Manitoba Free Press described the Icelanders as



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Window on the Past
1. The Manitoba Free Press described the Icelanders as

a. sly and dishonest.

b. awkward and clumsy.

c. obstinate and stubborn.

d. smart-looking and excellent.
2. According to Simon Simonson, Sygtryggur Jonasson's plan was for the Icelanders to

a. share expenses.

b. not support each other.

c. stay in Winnipeg.

d. pilfer supplies.
3. In December, 1876, many Icelanders died of

a. extreme cold.

b. smallpox.

c. measles.

d. influenza.
4. According to the Manitoba Free Press in 1876, houses in Gimli were

a. generally large.

b. generally small.

c. made of canvas.

d. windowless.
5. The Icelanders were taught how to ice-fish by

a. David Arnason.

b. government experts.

c. local Cree people.

d. an old voyageur.
6. According to David Arnason, the most alien thing in the new land for the Icelanders was the

a. cold.


b. ice-covered lake.

c. forests.

d. grasslands.
Timeline
1. Which of the following events occurred first?

a. Manitoba becomes a province.

b. The CPR is completed.

c. The Laws of St. Laurent are passed.

d. The Pacific Scandal erupts.
2. Which of the following events occurred first?

a. The North West Mounted Police is formed.

b. The Cypress Hills Massacre takes place.

c. The CPR is formed.

d. Building of the CPR begins.
3. Which of the following events occurred last?

a. Louis Riel is executed

b. The Northwest Rebellion takes place.

c. The CPR is completed.

d. The Liberals come to power under Alexander Mackenzie.

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4. Which of the following events occurred last?

a. Sandford Fleming commissions the Canadian Pacific Survey.

b. Building of the CPR begins.

c. The Cypress Hills Massacre takes place.

d. Ottawa concludes the Treaty process with the Native peoples.


5. Which of the following events are out of sequence?

a. The CPR is formed.

b. The Pacific Scandal erupts.

c. The Cypress Hills Massacre takes place.

d. The North West Mounted Police formed is formed.
6. Which of the following events are out of sequence?

a. The building of the CPR begins.

b. The CPR is completed.

c. Louis Riel is executed.

d. The Northwest Rebellion takes place.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. The troops that Macdonald sent to keep order in Manitoba

a. treated all persons equally.

b. attacked members of the Canadian Party.

c. attacked the Måtis.

d. acted as agents of peace.
2. In order to obtain the land the Canadian government had granted them, the Måtis were

a. given title deeds to their land.

b. issued scrip, which could be exchanged for 160 acres

c. issued scrip, which had a value of $160

d. both b) and c)
3. In many cases, the Måtis were unable to take up their lands because

a. the government never did issue scrip.

b. land speculators bought up their scrip.

c. they could not locate their lands.

d. the government ordered them to move.
4. Because the Måtis felt cheated out of their land, many

a. left for Quebec and Ontario.

b. sued the Canadian government.

c. left Manitoba for the Northwest.

d. became city dwellers.
5. The Måtis leaving Manitoba created their largest settlement in

a. Fort York.

b. Lac-la-Biche.

c. Saint-Albert.

d. Victoria.
6. In the Northwest, the Måtis engaged in which of the following activities?

a. farming.

b. hunting bison.

c. hauling freight for the HBC.

d. all of these
7. The Laws of St. Laurent were primarily intended to form

a. the constitution of the community.

b. an independent Måtis state.

c. the basis of a penitentiary system.

d. a business contract with the HBC.

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8. The Laws of St. Laurent were strict because the

a. Måtis liked strict laws.

b. community was so violent.

c. bison had to be conserved.

d. HBC was intolerant of Måtis customs.


