Major Comparisons and Analyses: Foundation Period

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Major Comparisons and Analyses: Foundation Period (8000BCE-600CE)

8000BCE: roughly period of Early Humans

600CE: Rise of Islam

  1. Compare major religious and philosophical systems including some underlying similarities in cementing a social hierarchy


Social system-bureacracy (li) five relationships

Teachings(writing)- analects

Dao- duty to family and community


Social system-caste system (reincarnation)

The Vedas

Dharma- Sacred duty

Gurus/mystics and teachers





Pariahs (outcastes)

  1. Compare the role of women in different belief systems: Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, and Hinduism

Role of Women in Buddhism

Role of Women in Christianity

Role of Women in Confucianism

Role of Women in Hinduism

Believed women had souls

Many man valued Buddhist wives b/ they might benefit the family’s salvation

It was appealing to Chinese women b/c it led to a more meaningful life

*Buddhist Nuns Songs

  • Could be nuns

  • Role of Mary, mother of Jesus important

  • Women had to be humble

  • Marriage was based on property relationship, therefore women are subordinate to men

  • 5 Relationships

  • (Husband to Wife)

  • Lessons for Women(Ban Zhao)

  • Lowly Valued

  • Ex: Laws of Manu

  • Ramayana

  1. Understand how and why the collapse of empire was more severe in western Europe than it was in the eastern Mediterranean or in China

    Collapse of Western Roman Empire

    Collapse of Byzantine Empire

    Collapse of Han Empire

    -Catholic Church- held Empire together


    -Church held area together

    -Plague, political upheaval

    -Invaders-Visigoths, Vikings

    -Invaded by Turks-Power turned over to them

    -Eastern Orthodox (schism weakens)

    -Invasions led to call for the crusades



    -Period of Warring States

    -Some political structure

  2. Compare the caste system to other systems of social inequality devised by early and classical civilizations, including slavery

Caste System in India

Social classes/slavery in River Valley Civilizations

Social classes/ slavery in Greece and Rome



*eventually switched

(3)Vaisyas- traders and farmers

(4)Sudras- commoners and laborers

(5)untouchables-outcastes but not slaves

No intermarriage between classes or moving up of down.

-Kings=military leaders

-farmers were thought of as a high class.

-women were looked as lower than men.

-slaves were the lowest class-mentioned in Hammurabi’s code.

-Greece-slaves at bottom.

-Farmers could go down to slavery if they didn’t pay off their debts.

-women were looked as less than men.

-Rome- Patricians and Plebeians.

-Patricians- higher than Plebeians.

-Elite class called the nobles.

-Slaves were conquered people, not race.

  1. Compare societies that include cities with pastoral and nomadic societies





Began with Sumerians

Akkadians invaded (settled)

Babylonians invaded (settled)

Indo-Euros invaded from the north

Assyrians and Persians invaded (empires)

Hyksos (chariots)- Egyptians learned about them


Kushites- Invaded from Nubia in the south

Huns- barbarians, invaded from north, great wall built to stop them

Xiongnu- invaded from Gobi, destroyed by Wudi

Indo-Euros infiltrated- natural disasters, historians are unsure of impact on Indians

  1. Compare the development of traditions and institutions in major civilizations




    Caste system

    Buddhism, Hinduism- major religions

    Jati-large groups based on occupation

    Jainism- protection of animals

    Civil service – fighting in army




    Mandate of Heaven – divine authority to rule

    Filial piety

    Dao similar to dharma


    Polytheistic religion

    Epicureanism – Epicurean


    Later Christianity was developed

    Poleis- Athens

  2. Describe interregional trading systems

Silk Roads

Indian Ocean Trade

Trans-Saharan Trade

Traded from china to Europe

established by pastoral nomads

Traded silk and other products they were usually luxurious products

Also many spices were included in these trade routes

Traded on this route was silk,drugs, cotton,dye,gold, and ivory into the middle east

They received slaves and gold from rome in these routes

Wine, pottery and metals would also come from this trade route

Monsoons helped with the trade because it provided winds to carry ships

Gold Salt Trade

Merchants and upperclassmen would convert to Islam because they would be introduced with the religion over these trade routes and arab empire

Controlled by empires that taxed the trade routes

  1. Compare the political and social structures of early civilizations:





  • City-states

  • Govt. enforced religious duties

  • Kings were military leaders in times of wars

  • Slaves were lower class

  • Many laws concerning men/women and slaves/owners in Hammurabi’s code


  • Pharaohs had godlike status

  • Pyramids built as tombs for pharaohs

  • Had absolute power

  • Slaves were lower class

  • Pharaohs, priests, nobility, scribes were upper class

  • Craftsmen/slaves=middle class

Indus Valley

  • Strong centralized government

  • Planned cities

  • Social divisions were not significant

  • Dravidians

  • Aryans

  • Caste system


  • Mandate of heaven

  • Bureaucracy

  • Civil service exams

  • State Confucianism

  • Sharp divisions between nobles and peasants

  • Community and family put in front of individual needs

  • Patriarchal society

  • Filial piety

Mesoamerica (Toltecs and Olmecs)

  • Militaristic

  • Had kings and local rulers

  • Cults of sacrifice and war

Andean South America

(Chavins and Nazca)

  • Militaristic

  • Had kings and local rulers

  • Cults of war and sacrifice

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