TB is the main cause of death among infectious diseases in Russia.i It causes about 83% of all deaths caused by infectious diseases.ii The estimated number of TB cases in Russia is about 38.1% of all cases in the European region.iii Its prevalence rate was nearly 82.6 cases per 100,000 population in 2009.iv The populations most affected by TB vary by region and sector. TB incidence rates in the Siberian and Far Eastern regions are significantly higher than in the rest of the country. The prevalence rate for TB in the penitentiary system is approximately 17 times higher than in the civilian sector.v The risk factors for TB in Russia include HIV, imprisonment, and poverty. The burden of TB in Russia has two critical consequences: disrupting the life of the infected person’s family and reducing the economic productivity of Russia. TB kills approximately 30,000 people yearly, and the death of a loved one can cause depression and other psychological problems.vi The economic growth of Russia is inversely correlated with the rate of TB. In order to combat TB, we must expand programs supported by USAID and the Russian government. We must also address the growing rate of multidrug-resistant TB and the poor management in regional TB facilities.