9. Lawrence Clarke, the Chief Factor at Fort Carlton, was determined to

a. lower the Måtis standard of living.

b. prevent the Måtis from working for the HBC.

c. improve the Måtis standard of living.

d. offer the Måtis more full-time employment.
10. Lawrence Clarke used his position as magistrate to

a. apply the law fairly.

b. maintain control over the Måtis.

c. improve conditions for the Måtis.

d. share power with the Måtis.
11. The Liberal government of Alexander Mackenzie

a. forced the Måtis onto reservations.

b. granted the Måtis self-rule.

c. left the Måtis alone.

d. forced the Måtis to return to Manitoba.
12. The Måtis leader in St. Laurent was

a. Louis Riel.

b. Gabriel Dumont.

c. Lawrence Clarke.

d. Alexander Mackenzie.
13. The winter of 1874-75 was very difficult for the Måtis in St. Laurent because

a. it was extremely cold.

b. the bison were very scarce.

c. the HBC laid everyone off.

d. the settlers were too numerous.
14. The bison hunt of 1875 was a disaster for the Måtis because

a. no bison could be found.

b. settlers found the bison herds first and scared them off.

c. Lawrence Clarke overruled the Laws of St. Laurent.

d. the Canadian government imposed a moratorium on bison.
15. By the end of the 1870s, the Måtis had

a. lost the right to make their own laws.

b. been recognized as having local legal authority.

c. brought the bison herd back to their former size.

d. been allowed to return to Manitoba.
16. American fur traders disrupted Native life on the prairies by

a. converting Native peoples to Christianity.

b. refusing to trade with Native peoples.

c. trading alcohol with Native people in exchange for furs.

d. trying to convince Native people to become Americans.
17. In order to combat troublesome American traders in the 1870s, the Canadian government

a. sent in brigades of army troops.

b. created the North West Mounted Police.

c. deported all American traders from the Northwest.

d. established a royal commission.

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18. The Canadian government wished to open the Northwest to settlement. This was not possible until

a. the CPR was built.

b. law and order had been established.

c. treaties settling aboriginal title were signed.

d. forts were built on the US border.


19. The North West Mounted Police force was designed to

a. collect taxes in the Northwest.

b. help the Måtis enforce the Laws of St. Laurent.

c. act as a paramilitary organization in the Northwest.

d. all of these
20. In the Northwest, Native leaders were

a. disappointed with the Canadian government's land offers.

b. willing to accept any offer the government made.

c. eager to sign treaties with the Canadian government.

d. all of these
21. On the prairies, Native leaders signed treaties with the Canadian government because they

a. wanted to make large profits on their land.

b. welcomed the prospect of becoming farmers.

c. thought they could continue their former way of life.

d. wanted to become more like Europeans.
22. In its treaty negotiations, the Canadian government

a. genuinely wanted to assist the Native peoples.

b. established programs to help the Native peoples learn farming methods.

c. had no intention of teaching the Native peoples how to farm.

d. wanted to integrate natives into the European lifestyle on the prairies.
23. The factor that was not considered by the Canadian government or missionaries during the treaty process was that

a. Native peoples could not become farmers.

b. Native peoples were an impediment to settlement.

c. Native peoples could become productive members of the new prairie society

d. the cultures of the Native peoples could be wiped out.
24. Sir John A. Macdonald felt that a railway had to be built quickly because he

a. feared assimilation of Canada by the United States.

b. wanted to lower unemployment in Canada.

c. had promised British Columbia a railway within three years.

d. could make a profit off railway contracts.
25. In terms of his promised transcontinental railway, Macdonald wanted

a. the government to build the railway.

b. American railway owners to build the railway.

c. Canadian businessmen to build the railway.

d. British businessmen to build the railway.
26. Sir Hugh Allan decided to build the CPR, but only with

a. purely Canadian backing.

b. British backing.

c. government participation.

d. American backing.
27. The Pacific Scandal occurred when it was discovered that Macdonald's Conservatives had

a. obtained normal political contributions from Sir Hugh Allan.

b. made a secret deal with American businessmen.

c. offered Sir Hugh Allan the CPR contract in exchange for financial contributions.

d. paid Louis Riel to obtain cheap land from the Måtis in Manitoba.

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28. The Pacific Scandal was an example of

a. political corruption.

b. conflict of interest.

c. campaign promises.

d. bribery of voters.


