Particular emphasis should be placed on the fact that these soldiers volunteered to go and serve the United Nations and were not ordered to go do so.

  2. Teacher should address why a reservist (a part time soldier) would want to volunteer to serve in an area of conflict for the UN rather than remain at home.

  3. The teacher should invite students to brainstorm reasons why a reservist would want to volunteer.

  4. The teacher will invite students to create a class list of reasons by asking students to come up and write examples on the board.

  5. In order to understand the scope of the Lincoln and Welland Regiment’s involvement in peacekeeping operations the teacher will distribute a list of peacekeeping missions that soldiers from the Lincoln and Welland Regiment have participated in.

  6. The teacher will distribute an outline map of the word and instruct the students to locate and label the geographic location of each UN mission using computers with internet access.

  7. Students will submit completed maps for teacher assessment.

  8. Teacher will distribute copies of the UN Mission sheet to the students

  9. Using computers with internet access, students will navigate to http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/

  10. Students will complete UN mission sheets for 4 past or current missions that soldiers from the Lincoln and Welland Regiment have volunteered to participate in.

  11. The students will submit their completed sheets for evaluation.

Assessment/Evaluation

  • Diagnostic Assessment of student KWL sheets

  • Diagnostic assessment of student responses to discussion

  • Formative assessment of student created maps

  • Summative evaluation of completed mission sheets.


UNITED NATIONS MISSION EXPLORATION SHEET

Please navigate to the following website:

http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/past.shtml

Choose a mission from the list provided for you from your teacher. Explore the information on that specific mission and answer the questions provided below. As you are completing the answers remember that soldiers from the Lincoln and Welland Regiment participated in this mission and that their efforts helped secure peace for the people living in the region.

  1. What is the formal name of the mission you have selected?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Where was the geographic location of the mission you have selected?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How long did the mission last?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How many peacekeepers were involved in the mission in total?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How many Canadian peacekeepers were involved? (Hint: look at the bottom of the ‘background’ page)

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How many peacekeepers became casualties during this mission?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What was the specific role of the peacekeepers in this conflict?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Read the Background information on the mission and write a short summary of how the mission came to be and note some of the moments of the mission that you consider significant.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Based on the research you have just done, draw conclusions as to how successful you believe the mission was. Support your conclusions with factual examples.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

©The Lincoln and Welland Regiment Museum



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