29. The Liberal government of Alexander Mackenzie was

a. eager to build the CPR.

b. determined to make a free-trade deal with the United States.

c. unwilling to spend money to build the CPR.

d. eager to get Newfoundland to join Confederation.
30. Under Mackenzie, the Liberal government

a. tried to find new ways to lower unemployment.

b. allowed the Canadian Pacific Survey to continue.

c. offered to let BC out of Confederation.

d. devised the National Policy.
31. The National Policy did not include

a. high tariffs.

b. building the CPR.

c. creating a new understanding with Quebec.

d. encouraging settlement of the West.
32. As part of the National Policy, Macdonald included high tariffs, which were intended to

a. anger the Americans.

b. protect Canadian industries.

c. allow an "Imperial Preference" for British goods.

d. provide for the industrialization of the West.
33. Under the National Policy, settlers in the West were

a. seen as a captive market for Eastern Canadian manufacturers.

b. encouraged to build factories, as well as farm.

c. expected to become cattle ranchers and miners.

d. not allowed to buy more than 160 acres of farmland.
34. The CPR was essential to the National Policy because it would

a. keep British Columbia in Confederation.

b. create work for the unemployed.

c. link the Canadian West with the United States.

d. improve the transportation of goods and people.
35. In 1880, the new CPR Syndicate was composed of

a. bankers and railway men.

b. bankers.

c. industrialists.

d. British businessmen.
36. To win over investors, Macdonald told members of the CPR Syndicate that once they had completed the railway they would receive

a. $25 million.

b. 10-million hectares of prairie farmland.

c. a monopoly on all rail traffic west of Lake Superior.

d. all of these
37. Which of the following men were not members of the CPR Syndicate?

a. George Stephen

b. Sir Hugh Allan

c. Donald Smith

d. all of these

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38. The CPR Syndicate decided to move the railway line to the southern prairies because

a. the land had been bought by members of the Syndicate.

b. it was more fertile and more settled.

c. there were fewer land speculators.

d. this would preserve the bison herds.


39. A problem with the new southern route was that the

a. location of the line's route into BC was unclear.

b. new route would be more expensive to build.

c. the new route passed through rich farmland.

d. CPR Syndicate would lose control over new settlements.
40. Who of the following was appointed new general manager of the CPR in 1881?

a. James J. Hill

b. William van Horne

c. General Rosser

d. Major Rogers
41. The new general manager of the CPR in 1881, was efficient and hard-working. He was also

a. of Scottish descent.

b. an American.

c. Måtis.

d. all of these
42. The biggest problem facing the CPR in 1883 was

a. unproductive workers.

b. a lack of supplies.

c. insufficient capital to complete the railway.

d. a maze of government red tape.
43. By 1883, The CPR had completed the

a. least expensive part of the line.

b. most expensive part of the line.

c. line north of Lake Superior.

d. line in British Columbia.
44. In late 1883, the Canadian government was forced to

a. abandon the building of the CPR.

b. take over the building of the CPR.

c. give the CPR additional money.

d. increase taxes to pay for the CPR.
45. The surveyor who found a route through the Selkirk Mountains was

a. Sandford Fleming.

b. Major Rogers.

c. General Rosser.

d. William van Horne.
46. While the CPR paid workers between $1.50 and $2.00 a day, workers actually received

a. less, because of a provincial wage tax.

b. more, because of a government bonus.

c. more, because of a CPR performance bonus.

d. less, because the CPR charged them for food.
47. Van Horne used wooden trestles to carry the rail line because

a. wood was stronger than steel.

b. carpenters were paid less than stone masons.

c. they could be quickly built.

d. of a government incentive to use BC wood.

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48. Working conditions for CPR labourers were

a. frequently monitored.

b. extremely dangerous

c. constantly improved.

d. all of these


49. If a CPR worker was injured on the job, the worker

a. was immediately discharged.

b. received workers' compensation

c. received expert medical care.

d. could apply for disability pay.
50. The grade of the CPR line through the Kicking Horse Pass was built

a. at the maximum allowed for safety.

b. well below the established safety level.

c. twice the steepness that safety allowed.

d. three times the steepness that safety allowed.
51. The event that saved the CPR from financial ruin was

a. the CPR's rapid deployment of troops during the Northwest Rebellion.

b. the British King's decision to tour across Canada on the CPR.

c. Van Horne's decision to make Vancouver the Pacific terminus.

d. a merger with the largest railway in the United States.
52. The CPR was finished in November, 1885,

a. on schedule.

b. one year ahead of schedule.

c. three years behind schedule.

d. five years ahead of schedule.
53. The "last spike" of the CPR was driven in by

a. Sir John A. Macdonald.

b. William van Horne.

c. George Stephen.

d. Donald Smith.
54. When the CPR was used to transport troops to the Northwest in early 1885, there were

a. four gaps in the line between Calgary and Edmonton.

b. four gaps in the line north of Lake Superior.

c. three gaps in the line north of Lake Superior.

d. four gaps in the line between Winnipeg and Lake Superior.
55. The Canadian government intended to pay for the CPR by selling prairie land to

a. settlers.

b. the Måtis.

c. American industrialists.

d. the CPR.
56. Because the Canadian government needed to sell land on the prairies, it

a. consulted with the Måtis.

b. debated Måtis petitions in the House of Commons.

c. ignored Måtis petitions.

d. forced the Måtis to return to Manitoba.
57. In the early 1880s, the Måtis had no wish to

a. continue to farm.

b. rebel against the Canadian government.

c. gain title to their lands.

d. obtain financial aid from the government.

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58. As the cost of building the CPR mounted between 1882 and 1885, the government

a. increased financial aid to Native peoples.

b. drastically cut the Indian Department's budget.

c. asked the Måtis to assist the native peoples.

d. tried to get the Native peoples to work on the CPR.


59. Government aid to Native peoples was

a. provided with "no strings attached."

b. eliminated in all cases.

c. provided only if Native people would farm.

d. denied to "difficult Indians."
60. Seeing that many aboriginal peoples were starving on the prairies in 1884, the Måtis

a. refused to help them.

b. asked the Catholic Church for help.

c. provided as much aid as they could.

d. ignored the problem.
61. In the summer of 1884, the Måtis

a. destroyed all rail lines in the prairies.

b. asked Louis Riel to return as their leader.

c. moved to Louis Riel's Måtis community in Montana.

d. decided to leave Canada for the United States.
62. In the summer of 1884, Louis Riel was a

a. storekeeper in Montana.

b. lawyer in Montana.

c. school teacher in Montana.

d. rancher in Montana.
63. In late 1884, Louis Riel and a sympathetic European farmer drew up a

a. Måtis declaration of war on Ottawa.

b. rights document to serve as the basis for a new province.

c. Måtis declaration of independence.

d. proposal for sovereignty-association with Canada.
64. The Måtis Bill of Rights was similar to the American Declaration of Independence in that it

a. detailed Måtis grievances and their wish for equality.

b. came about during a war with an oppressive state.

c. was ignored by the Canadian government.

d. none of these
65. The Måtis Bill of Rights addressed the concerns of

a. the Måtis only.

b. the Måtis and the Native peoples.

c. the Måtis and European settlers.

d. all groups in the Northwest.
66. In early 1885, the Canadian government decided that a rebellion in the Northwest would

a. provide an opportunity for the CPR to "save the nation."

b. provide an excuse to send troops west.

c. end HBC control of the Northwest.

d. both a) and b)
67. In March, 1885, the Canadian government had which of the following forces close to the Måtis settlements in the Northwest?

a. 1000 militia at Regina

b. a NWMP detachment at Fort Carlton

c. two regiments of soldiers at Calgary

d. all of these

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68. Riel decided to take up arms against the Canadian government in March, 1885 because he

a. wanted to destroy the North West Mounted Police.

b. determined that a peaceful resolution was impossible.

c. favoured war as a way unite the Måtis community.

d. wanted to have revenge on Macdonald.


69. When the NWMP and the Måtis met at Duck Lake, the

a. Måtis were forced to retreat.

b. NWMP took the Måtis as prisoners.

c. NWMP detachment was defeated.

d. Måtis were able to take Fort Carlton.
70. By April, 1885, the Canadian government sent how many Canadian troops to the Northwest?

a. 1000


b. 1600

c. 5000


d. 10 000
71. At Batoche, in May, 1885, Canadian militia forces

a. outnumbered the Måtis about four to one.

b. were about the same number as the Måtis.

c. were outnumbered by the Måtis forces.

d. surrendered to the Måtis.
72. The Battle of Batoche lasted

a. three hours.

b. a day.

c. two days.

d. three days.
73. What happened to the two Måtis leaders after Batoche?

a. Both Riel and Dumont were captured.

b. Riel was captured and Dumont escaped to the United States.

c. Riel was captured and Dumont was killed.

d. Both Riel and Dumont escaped.
74. The Canadian government viewed the Native peoples as

a. wayward children.

b. dangerous rebels.

c. desperate people driven to rebel.

d. people worthy of equal rights.
75. After Batoche, the Canadian government charged Riel with

a. murder.

b. crimes against humanity.

c. high treason.

d. attempted murder.
76. At his trial, Riel's lawyers wanted him to plead that he was

a. guilty.

b. beyond the laws of Canada.

c. not guilty, by reason of insanity.

d. unfit to stand trial.
77. The composition of Riel's jury was

a. all Måtis.

b. all European.

c. half Måtis and half European.

d. mostly European.

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78. In his address to the jury, Riel suggested that the Canadian government had acted

a. with "an absolute lack of responsibility," and a kind of insanity.

b. in good faith, until Macdonald came to power.

c. to make the Native peoples and the Måtis fight each other.

d. all of these


79. Riel was sentenced to hang. Which group opposed this sentence as too harsh?

a. the jury and the judge

b. the Canadian government.

c. the citizens of Ontario

d. both a) and b)
80. Riel was executed, and the other Måtis leaders were

a. also executed.

b. exiled from Canada.

c. given light sentences.

d. sentenced to long prison terms.
Short Answer Questions
1. What major geographical obstacles did the builders of the CPR face in the West and in the east (near Lake Superior)? How did they overcome these barriers?
2. Describe at least three ways in which scrip created problems for the Måtis in the Northwest.
3. Identify four ways in which Macdonald and his government revealed racist attitudes towards the Måtis. If possible quote, or paraphrase, statements from Macdonald himself.
4. Explain why the Canadian government created the North West Mounted Police in 1873. Provide four reasons and describe what kind of force the NWMP was intended to be.
5. Would you describe the government's treaty process with the Native peoples as fair or unfair? Support your assessment with specific examples of government intentions and actions.
6. Contrast the governments of Alexander Mackenzie and Sir John A. Macdonald. Provide five ways in which their governments were different and one key way in which their personalities were different.
7. How could the CPR justify using a route south of its original route in the Northwest? Provide four reasons in your response.
8. The Måtis were justified in fighting the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. Evaluate this statement. Provide five examples of government actions to support your response. Include references to the actions of Lawrence Clarke towards the St. Laurent Måtis in 1875.
9. "In order to maintain law and order in the Northwest, Macdonald had to execute Louis Riel." Evaluate this statement, providing three reasons to support your position.
Skills Questions

[Teacher: Provide copy of Figure 5-2, Horizons, p. 171]
Use the copy of Figure 5-2 provided to answer the questions below.
1. What was the dollar value of 160 acres of land?
2. Referring to your reading of Horizons, identify the two purposes of scrip.
3. Drawing on your study of Horizons, describe three problems that the Måtis and Native peoples encountered with the use of scrip.

PAGE 11


[Teacher: Provide copy of The Laws of St. Laurent, Horizons, p. 173]
Use the primary sources provided to answer the questions below.
4. What body has authority over St. Laurent?
5. Which body is identified as having ultimate authority on disputes within the community of St. Laurent?
6. How was St. Laurent's governing body chosen?
7. Identify four ways in which this document can be considered a constitution.

[Teacher: Provide copy of Figure 5-14, Horizons, p. 185]
Use the political cartoon provided to answer the questions below.
8. Identify the two figures in this cartoon.
9. Based on your study of Horizons, what political scandal is being portrayed in this cartoon?
10. Describe the cartoonist's the point of view.
11. What present-day legislation is designed to prevent politicians from getting into the predicament that Macdonald is justifying in the dialogue balloon of this cartoon?

[Teacher: Provide copy of Figures 5-25 and 5-26, Horizons, p. 198 and p. 199]
Use the maps provided to answer the questions below.
12. What was the travel time between Ottawa and Halifax in 1867? In 1891?
13. What was the travel time between Ottawa and Winnipeg in 1867? In 1891?
14. What was the travel time between Ottawa and Vancouver in 1867? In 1891?
15. Explain why, in 1867, the travel time between Ottawa and the BC coast was less than the travel time between Ottawa and the BC interior.
16. What transportation development in Canada caused the greatest change in travel times between 1867 and 1891?

(c) 2000, Prentice Hall Ginn Canada. All rights reserved.

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ANSWER KEY FOR TEST - UNTITLED
Window on the Past
1. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 1


2. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 2


3. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 3


4. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 4


5. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 5


6. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 6


Timeline
1. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 1


2. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 2


3. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 3


4. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 4


5. c/d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 5


6. c/d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 6


Multiple Choice Questions
1. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 1


2. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 2


3. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 3


4. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 4


5. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 5


6. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 6

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7. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 7


8. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 8


9. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 9


10. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 10


11. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 11


12. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 12


13. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 13


14. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 14


15. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 15


16. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 16


17. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 17


18. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 18


19. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 19


20. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 20


21. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 21


22. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 22


23. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 23


24. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 24


25. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 25


26. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 26


27. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 27

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28. b(a)

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 28


29. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 29


30. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 30


31. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 31


32. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 32


33. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 33


34. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 34


35. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 35


36. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 36


37. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 37


38. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 38


39. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 39


40. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 40


41. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 41


42. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 42


43. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 43


44. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 44


45. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 45


46. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 46


47. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 47


48. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 48

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49. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 49


50. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 50


51. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 51


52. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 52


53. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 53


54. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 54


55. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 55


56. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 56


57. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 57


58. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 58


59. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 59


60. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 60


61. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 61


62. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 62


63. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 63


64. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 64


65. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 65


66. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 66


67. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 67


68. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 68


69. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 69

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70. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 70


71. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 71


72. d

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 72


73. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 73


74. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 74


75. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 75


76. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 76


77. b

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 77


78. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 78


79. a

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 79


80. c

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 80


Short Answer Questions
1. In the West, the CPR had to be built through the Rocky Mountains. Builders had to find a natural pass through the mountains and cope with very steep grades (for example, in the Kicking Horse Pass). They had to blast tunnels through rock and also construct enormous trestles. In the east, the CPR had to build on the rocky terrain of the Canadian Shield. Again explosives had to be used to blast through rock. [The Canadian Shield was also covered with large areas of muskeg, and these had to be filled for the rail line to be built.]

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 1


2. Scrip was a type of currency that was very unfamiliar to Måtis culture. It was not fully explained to them. As a result, scrip was poorly understood. Because the Måtis were often very poor, they had no choice but to sell the scrip, usually for far less than its value. The Måtis were also often coerced into selling their scripÄÄthe government of Manitoba, in fact, threatened to imprison Måtis who did not sell their scrip to land speculators. This led to Måtis distrust of the government.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 2


3. Macdonald and his government held extremely racist views of the Måtis. Macdonald viewed the Måtis as "inferior" (and referred to Native peoples as "wayward children"). He called the Måtis "impulsive" and insisted that they "must be kept down by a strong hand." As a result of these attitudes, Macdonald and his government ignored Måtis petitions. In the government's view, the best way to deal with the Måtis was to subjugate them.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 3

PAGE 6
4. The Canadian government created the North West Mounted Police in order to establish law and order on the prairies. Designed as a paramilitary organization, the presence of NWMP served to protect the prairies from American territorial ambitions. The NWMP also drove off American whisky traders, whose actions were creating havoc with the Native peoples of the prairies. The NWMP also was necessary to enforce government directives, especially those arising from the treaty process.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 4


5. Unfair. During the treaty process, the government was determined to get its own way, regardless of the consequences to Native peoples. [Macdonald, for example, wanted the Native peoples to be "swamped by the influx of settlers."] Native leaders communicated grave misgivings about the treaty terms, but these the government overlooked. The government promised to help Native peoples learn farming, but had no intention of following through. The government's actionsÄÄand inactionÄÄproved that they had no intention of helping the Native peoples preserve their way of life.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 5


6. In terms of personality, Macdonald was flamboyant, while Mackenzie was dour. This was reflected in the character of their governments. Macdonald's government pursued his "vision of a nation," while Mackenzie's government had no overall national policies. Macdonald's government pushed for the completion of the CPR. Mackenzie viewed the CPR as an expensive problem, and his government halted its construction. Macdonald wanted to expand Canadian territory; Mackenzie focused on central Canada. Macdonald's government was built on definite, stated policies; Mackenzie's government was plagued by crises. And, finally, Macdonald and his government policies were clearly anti-Måtis, while Mackenzie had no Måtis policy at all.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 6


7. The southern route was closer to the US border and, therefore, would provide greater territorial security for Canada. Speculators had bought up the land needed for the original northern route, and the cost of land had soared. The southern route would not only solve this problem, it would also allow the CPR more control over settlement and development. The southern route also provided better access to the Fraser Canyon route through British Columbia.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 7


8. The Måtis were justified in their rebellion because they were driven to revolt by the actions of the Canadian government. The government attitude towards the Måtis was racist: It treated them less favourably than settlers, for example. The Måtis sent well-reasoned petitions to the Canadian government, but these were ignored. In 1875, the Måtis in St. Laurent had rebelled again Lawrence Clarke, who was the HBC Chief Factor at Fort Carlton. His policy was to crush the Måtis, and the Canadian government approvedÄÄit made him magistrate of the area. Ten years later, under Macdonald, the Canadian government's policy towards the Måtis had not changed. Macdonald used the Northwest Rebellion of 1885 as a way to both crush the Måtis and to gain public support for the CPR and his government.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 8


9. Disagree: Macdonald did not have to execute Riel; he had many other choices. The other Måtis leaders arrested in the Northwest Rebellion of 1885 received only short prison terms or fines. Riel was the exception. Riel also could have been given a prison term or a fine. Or he could have been sent into exile. In fact, the jury and the trial judge (who were all Europeans and Protestant, and hardly Måtis sympathizers) recommended clemency for Riel. [But Macdonald wanted to crush Måtis resistance, and executing their leader was one way to do that. Riel had been involved with the execution of Thomas Scott in the Måtis rebellion of 1875, and Ontario voters remembered that. Executing Riel could win Macdonald much needed support in Ontario.]

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 9


Skills Questions
1. $160

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 1

PAGE 7
2. Scrip was designed to act as currency and to be exchanged for land

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 2


3. The concept of scrip and currency was foreign to Måtis and Native culture, so it was poorly understood. Land speculators quickly bought scrip for less than its face value and then used it as collateral to finance more land speculation. The Native peoples lost title to even more land when the Manitoba government forced them to sell scrip.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 3


4. The Dominion of Canada has authority over St. Laurent.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 4


5. The community council of St. Laurent had final authority.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 5


6. The council was elected by the citizens of St. Laurent.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 6


7. The Laws of St. Laurent provide a structure of government, legal provisions for the colony, acknowledgement of a supreme authority, and a list of rights and freedoms.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 7


8. Alexander Mackenzie (L) and Sir John A. Macdonald (R)

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 8


9. the Pacific Scandal

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 9


10. The cartoonist portrays Macdonald as having acted improperly and perhaps illegally (he took the money to bribe the electorate to vote for him), yet Macdonald sees nothing wrong in those actions. In other words, the cartoonist sees Macdonald as an amoral politician.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 10


11. In recent years, conflict-of-interest legislation has been passed to prevent politicians from getting into these predicaments.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 11


12. 2 days; 2 days

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 12


13. 1867: 16 to 32 days; 1891: 2 to 4 days

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 13


14. 1867: 32 to 64 days; 1891: 4 to 8 days

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 14


15. In 1867, it took less time to reach the BC coast from Ottawa if you travelled by ship around the Americas (or across the USA) and then up the coast, than if you travelled overland from Ottawa to the BC coast.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 15


16. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway created the greatest change in travel times in Canada between 1867 and 1891.

Chapter:5 QUESTION: 16




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